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GAFFTA-Cities catalog

Data Mining
and Society
San Francisco, June 11th
Networks have always supported the function and growth of our cities.
Historically, these have be...
carlo ratti director
assaf biderman associate director
christine outram project leader
rex britter -andrea cassi - x...
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  2. 2. San Francisco, June 11th Networks have always supported the function and growth of our cities. Historically, these have been massively tangible undertakings: The roads and viaducts of ancient Rome. The highways, power grids and subways of the modern city. The networks we consider in this exhibit are on the surface seemingly invisible. Yet they support vital urban functions as readily as our physical infrastructure. The digital revolution has layered a vast system of sensors, phones, microcontrollers and cameras over our environment, enabling entirely new ways to monitor, understand, and imagine our cities. These systems have a value that go beyond their original purpose: The digital exhaust of cellular networks reveals social and economic patterns, miniaturized location tags highlight global flows of trash, and hybrid electric bicycles with environmental sensors address a city’s pollution and traffic problems. Taken together, the impact of digital networks on cities will be as significant as any past human undertaking. MIT’s senseable city lab recognizes this momentous shift and is at the forefront of asking – if this is the future, what’s next? Practicing anticipatory research, the Lab works with cities and companies to predict what may be the greatest needs, questions and opportunities that we face as we evolve alongside technology. Then, in multidisciplinary teams, the Lab acts on these ideas, developing new research methods and technologies to advance a sustainable vision of the urban future. In this, the first retrospective of the lab’s work, we present 15 projects that embody this anticipatory approach. Each project can be viewed alone, but we have also sought to unveil the ‘connective tissue’ between them by assigning keywords to each project and using a computer-based network analysis tool to cluster similar research topics together. Works in this exhibition illustrate a landmark opportunity for broad-based engagement. Like the Internet, the networked city invites participation from individuals, organizations, companies, and governments to program and design the digital architectures that will craft our urban future.
  3. 3. team: carlo ratti director assaf biderman associate director christine outram project leader rex britter -andrea cassi - xiaoji chen jennifer dunnam - paula echeverri myshkin ingawale - ari kardasis e roon kang - sey min max tomasinelli photographer /2009 sustainability - mobility - tangible The Copenhagen Wheel is a tangible new emblem for sustainable urban mobility. Smart, responsive and elegant, it transforms existing bicycles quickly into hybrid electric-bikes with regeneration and real-time sensing capabilities. Its sleek red hub not only contains a motor, batteries and an internal gear system – helping people overcome hilly terrains and long distances - but also includes environmental and location sensors that can map pollution levels, traffic congestion and road conditions in real-time. When displayed to riders, the cycling community and municipalities, this data can help to foster a cycling community, and help cities make more informed environmental and traffic policy decisions.
  4. 4. team: carlo ratti director - assaf biderman associate director dietmar offenhuber team leader - eugenio morello team leader, concept musstanser tinauli team leader, first phase - kristian kloeckl team leader, second phase - lewis girod engineering - jennifer dunnam - e roon kang - kevin nattinger - avid boustani - david lee programming - alan anderson - clio andris - chris chung - lorenzo davolli - kathryn dineen - natalia duque ciceri - samantha earl - sarabjit kaur - sarah neilson - giovanni de niederhausern - jill passano - elizabeth ramaccia - renato rinaldi - francisca rojas - louis sirota - malima wolf - armin linke video advisors: rex britter - stephen miles - tim gutowski lead volunteers: tim pritchard - jodee fenton - lance albertson - chad johansen - christie rodgers shannon cheng - jon dreher - andy smith - richard auger - michael cafferty - shalini ghandi /2009 sustainability - sensors - feedback loop Imagine a future where immense amounts of trash don’t accumulate on the peripheries of our cities: a future where we understand the ‘removal-chain’ in as much detail as we understand the ‘supply-chain’. Trash_Track reveals the final journal of our everyday objects by attaching tiny, custom- made sensors to pieces of garbage. By visualizing the travel paths of the trash – both on a national and international scale - and displaying it to citizens, municipalities and waste removal companies, Trash_Track offers a ‘feedback loop’ of information that can be used to reduce inefficiencies in the system, build more sustainable infrastructures and promote behavior change towards a zero waste future.
  5. 5. team: carlo ratti director assaf biderman associate director giovanni de niederhausern shaocong zhou e roon kang thanks: jodee fenton - tim pritchard /2009 tangible - mobility - real time information The EyeStop project represents the next-generation of tangible urban transportation infrastructure. This new network of bus shelters provides interactive services for transport users and real-time information about bus arrivals and departures. Using an E-ink screen, riders can plan a bus trip on an interactive map, surf the Web, post ads and community announcements, monitor their real-time exposure to pollutants and use their mobile devices as an interface with the bus shelter. Unlike the typical mass-produced bus stop, EyeStop is designed in accordance with the physical characteristics of its surroundings. A computer program generates a unique design for each bus stop, providing both optimal sheltering for users and maximum sunlight exposure for power generation.
  6. 6. team: carlo ratti director assaf biderman associate director giusy di lorenzo team leader francisco pereira - fabio pinelli - pedro correia - e roon kang - jennifer dunnam shaocong zhou - cynthia breazeal director - mikey siegel fardad faridi - ryan wistort - paula aguilera - jonathan williams - chuhee lee team leader - charles lee research engineer /2009 data mining - mobility - real time information The AIDA project (Affective, Intelligent Driving Agent) is an intelligent navigation system that mimics the friendly expertise of a driving companion who is familiar with both the driver and the city. Instead of focusing solely on determining routes to a specified waypoint, this mobility aid analyzes driver behavior and uses data mining techniques in order to identify the set of goals the driver would like to achieve. AIDA will predict the route that the driver will likely follow. It will also keep track of real-time information such as traffic congestion; special events that may cause delays; and the location of gas stations or other common destinations so that it can provide the right information at the right time to the driver.
  7. 7. MIT Media Lab / Smart Cities team: carlo ratti director and team william j. mitchell director and team dennis frenchman director and team carlorattiassociati architectural design studio fm milano graphic design agence ter landscape architecture city of zaragoza & expoagua zaragoza 2008 client arup madrid engineering lumiartecnia international engineering siemens lead contractor typsa site supervision /2008 sensors - display - real time information Created by a multidisciplinary team of architects, engineers and computer scientists from across the globe, The Digital Water Pavilion was built in 2008 for the EXPOaqua in Zaragoza Spain. The building functions as an information center for visitors, yet it is also a sophisticated machine and an interactive and playful water display. A series of 3000 electromagnetic valves and an equal number of sensors control the water-walls of the pavilion. The sensors detect your approach and will automatically stop the water from flowing from the valves in front of you - allowing you to enter. In essence, the pavilion represents the dream of digital architecture – to harness technology to create buildings that are responsive and configurable to people’s needs.
  8. 8. /2009 tangible - display - real time information Olympic & Expo structures – with their ponderous monumentality, and their conspicuous expenditure on immovable objects – are outmoded. In contrast, The Cloud, a proposal for a public viewing platform for the London 2012 Olympics is as light as air itself. A tribute to an information age of bits, atoms and sensors the surface of the structure is made up of digital pixels that can display important Olympic moments or real-time environmental and weather conditions to the people of London. From the viewing platform, you are floating above the city, witnessing the euphoria of the Olympics and all that takes place below. team: architects: carlo ratti, walter nicolino, alex haw - graphic design: studio fm milano artist: tomas saraceno - structural engineers: schlaich bergermann und partner landscape architects: agence ter google - m&e, environmental, control, digital and site engineering: arup - visualizations: gmj
  9. 9. /2010 display - tangible - feedback loop Flyfire aims to transform any ordinary space into a highly immersive and interactive display environment. It sets out to explore how a display system can be built using a large number of self-organizing micro helicopters. Each helicopter contains small LEDs and acts as a smart pixel. Through precisely controlled movements, the helicopters perform elaborate and synchronized motions and form an elastic display surface for any desired scenario. With the self-stabilizing and precise controlling technology from the ARES Lab at MIT, the motion of the pixels is adaptable in real time. The Flyfire canvas can transform itself from one shape to another or morph a two- dimensional photographic image into an articulated shape. team: carlo ratti director assaf biderman associate director e roon kang team lead: second phase carnaven chiu visual designer caitlin zacharias shaocong zhou emilio frazzoli director erich mueller
  10. 10. /2005 visualizations - network and society real time information By October 2005, MIT’s entire campus was blanketed with almost 3,000 WiFi hotspots. The iSpots project analyzes people’s use of this network and extracts patterns of activity that reveal how they live, work and study on MIT’s campus. We found that with a high rate of laptop ownership and the availability of pervasive wireless access, people on campus have been untethered from their desks and now do work in a greater variety of places and employ a more flexible use of time. As many cities around the world consider public wireless initiatives, the analysis of the MIT environment could provide valuable insights for the future. Is today’s MIT tomorrow’s city? 
  11. 11. /2006 real time information - network and society visualizations In today’s world, wireless mobile communications devices are creating new dimensions of interconnectedness between people, places, and urban infrastructure. This ubiquitous connectivity within the urban population can be observed and interpreted in real-time, through aggregated mobile call records collected from communication networks. In the visualizations of Real Time Rome we synthesize anonymous data from various real-time telecommunication and transportation networks to understand patterns of daily life in Rome. These real-time maps help us understand how neighborhoods are used in the course of a day, how the distribution of buses and taxis correlates with densities of people, how goods and services are distributed in the city, or how different social groups inhabit the city. team: carlo ratti director andres sevtsuk curator burak arikan - assaf biderman - francesco calabrese - filippo dal fiore - saba ghole - daniel gutierrez - sonya huang - sriram krishnan - justin moe - francisca rojas najeeb marc tarazi
  12. 12. visualizations - network and society - data mining In the information age, telecommunication infrastructures such as the Internet and the telephone bind people together by eviscerating the constraints of distance. The New York Talk Exchange illustrates the global exchange of information in real time between New York and cities around the world by visualizing volumes of long distance telephone and IP (Internet Protocol) data. This type of data mining and visualization technique reveals the relationships that New Yorkers have with the rest of the world and uncovers some of the social networks that exist within the city. Additionally, it shows which cities across the globe have the strongest relationships with New York and how these relationships shift with the time of the day, week, and year. /2008
  13. 13. team: carlo ratti director assaf biderman associate director andrea vaccari project leader mauro martino interaction designer special thanks to: jon reades data analysis francisca rojas text analysis caitlin zacharias text analysis visualizations - network and society real time information The historic election of Barack Obama as the 44th President of the United States captivated Americans and foreigners alike. Millions traveled to Washington D.C. from near and far in order to witness the inaugural ceremony on January 20, 2009. For this special occasion, we created a visualization of cellphone calling activity characterizing the crowd that gathered in in the nation’s capital to explore: Where did people come from for President Obama’s Inauguration Day? When did the crowd gather and when did it disperse? The resulting visualizations reveal that the 2009 Inauguration was a multi-day, city-wide event that gathered people from across the United States and around the world. /2009
  14. 14. /2009 visualizations - network and society - data mining Los Ojos del Mundo (The World’s Eyes) provides insights into the social and transportation networks of Spain by analyzing digital photos that are shared publicly on the web by visitors. Through data mining and visualization techniques, this project uncovers how the presence and flow of tourists shifts and ebbs over time and space. As photos pile up to reflect the intensity of tourist activity, the geo-located images reveal where tourists travel, where they come from and what they are interested in capturing and sharing from their visit. The analysis and mapping of this image data allows us to understand the attractiveness of leisure cities and their points of interest. In contrast, through the absence of images in certain locales, Los Ojos del Mundo also identifies the unphotographed regions of Spain still free from the tourist buzz.
  15. 15. team: carlo ratti director assaf biderman associate director carnaven chiu project leader /2009 data mining - visualizations - network and society My Architect offers a global view of the presence and work of a selection of the world’s greatest architects today. It shows that famous buildings of the 21st century lead a “double life,” - existing in both physical and digital worlds. Although these worlds do not share the same spatial or temporal dimensions, the anonymous citizen constantly projects the physical world onto the digital world by using websites such as Flickr, Twitter, Facebook and Wikipedia to upload their experience and photos of famous buildings. The visualization here aggregates these digital annotations and provides a visual repository of the buildings that citizens visit and document across the globe.
  16. 16. team: carlo ratti director assaf biderman - francesco calabrese kristian kloeckl - bernd resch andrea vaccari /2007 feedback loop - network and society real time information In past decades, real-time control systems have been developed in a variety of engineering applications. In doing so, they have dramatically increased the efficiency of systems through energy savings, regulation of dynamics, increased robustness and disturbance tolerance. The wiki-city platform aims to have cities become real-time control systems through utilizing hand held personal devices – cellphones and the like – and through distributing ambient sensors and computers in our urban environment. Our first experiment with deploying a wikicity platform is shown here in the city of Rome.
  17. 17. team: carlo ratti director assaf biderman associate director christine outram project leader euro beinat - filippo dal fiore - andrea vaccari - francesco calabreseaaron koblin - bartosz hawelka /2009 feedback loop - network and society real time information What if the dynamics of a city could be made visible in real- time? We would not only see buildings and squares, but also the aggregated flows that animate them. We could understand which neighborhoods were the most crowded at any given moment, so as to better allocate energy and other scarce resources; we could reconstruct commuting patterns, enabling better management of traffic congestion; we could measure the city’s response to exceptional events, prompting better action during emergency relief. Currentcity in Amsterdam seeks to make this vision a reality. By partnering with mobile operators and other aggregated data providers around the world our goal is to build groundbreaking user applications that help to create solutions to address long-standing city management problems in innovative ways.
  18. 18. mit ��-��� �� Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, ma ����� http://senseable.mit.edu �� taylor street san francisco, ca ����� http://www.gaffta.org/
  19. 19. Display Real Time Information Feedback Loop Sustainability Mobility Tangible Sensors wi currentC FLYFIRE THE CLOUD DIGITAL WATER PAVILION REA ROM AIDAEYESTOP THE COPENHAGEN WHEEL TRASH TRACK