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ETHICAL ISSUES PERTAINING TO
Crimean federal university ₰
WHAT IS ETHICS……
The basic concepts and fundamental principles
of decent human conduct . It includes study of
universal values such as the essential equality of
all men and women, human or natural rights,
obedience to the law of land, concern for health
and safety and, increasingly, also for the natural
environment. See also morality.
WHAT IS ABORTION…….
The word abortion comes from the Latin abortio, which
means to abort, miscarry, deliver prematurely. The Latin
word abortus means "miscarriage, premature, untimely
birth". In medicine abortion means ending a pregnancy
prematurely. An abortion is when the pregnancy is
ended so that it does not result in the birth of a child.
Sometimes this is called 'termination of pregnancy'.
ABORTION IN INDIAN LAW
Abortion in India is legal only up to twenty weeks of pregnancy
under specific conditions and situations which are broadly defined as:
If a woman is married, her own written consent is sufficient.
Her husband’s consent is not required
If a woman is unmarried and over 18, she can provide her
own written consent
If a woman is unmarried and under 18, she must provide
written consent from her guardian
If a woman is mentally unstable, she must provide written
consent from her guardian
Abortion as per the Indian MTP
The Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) Act of India clearly
mentions the conditions under which only a pregnancy can be
ended. An abortion as interpreted from the Indian MTP Act are:
1. A pregnancy may be terminated by a registered
2. A pregnancy occurring as a result of rape.
3. Failure of contraceptive device used by a couple.
Abortion in India: Legal, But
Not Always Safe
Even though abortion is legal in almost all countries to
save a woman’s life and in three-fifths of countries.
Abortion has been permitted in India for a broad variety of
reasons. devastating effect in rural areas.
Rates for maternal mortality are highest among poor rural
ABORTION IN USA LAW
In consultation with their physician, women have a constitutionally
protected right to have an abortion in the early stages of pregnancy.
Abortion has been legal in the USA since 1973, but may be restricted by
any of the 56 states to varying degrees.
Approximately 3700 abortions are conducted daily in the United States.
Right to life
Supreme Court decision
Legal definition of murder
Definition of murder – exceptions
Right to Life
The Declaration of Independence of the United States guarantees
“certain unalienable Rights, that among those are Life, Liberty and the
pursuit of Happiness”
Supreme Court Decision
The Supreme Court held that the “right to privacy,” assured the
freedom of a person to abort unless the state had a “compelling
interest” in preventing the abortion.
The Court then held that, though the state had an interest in
protecting fetal life, this interest did not become “compelling”
until “fetal viability” occurred in the third trimester of pregnancy.
Legal Definition of Murder
CALIFORNIA PENAL CODE SECTION 187-
a. Murder is the unlawful killing of a human being, or a fetus,
with malice aforethought.
DEFINITION OF MURDER –
b. This section shall not apply to any person who
commits an act that results in the death of a fetus if
any of the following apply:
3. The act was solicited, aided, abetted, or
consented to by the mother of the fetus.
LEGAL PERSONHOOD ISSUES
The fetus is granted personhood if
wanted by the mother
The fetus can become a non-person at
the discretion of the mother
However, a mother may not choose to
kill her born child
How can the personhood of a human
being be decided by another person?
REASONS FOR GIVEN
Concern for/ responsibility to other individuals
Not wanting their lives changed by the birth of a baby
Yong or unmarried
Unplanned or unwanted
Mother health risk
Pregnancy is the result of crime
Unacceptable quality of life
Abortions must be performed by a doctor with one of the following
A registered medical practitioner who has performed at least 25
medically assisted term inations of pregnancy
A surgeon who has six months’ experience in obstetrics and
A person who has a diploma or degree in obstetrics and
A doctor who was registered before the 1971 Medical Termination
of Pregnancy Act and who has three years’ experience in
obstetrics and gynaecology
A doctor who registered after 1971 and has been practising in
obstetrics and gynaecology for at least a year
Abortion Health Risks and Side-
Pain and/or cramping
Reaction to anesthetic
Short-Term Problems Post-
Puncture of the uterus
Psychological and Emotional
The Abortion-Breast Cancer
This is defined as the
obligation of the
preserve all human
life regardless of
intent, viability or
quality of life
Who You Want to be First?
Regular people have the right to
The fetus is a distinct human
from the moment of conception
Unless the woman’s life is
endanger, a woman have the
duty not to kill their unborn
Murder should be illegal in a
This is the belief that
women have the
rights to choose to
abort the baby.
Who You Want to be First?
Regular people have rights to their
bodies, as long as they do not hurt
The fetus is not a "human" until it
Women do not have the duty be
pregnant against their will, and they
can change their minds.
Therefore women have the right to
choose to end their pregnancy.
A women has a right to make decision that
involve her body.
If the pregnancy was the result of hard cases like
rape, incest etc.
Major issues for abortion-right to life, right to
liberty, right to security.
Involve risk to life.
Child will be disabled and low quality of life.
The fetus is a human
being with fundamental
right to life.
Every child is wanted
The unborn child has
the right not to be
Solution if any….
Birth control methods
GROUP VIEW ON
Reducing unwanted pregnancies
Killed the innocent life is totally wrong
Every child is wanted child
Choice, right, Life, all people are equal even a fetus
Being a mother is just one option for women
Guaranteeing genuinely free and informed choice
Providing a loving home for all children
Encourage pregnant friends to choose life
Get involved with a pro-life group
Abortion is not legal nor illegal, It is
sometimes ethical and also unethical. It is
not a relief as most of them feel so. But it is
still a debatable issue.