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SCIENTIFIC METHOD Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
Subject Physics and Chemistry
Course/Leve...
SCIENTIFIC METHOD Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
METHODOLOGY
Organization and class distribution / timing Th...
1. What does a scientist look like?
2. Scientific method.
3. Making measurements.
3.1. Errors in measurements.
4. The Metr...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
1. WHAT DOES A SCIENTIST LOOK LIKE?
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
Scientist?
 Sponge Bob...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
1. WHAT DOES A SCIENTIST LOOK LIKE?
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
Scientist?
 Stephen Hi...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
1. WHAT DOES A SCIENTIST LOOK LIKE?
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
Scientist?
 Pablo Albo...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
1. WHAT DOES A SCIENTIST LOOK LIKE?
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
Scientist?
 Stephen Ha...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
1. WHAT DOES A SCIENTIST LOOK LIKE?
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
Scientist?
 Iker Casil...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
1. WHAT DOES A SCIENTIST LOOK LIKE?
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
Scientist?
 Ellen Ocho...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
1. WHAT DOES A SCIENTIST LOOK LIKE?
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
Anyone Can Be a Scienti...
1. What does a scientist look like?
2. Scientific method.
3. Making measurements.
3.1. Errors in measurements.
4. The Metr...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
2. SCIENTIFIC METHOD
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
The Scientific Method is a general pat...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
2. SCIENTIFIC METHOD
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
The Scientific Method involves a serie...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
2. SCIENTIFIC METHOD
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
Observe
Question
Hypothesis
Experiment...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
2. SCIENTIFIC METHOD
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
Observe
You observe a topic that can g...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
2. SCIENTIFIC METHOD
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
Question
You ask a question about what...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
2. SCIENTIFIC METHOD
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
Hypothesis
You make an educated guess ...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
2. SCIENTIFIC METHOD
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
You will develop and follow a
procedur...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
2. SCIENTIFIC METHOD
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
Independent Variable- the variable tha...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
2. SCIENTIFIC METHOD
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
You will record the results of your
ex...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
2. SCIENTIFIC METHOD
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
Activity 2.1:
Online activity The Scie...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
2. SCIENTIFIC METHOD
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
 Will the temperature of ice water ch...
1. What does a scientist look like?
2. Scientific method.
3. Making measurements.
3.1. Errors in measurements.
4. The Metr...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
Measurement is the process of determining the
quantity of a physical magnitud...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
We can measure a physical magnitude with
instruments of measure. They are cha...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
They mean slightly different things!
Low Accuracy
High Precision
High Accurac...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
My watch can measure seconds, so it’s less
precise than Big Ben.
3. MAKING ME...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
Measuring instruments are not exact!
Error?
No ... you didn't measure it wron...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
When your instrument measures in "1"s then any value between 6½
and 7½ is mea...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
Absolute, Relative and Percentage Error
The Absolute Error is the difference ...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
Activities
Activity 3.1:
Online examples about errors
Activ...
1. What does a scientist look like?
2. Scientific method.
3. Making measurements.
3.1. Errors in measurements.
4. The Metr...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
The digit (width of the forefinger)
In Latin finger is called digitus
Foot is...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
The lack of common standards led to a lot of confusion and significant
ineffi...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
QUANTITY NAME SYMBOL
Length metre m
Mass kilogram kg
Time second s
Electric c...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
QUANTITY DEFINITION
Mass Is the amount of matter in a body. Its unit in the S...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
Weight or Mass?
Aren't "weight" and "mass" the same?
Not really.
An object ha...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
An object's mass doesn't change (unless you remove some!), but its weight
can...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
"kilo, mega, giga, tera" ... ?
In the Metric System there are standard ways t...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
"kilo", "mega", "milli" etc are called "prefixes":
Prefix: a word part that c...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
Activities
Activity 4.1:
Online activities about metric sys...
1. What does a scientist look like?
2. Scientific method.
3. Making measurements.
3.1. Errors in measurements.
4. The Metr...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
In science, it is common to work with very large and very small numbers. For
...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
Scientific notation is a simple way to represent large numbers because
the 10...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
This shorthand can also be used with very small numbers. When scientific nota...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
Activities
Activity 4.3:
Online activities about scientific...
1. What does a scientist look like?
2. Scientific method.
3. Making measurements.
3.1. Errors in measurements.
4. The Metr...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
A conversion factor is a ratio, which is equal to 1. Multiplying a conversion...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
So the final step in dimensional analysis is to work the math problem
you’ve ...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
Let’s apply these steps to a slightly more
complex problem than counting eggs...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
And now the challenge:
Convert the following measurements into SI basic units...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
You can see that you don’t have to be an engineer at
NASA to need dimensional...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
Some Famous Unit Conversion Errors!
Story 1: On September 23, 1999 NASA lost ...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
Story 2: On January 26, 2004 at Tokyo Disneyland's Space Mountain, an axle
br...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
Story 3: On 23 July 1983, Air Canada Flight 143 ran completely out of fuel
ab...
Pepi Jaramillo Romero
Dpto. Física y Química
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
BIBLIOGRAPHY
- http://sciencespot.net/Pages/classmetric.htm...
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Scientific method

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Lesson plan about the scientific method with explanations and activities. Level: 3º ESO (CLIL).

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Scientific method

  1. 1. SCIENTIFIC METHOD Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química SCIENTIFIC METHOD Subject Physics and Chemistry Course/Level 3º ESO Primary Learning Objective Students will select, transfer, and use data and principles to complete a problem or task with a minimum of direction. Subject Content 1. What does a scientist look like? 2. Scientific method. 3. Making measurements. 3.1. Errors in measurements. 4. The Metric System (SI). 4.1. Prefixes. 5. Scientific notation. 6. Conversion factors. Language Content / Communication Vocabulary Question, research, hypothesis, observation, experiment, analysis, conclusion, test, result, reject, admit, theory, law, metre, kilogram, second, ampere, kelvin, mole, candela, scale, balance, thermometer, funnel, beaker, power of ten, mercury , brain, polluted, sample, researcher, type, study, scientist, parts-per-million, database, average, neurotoxic, safely, chart, mass, time, length, amount of matter, luminous, etc Structures Routines: Have you ever been in a lab? Do you know how a scientist works? Do you know any scientist? Do you like to do an experiment? Have you ever done any one? Contents: Conditionals, present, future, comparatives. Classroom management: Take out your notebook/recorder/pen, write down the following sentence, right! / you're right, well done! / very well! / good job , etc. Discourse type Exposition, description, argument. Language skills Writing, reading, speaking and listening Activities The presentation includes differents activities with an explanation in order to the students answer a question or solve a problem, make observations and collect data, and draw a conclusion as to the answer to the question or problem. LESSON PLAN
  2. 2. SCIENTIFIC METHOD Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química METHODOLOGY Organization and class distribution / timing The number of sessions considered to develop the contents on this unit are at least 8 sessions of 50 minutes each one (+ 2 week final Project) It’s very important to point out that the methodology will be active and participatory in order to facilitate both individual and group learning. For that, teacher observation is very important during student's work. Key Competences Language proficiency Know, acquire and apply the vocabulary of the subject. Exercising a comprehensive reading of texts related to the topic. Mathematical Competence Distinguish between quantities and units of measure. Use the equivalences between different units. Solve math problems involving measures. Make calculus with the scientific notation (powers of ten) to write quantities. Make a conversion factor using any unit, even with non SI units like litre, inch, etc. Digital competence and treatment of information I use PDI to explain content and implementation of webquest by students. Make the online activities. Social and civic competences Fostering respect between and other values like cooperation, coeducation when they work in groups. Autonomy and personal initiative To be autonomous for individual activities. Evaluation Acquired content knowledge Identify steps within the scientific process. Students will select, transfer, and use data and principles to complete a problem or task with a minimum of direction. Use instruments of measure to measure different quantities Observe the environment and describe the things that occur. Formulate hypotheses in order to explain things which happen. Explain how a hypothesis explains the things. Write the measurements using the SI base units. Transform a non SI base unit measure to a SI base unit measure using conversion factors. Identify and distinguish basic and derived units of measure and relate them with the physical quantities that they represent. Make calculus with the scientific notation (powers of ten) to write quantities. Make a conversion factor using any unit, even with non SI units like litre, inch, etc.. Instruments The unit will be evaluated daily with: Individual participation in classroom activities and homework. Works in groups. Notebook. Behaviour. Tests. Glossary. Conceptual maps Final Project.
  3. 3. 1. What does a scientist look like? 2. Scientific method. 3. Making measurements. 3.1. Errors in measurements. 4. The Metric System (SI). 4.1. Prefixes. 5. Scientific notation. 6. Conversion factors. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química OUTLINE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
  4. 4. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 1. WHAT DOES A SCIENTIST LOOK LIKE? SCIENTIFIC METHOD Scientist?  Sponge Bob Square Pants  Burger Flipper
  5. 5. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 1. WHAT DOES A SCIENTIST LOOK LIKE? SCIENTIFIC METHOD Scientist?  Stephen Hillenburg Marine Biologist  Sponge Bob’s Creator
  6. 6. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 1. WHAT DOES A SCIENTIST LOOK LIKE? SCIENTIFIC METHOD Scientist?  Pablo Alborán  Spanish musician, singer, and songwriter
  7. 7. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 1. WHAT DOES A SCIENTIST LOOK LIKE? SCIENTIFIC METHOD Scientist?  Stephen Hawking  Motor neurone disease  Uses a motorized wheelchair, and a computerized speech- synthesizer  Developed several theories about the nature and origins of our universe
  8. 8. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 1. WHAT DOES A SCIENTIST LOOK LIKE? SCIENTIFIC METHOD Scientist?  Iker Casillas  The best goalkeeper
  9. 9. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 1. WHAT DOES A SCIENTIST LOOK LIKE? SCIENTIFIC METHOD Scientist?  Ellen Ochoa  Astronaut  First Hispanic-American Woman in Space
  10. 10. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 1. WHAT DOES A SCIENTIST LOOK LIKE? SCIENTIFIC METHOD Anyone Can Be a Scientist!  Will it be you?  Have you ever been in a lab?  Do you know how a scientist works?  Do you know any scientist?  Do you like to do an experiment?  Have you ever done any one?
  11. 11. 1. What does a scientist look like? 2. Scientific method. 3. Making measurements. 3.1. Errors in measurements. 4. The Metric System (SI). 4.1. Prefixes. 5. Scientific notation. 6. Conversion factors. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química OUTLINE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
  12. 12. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 2. SCIENTIFIC METHOD SCIENTIFIC METHOD The Scientific Method is a general pattern followed by scientists when conducting an experiment. Video about Newton and the scientific method Discussion.
  13. 13. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 2. SCIENTIFIC METHOD SCIENTIFIC METHOD The Scientific Method involves a series of steps that are used to investigate a natural occurrence. We shall take a closer look at these steps and the terminology you will need to understand before you start a science project.
  14. 14. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 2. SCIENTIFIC METHOD SCIENTIFIC METHOD Observe Question Hypothesis Experiment Results/Conclusion The Scientific Method’s steps are:
  15. 15. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 2. SCIENTIFIC METHOD SCIENTIFIC METHOD Observe You observe a topic that can generate questions for further research.
  16. 16. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 2. SCIENTIFIC METHOD SCIENTIFIC METHOD Question You ask a question about what is being observed. State the problem or question.
  17. 17. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 2. SCIENTIFIC METHOD SCIENTIFIC METHOD Hypothesis You make an educated guess on what you think the outcome of the experiment, or the answer to your question will be.
  18. 18. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 2. SCIENTIFIC METHOD SCIENTIFIC METHOD You will develop and follow a procedure to test your hypothesis. The outcome must be measureable. Experiment
  19. 19. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 2. SCIENTIFIC METHOD SCIENTIFIC METHOD Independent Variable- the variable that is changed in an experiment. Factor being manipulated. Dependent Variable- What is observed during the experiment; changes as a result. Factor Which Responds - the one you measure Constants or Controls- Changing one factor and observing its effect on another while keeping all other factors constant. Factors that are held constant. Experiment What are the variables in an experiment?
  20. 20. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 2. SCIENTIFIC METHOD SCIENTIFIC METHOD You will record the results of your experiment, and repeat the experiment if need be. You will state if your hypothesis was accepted or not and explain your results. Results/Conclusion
  21. 21. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 2. SCIENTIFIC METHOD SCIENTIFIC METHOD Activity 2.1: Online activity The Scientific Method Activity 2.2: “The Scientific method in everyday life” This rap songs teaches all the steps of the scientific method for kids, in addition to some history of the method. 1. Listen to Flocabulary’s scientific method song. Ask students to pay particular attention to the hook, which lays out the steps of the scientific method. 2. Review the scientific method steps as a class. When the song is complete you can click on lyrics to learn more. 3. Challenge Questions. 4. Interactive Lyrics. 5. Fill in the Blanks. Activities
  22. 22. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química 2. SCIENTIFIC METHOD SCIENTIFIC METHOD  Will the temperature of ice water change if you add salt, or sugar?  Will the angle of a ramp have an affect on how far a marble will roll?  How does the amount of sunlight affect the growth of bread mold?  How does color influence people's food choices?  How is brand name related to the absorbency of paper towels?  How does age affect a person's reaction time? Challenge Students design an experiment with one of the following questions.
  23. 23. 1. What does a scientist look like? 2. Scientific method. 3. Making measurements. 3.1. Errors in measurements. 4. The Metric System (SI). 4.1. Prefixes. 5. Scientific notation. 6. Conversion factors. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química OUTLINE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
  24. 24. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química Measurement is the process of determining the quantity of a physical magnitude by comparing it with a certain quantity of the same physical magnitude called unit. We must express a magnitude with a number or quantity + a unit Examples: 12 g 45 min 90 km/h 10 m2 Quantity unit SCIENTIFIC METHOD 3. MAKING MEASUREMENTS
  25. 25. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química We can measure a physical magnitude with instruments of measure. They are characterized by a precision and accuracy. PRECISION The ability of a measurement to be consistently reproduced and the number of significant digits to which a value has been reliably measured. Precision is how close the measured values are to each other. ACCURACY The ability of a measuring instrument to give responses close to a true value. is how close a measured value is to the actual (true) value. The goal of any instrument is to have high accuracy (sensor matching reality as close as possible) and to have a high precision (being able to consistently replicate results and to measure with as many significant digits as appropriately possible). Instruments need to be calibrated in order that they sustain high accuracy and high precision. SCIENTIFIC METHOD 3. MAKING MEASUREMENTS
  26. 26. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química They mean slightly different things! Low Accuracy High Precision High Accuracy Low Precision High Accuracy High Precision So, if you are playing soccer and you always hit the left goal post instead of scoring, then you are not accurate, but you are precise! SCIENTIFIC METHOD 3. MAKING MEASUREMENTS
  27. 27. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química My watch can measure seconds, so it’s less precise than Big Ben. 3. MAKING MEASUREMENTS SCIENTIFIC METHOD
  28. 28. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química Measuring instruments are not exact! Error? No ... you didn't measure it wrong ... this is about accuracy. Degree of Accuracy Accuracy depends on the instrument you are measuring with. But as a general rule: The degree of accuracy is half a unit each side of the unit of measure SCIENTIFIC METHOD 3.1. ERRORS IN MEASUREMENTS
  29. 29. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química When your instrument measures in "1"s then any value between 6½ and 7½ is measured as "7" When your instrument measures in "2"s then any value between 7 and 9 is measured as "8" We can show the error using the "Plus or Minus" sign: ± 7 ±0.5 The error is ±0.5 8 ±1 The error is ±1 SCIENTIFIC METHOD 3.1. ERRORS IN MEASUREMENTS
  30. 30. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química Absolute, Relative and Percentage Error The Absolute Error is the difference between the actual and measured value But ... when measuring we don't know the actual value! So we use the maximum possible error. What happened to the ± ... ? Well, we just want the size (the absolute value) of the difference. The Relative Error is the Absolute Error divided by the actual measurement. We don't know the actual measurement, so the best we can do is use the measured value: Relative Error = Absolute Error Measured Value SCIENTIFIC METHOD 3.1. ERRORS IN MEASUREMENTS
  31. 31. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química SCIENTIFIC METHOD Activities Activity 3.1: Online examples about errors Activity 3.2: Ten questions about errors 3.1. ERRORS IN MEASUREMENTS
  32. 32. 1. What does a scientist look like? 2. Scientific method. 3. Making measurements. 3.1. Errors in measurements. 4. The Metric System (SI). 4.1. Prefixes. 5. Scientific notation. 6. Conversion factors. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química OUTLINE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
  33. 33. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química The digit (width of the forefinger) In Latin finger is called digitus Foot is the length of a grown man's foot (first used by the Romans) Fathom is the length from finger tip to finger tip with the arms outstretched Span is the width of the hand from the thumb to the little finger with the hand outstretched Cubit is the length of the arm from the middle finger to the elbow By the eighteenth century, dozens of different units of measurement were commonly used throughout the world. Length, for example, could be measured in feet, inches, cubits, hands, palms, rods and more. These types of measurements were generally derived from human body parts. SCIENTIFIC METHOD 4. THE METRIC SYSTEM
  34. 34. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química The lack of common standards led to a lot of confusion and significant inefficiencies in trade between countries. At the end of the century, the French government sought to alleviate this problem by devising a system of measurement that could be used throughout the world. In 1790, the French National Assembly commissioned the Academy of Science to design a simple decimal-based system of units; the system they devised is known as the metric system. In 1960, the metric system was officially named the Système International d'Unités (or SI for short) and is now used in nearly every country in the world except the United States. The metric system is almost always used in scientific measurement. SCIENTIFIC METHOD 4. THE METRIC SYSTEM
  35. 35. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química QUANTITY NAME SYMBOL Length metre m Mass kilogram kg Time second s Electric current ampere A Temperature kelvin K Amount of substance mole mol Luminous intensity candela cd The SI base units for the seven primary quantities are: Symbols are written in lower case, except for symbols derived from the name of a person. For example, the unit of electric current is named after André-Marie Ampère, so its symbol is written "A", whereas the unit itself is written "ampere". The only exception is the litre, whose original symbol "l" is unsuitably similar to the numeral "1"; thus it is recommended that "L" be used instead. Abbreviated symbols should not be pluralized: for example "25 kg", not "25 kgs". Symbols do not have an appended period (.) unless at the end of a sentence. SCIENTIFIC METHOD 4. THE METRIC SYSTEM
  36. 36. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química QUANTITY DEFINITION Mass Is the amount of matter in a body. Its unit in the SI is the kg. Length Distance between two points in space. Its unit in the SI is the m. Time Physical quantity corresponding to a phenomenon or an event that is measured with devices such as watches and stopwatches. Its unit in the SI is the s. Volume Tells how much space an object occupies. Its unit in the SI is the m3. Capacity Is the amount of space that can be contained by a body. It is measured in L. Quantities are the measurable properties of the physical bodies. Some of the most important ones are the following: SCIENTIFIC METHOD 4. THE METRIC SYSTEM
  37. 37. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química Weight or Mass? Aren't "weight" and "mass" the same? Not really. An object has mass (say 100 kg). An objects weight is how hard gravity is pulling on it. SCIENTIFIC METHOD 4. THE METRIC SYSTEM
  38. 38. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química An object's mass doesn't change (unless you remove some!), but its weight can change. So Why Do People Say Weight instead of Mass? People often use "weight" to mean "mass", and vice versa. Because gravity is pretty much the same everywhere on Earth, we don't notice a difference. But remember … they do not mean the same thing, and they can have different measurements. The correct unit for weight (force) is the Newton (=1 kg·m/s2) which is abbreviated N. SCIENTIFIC METHOD 4. THE METRIC SYSTEM
  39. 39. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química "kilo, mega, giga, tera" ... ? In the Metric System there are standard ways to talk about big and small numbers: "kilo" for a thousand,"mega" for a million and more ... So we used kilo in front of the word meter to make "kilometer". And the abbreviation is "km" (k for kilo and m for meter, put together). Some more examples: Example: The doctor wants you to take 5 thousandths of a liter of medicine (a thousandth is one thousand times smaller), he is more likely to say "take 5 milliliters", or write it down as 5 mL. Example: You put your bag on a set of scales and it shows 2000 grams, we can call that 2kilograms, or simply 2 kg. SCIENTIFIC METHOD 4.1 PREFIXES
  40. 40. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química "kilo", "mega", "milli" etc are called "prefixes": Prefix: a word part that can be added to the beginning of another word to create a new word So, using the prefix "milli" in front of "liter" creates a new word "milliliter". Here we list the prefix for commonly used big and small numbers: Prefix giga mega kilo hecto deca deci centi milli micro nano Symbol G M k h da d c m µ n Factor 109 106 103 102 101 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-6 10-9 Name billion million thousand hundred ten tenth hundredth thousandth millionth billionth Just remember for large values (each one a thousand times bigger): "kilo mega giga tera" and for small values (each one a thousand times smaller): "milli micro nano pico" SCIENTIFIC METHOD 4.1 PREFIXES
  41. 41. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química SCIENTIFIC METHOD Activities Activity 4.1: Online activities about metric system Activity 4.2: Listening and Reading about Metric Moom 4.1 PREFIXES
  42. 42. 1. What does a scientist look like? 2. Scientific method. 3. Making measurements. 3.1. Errors in measurements. 4. The Metric System (SI). 4.1. Prefixes. 5. Scientific notation. 6. Conversion factors. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química OUTLINE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
  43. 43. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química In science, it is common to work with very large and very small numbers. For example, the diameter of a red blood cell is 0.0065 cm, the distance from the earth to the sun is 150,000,000 km, and the number of molecules in 1 g of water is 33,400,000,000,000,000,000,000. It gets cumbersome to work with such long numbers, so measurements such as these are often written using a shorthand called scientific notation. Each zero in the numbers above represents a multiple of 10. For example, the number 100 represents 2 multiples of 10 (10 x 10 = 100). In scientific notation, 100 can be written as 1 times 2 multiples of 10: 100 = 1 x 10 x 10 = 1 x 102 (in scientific notation) SCIENTIFIC METHOD 5. SCIENTIFIC NOTATION
  44. 44. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química Scientific notation is a simple way to represent large numbers because the 10's exponent (2 in the previous example) tells you how many places to move the decimal of the coefficient (the one above) to obtain the original number. In our example, the exponent 2 tells us to move the decimal to the right two places to generate the original number: For example: SCIENTIFIC METHOD 5. SCIENTIFIC NOTATION
  45. 45. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química This shorthand can also be used with very small numbers. When scientific notation is used with numbers less than one, the exponent on the 10 is negative, and the decimal is moved to the left, rather than the right. For example: Therefore, using scientific notation, the diameter of a red blood cell is 6.5 x 10-3 cm, the distance from the earth to the sun is 1.5 x 108 km and the number of molecules in 1 g of water is 3.34 x 1022. Also note that in scientific notation, the base numeral is always represented as a single digit followed by decimals if necessary. Therefore, the number 0.0065 is always represented as 6.5 x 10-3, never as 0.65 x 10-2 or 65 x 10-4. SCIENTIFIC METHOD 5. SCIENTIFIC NOTATION
  46. 46. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química SCIENTIFIC METHOD Activities Activity 4.3: Online activities about scientific notation 6. CONVERSION FACTORS5. SCIENTIFIC NOTATION
  47. 47. 1. What does a scientist look like? 2. Scientific method. 3. Making measurements. 3.1. Errors in measurements. 4. The Metric System (SI). 4.1. Prefixes. 5. Scientific notation. 6. Conversion factors. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química OUTLINE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
  48. 48. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química A conversion factor is a ratio, which is equal to 1. Multiplying a conversion factor (because it is equal to 1) doesn’t change the magnitude of the measurement, only the units in which it is expressed. For example: If you have 2 dozen eggs and want to know how many individual eggs you have, you would set up the problem like this: SCIENTIFIC METHOD 6. CONVERSION FACTORS
  49. 49. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química So the final step in dimensional analysis is to work the math problem you’ve set up, canceling units along the way. In the egg example, the “dozen eggs” in the bottom of the ratio cancels the “dozen eggs” in your original number, leaving “eggs” as the only unit left in the problem, as shown in the final answer, 24 eggs. SCIENTIFIC METHOD 6. CONVERSION FACTORS
  50. 50. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química Let’s apply these steps to a slightly more complex problem than counting eggs… How much money would it cost to fill a truck’s 23 gallon gas tank if gas cost $2.87 per gallon? Conversion factor: given the price, you can say 1 gallon = $2.87. If you have two units at a time, you use two conversion factors. For example, to convert 50 km/h to m/s you convert km to m and 1/ h to 1/ s: SCIENTIFIC METHOD 6. CONVERSION FACTORS Activities
  51. 51. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química And now the challenge: Convert the following measurements into SI basic units using conversion factors: a) 7 Gm b) 8000 Tm c) 27 g d) 5 h e) 50 cm2 f) 103 mL g) 24 cm3 h) 72 km/h i) 80 g/mm2 SCIENTIFIC METHOD 6. CONVERSION FACTORS
  52. 52. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química You can see that you don’t have to be an engineer at NASA to need dimensional analysis. You need to convert units in your everyday life (to budget for gas price increases, for example) as well as in scientific applications, like stoichiometry in chemistry and calculating past plate motions in geology. If you know what units you have to work with, and in what units you want your answer to be, you don’t need to memorize a formula. If the teams working on the Mars Climate Orbiter had realized that they needed to go through these steps, we would be getting weather forecasts for Mars. SCIENTIFIC METHOD 6. CONVERSION FACTORS
  53. 53. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química Some Famous Unit Conversion Errors! Story 1: On September 23, 1999 NASA lost the $125 million Mars Climate Orbiter spacecraft after a 286-day journey to Mars. Miscalculations due to the use of English units instead of metric units apparently sent the craft slowly off course - 60 miles in all. Thrusters used to help point the spacecraft had, over the course of months, been fired incorrectly because data used to control the wheels were calculated in incorrect units. Lockheed Martin, which was performing the calculations, was sending thruster data in English units (pounds) to NASA, while NASA's navigation team was expecting metric units (Newtons). Problem 1 - A solid rocket booster is ordered with the specification that it is to produce a total of 10 million pounds of thrust. If this number is mistaken for the thrust in Newtons, by how much, in pounds, will the thrust be in error? (1 pound = 4.5 Newtons) SCIENTIFIC METHOD 6. CONVERSION FACTORS
  54. 54. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química Story 2: On January 26, 2004 at Tokyo Disneyland's Space Mountain, an axle broke on a roller coaster train mid-ride, causing it to derail. The cause was a part being the wrong size due to a conversion of the master plans in 1995 from English units to Metric units. In 2002, new axles were mistakenly ordered using the pre-1995 English specifications instead of the current Metric specifications. Problem 2 - A bolt is ordered with a thread diameter of 1.25 inches. What is this diameter in millimeters? If the order was mistaken for 1.25 centimeters, by how many millimeters would the bolt be in error? SCIENTIFIC METHOD 6. CONVERSION FACTORS
  55. 55. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química Story 3: On 23 July 1983, Air Canada Flight 143 ran completely out of fuel about halfway through its flight from Montreal to Edmonton. Fuel loading was miscalculated through misunderstanding of the recently adopted metric system. For the trip, the pilot calculated a fuel requirement of 22,300 kilograms. There were 7,682 liters already in the tanks. Problem 3 - If a liter of jet fuel has a mass of 0.803 kilograms, how much fuel needed to be added for the trip? SCIENTIFIC METHOD 6. CONVERSION FACTORS
  56. 56. Pepi Jaramillo Romero Dpto. Física y Química SCIENTIFIC METHOD BIBLIOGRAPHY - http://sciencespot.net/Pages/classmetric.html - http://www.edhelper.com/Science.htm - http://www.mathsisfun.com/measure/error- measurement.html - http://www.mathopolis.com/questions/q.php?id=7031&sit e=1&ref=/measure/error- measurement.html&qs=7031_7036_7157_7160_7037_70 41_7044_7047_7052_7053 - http://panpipes.net/edit6200/ - https://www.flocabulary.com/lesson-scientific-method/ - http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at- nasa/2007/08jan_metricmoon - Curso online “Uso de Recursos Educativos Abiertos para el aprendizaje integrado de contenidos y lenguas extranjeras (AICLE). Edición Abril 2015. Consejería de Educación y Cultura. Gobierno de Extremadura.

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