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A r c h I t e c t A r t I s t E n g I n e e r Santiago calatrava was born on july 28, 1951 in a town of benimamet, near Valencia, Spain. He attended primary and secondary school in Valencia. From the age of 8, he also attended the arts and crafts school, where he started his formal instruction in drawing and painting. At the age 13 he was an exchange student in France and traveled to study in Switzerland. He returned to Valencia and finished high and later he was enrolled en escuela tecnica superior de architectura. He earned a degree in architecture and took a post-graduate course in urbanism. Being attracted by mathematics, calatrava decided to pursue post-graduate studies in civil engineering, so he was enrolled in the federal institute of technology in Zurich, Switzerland in 1975. he received his doctorate in 1979, during that period he met and married his wife, who was a law student in Zurich.
<ul><li>Calatrava’s style has been heralded as bridging the division between structural engineering and architecture. In this, he continues a tradition of Spanish modernist engineering that includes Félix Candela and Antonio Gaudí. Nonetheless, his style is very personal and derives from numerous studies he makes of the human body and the natural world. </li></ul>A r c h I t e c t A r t I s t E n g I n e e r
THE engineer ALAMILLO BRIDGE AND LA CARTUJA VIADUCT PONT D’ ORLEANS, FRANCE SUNDIAL BRIDGE AT TURTLE BAY LUSITANIA BRIDGE
THE architect SOUTH CSTREET TOWER TENERIFE OPERA HOUSE WTC PATH TERMINAL VALENCI CITY OF ARTS AND SCIENCE LYON AIRPORT STATION BARCELONA COMUNICATION TOWER WINERY, LAGUARDIA, SPAIN MILWAUKEE ART MUSEUM
THE TURNING TORSO, MALMO, SWEDEN SKY LINE OF MALMO building : mixed use 1st to 2nd cube : commercial space 3rd to 9th cube: residential space cost : 235million US$ designed to look like a turning human body it consists of nine vertically stacked cubes, twisted 90 degrees from bottom to top. steel spine twists along with the structure similar to spine and ribs of the human body. it is an example of a structure where steel exoskeleton is used as an efficient lateral bracing mechanism. Here the central core in concrete is the main element responsible for transferring vertical loads towards the foundation
THE TURNING TORSO, MALMO SWEDEN steel spine • as exoskeleton for the structure • reduces wind displacement • acts as a reinforcing truss • consists of 20 horizontal and 18 diagonal members known as cigars foundation
THE TURNING TORSO, MALMO, SWEDEN CONSTRUCTION PROCESS • self climbing slip forms • steel spine erected using air-driven winches • steel treated with special anticorrosive paint
Winery complex for the Bodega & Bebidas Group Laguardia, Alava, Spain, 1998-2000 The building is conceived as an element that is integrated into the powerful, surrounding landscape while being somehwat autonomous at the same time, in the manner of a site-specific sculpture. Calatrava adopted the strategy of giving a volumetric treatment to the roof and walls, physical limits of the landscape outside and the winery within, so that continuity between the two spaces is achieved not through transparency but through the "static movement" of the enclosures WINERY COMPLEX, LAGUARDIA, SPAIN
196 meter long concrete, load - bearing walls, placed 26 meters apart, trace a sinusoidal shape in both plan and elevation. The southern facade is clad with horizontally placed cedar slats that, reflected in the pools, resemble a row of wine barrels. The pools are tiled with white broken ceramics. The aluminum roof paneling creates a material contrast to the warm wood of the facade. The effect of sunlight accentuates the roof volume creating a kinetic effect in contrast to the calm background of the vineyard. The facade to the north is precast concete panels with few narrow openings. The eastern and western facades are clad in fret aluminum plates. WINERY COMPLEX Laguardia, Spain
The roof, composed of a series of laminated wooden beams, supported on the staggered sinusoidal cornice of the lateral walls, is treated as a continuation of the facades. The result is a ruled surface wave, which combines concave and convex surfaces as it evolves along the longitudinal axis. The building is outlined as a simple rectangular plan, along an east - west axis, to accommodate the linear program for the wine making process. Two entrances in the side facades emphasize this linearity. In the center of the building the roof protrudes in a continous volume over the Visitors Center that is conceived as a balcony overlooking the winery and the vineyards. A granite bridge across the pools give access to the vineyards. San Sebastian - Bodegas Ysios Total site area: 72,000 square meters Urbanized area (including two pools): 15,384 square meters Building area: 8,000 square meters Exterior Cladding Wood: for the coating american cedar for the structural wood north pine varnishing pine for the roof; varnishing oak for stairs and bannisters Interior Finishes flooring material: granite. resin-treated mortar
Wisconsin Avenue, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA 1994 – 2001 Expansion of the museum complex Invited competition The new pavilion-like construction features a spectacular kinetic structure: a bris-soleil with louvers that open and close like the wings of a great bird "Rather than just add something to the existing buildings, I also wanted to add something to the lakefront. I have therefore worked to infuse the building with a certain sensitivity to the culture of the lake - the boats, the sails and the always changing landscape". Santiago Calatrava MILWAUKEE ART MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE
The Milwaukee Art Museum (MAM) commissioned Santiago Calatrava to design a 58,000 square foot addition to the Museum in 1994. later the Museum made a strategic decision to expand the scope of the project. Major visitor amenities, such as the south terrace and a parking garage, were added to the design, and space for the expansion was increased to 142,050 square feet to accommodate the additions. The expansion provides a 30 percent increase in overall gallery space, from 90,000 to 117,000 square feet. Signature elements of the Calatrava design include the Reiman Bridge, a 250 foot long suspended pedestrian bridge that links downtown Milwaukee directly to the lakefront and the Museum. The bridge features a distinctive 200 foot angled mast with cables that reflects Calatrava's unique experience in bridge design throughout Europe. MILWAUKEE ART MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE
LIÈGE-GUILLEMINS TGV RAILWAY STATION LIÈGE, BELGIUM <ul><li>Gross square footage: 527,000 sq. ft. (including tracks) </li></ul><ul><li>Completion date: September 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Program </li></ul><ul><li>The new station would replace an unremarkable 1950s building that occupied a much smaller lot on the same site and accommodate new tracks for high-speed train travel, which railway authorities throughout Europe have in recent years endeavored to make as seamless as possible between countries. The transition to the new station would also have to be seamless, as the old one continued to operate while construction proceeded . </li></ul><ul><li>“ Building in the horizontal is much more difficult than building vertically,” says the Spanish architect and engineer. ”People think a station is just a roof, but it is much more complicated than that.” </li></ul><ul><li>Roof rises 115 feet above the five platforms and nine tracks, the steel-and-glass assembly ushers in a new era of rail travel, achieving openness and transparency. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The vaulted structure was built in sections, each literally pushed forward as it was completed using a construction technique developed to reduce disturbance to the active train traffic below. </li></ul><ul><li>the 39 “ribs” span 518 feet to cover the full length of an arriving train. Narrow canopies extend south like fingers past the main roof to shelter extra passengers during peak travel times, when the number of cars on a train almost doubles. </li></ul><ul><li>Calatrava’s facadeless structure offers clear views of the city spread out before the platforms, which are raised about 15 feet above the ground. Ten circular shops animate the concourse level at grade. The slab between the two levels is supported by concrete arches — cast on-site — separated by glass block. </li></ul><ul><li>The design is highly rational and legible, an absolute necessity for orienting arriving passengers. </li></ul><ul><li>Auxiliary spaces include offices, parking, and bike and luggage storage. A small bridge traverses the motorway behind the station; that area’s higher elevation is accessed from a mezzanine level above the platforms. </li></ul>LIÈGE-GUILLEMINS TGV RAILWAY STATION LIÈGE, BELGIUM
One of his newest projects is a residential skyscraper named "80 South Street" after its own address, composed of 10 townhouses in the shape of cubes stacked on top of one another. The townhouses move up a main beam and follow a ladder-like pattern, providing each townhouse with its own roof. The "townhouse in the sky" design has attracted a high profile clientele, willing to pay the hefty US$30 million for each cube. It was to be built in New York City's financial district facing the East River. 80 south street, new york
The building wasCalatrava's first residential project in the United States. The principal units of the building are 45-foot glazed cubes, each of which contains four floors of residential space. Twelve cubes are cantilevered, in steplike fashion, up the building's vertical core, which in plan is a slender concrete rectangle. The core contains the building plant, main elevators, service elevator, and emergency stair, so that usable space within the cubes is maximized. The structure as a whole rises from a 60,000 square foot base, approximately 80 to 90 feet high, which Mr.Sciame envisions as the home of a major cultural institution. The 80 South Street Tower as a whole is 835 feet high and will contain 175,000 square feet of space 80 south street, new york The structure is to be topped with a spire that would reach beyond 1,000 feet. Despite its great height, the building will hold only 12 residences. Ten of the twelve cubes will contain residences and the two lower cubes, as well as the 8-story base will be commercial. Each cube will be approximately 10,336 square feet each. Each private cube-"townhouse" will have a private garden. This building will house some of the most expensive residences in the city and possibly in the world. With each cube featuring a separate elevator and a private garden, The tower will replace the existing six-story red-brick building at 80 South Street. The project stands cancelled.
The Montjuïc Tower is 136m HIGH It could be read as a piece of sculpture carved from pure white marble, or as half a dough-ring speared by a bloated toothpick. There is a resemblance to the Skylon once built in London but without the paired-down panache. This is a show-off building designed to be seen from all over Barcelona to symbolise the power of the Olympic Games coming to Catalonia. Communications Tower, Montjuic
2004 Doctor Scientaiarium Honoris Causa conferred by the Technion (Israel's Institute of Technology), Haifa, Israel Golden Plate Award of the Academy of Achievement, presented at the Academy's annual dinner by composer and music producer Quincy Jones, Chicago, Illinois 2003 Medalla al Mérito a las Bellas Artes, Real Academia de San Carlos de Valencia, Valencia Grande Médaille d’Or, Architecture, Académie D’Architecture, Paris 2002 Prize Best of 2001 for the design of the Milwaukee Art Museum Extension, Time Magazine, New York Prize «Il Principe e L’Architetto» for the design of the Quattro Ponte sul Canal Grande in Venice, Architettura e Design per la Città, Bologna Prize The Sir Misha Black Medal, Royal College of Art, London Prize 2002 The Best Large Structural Project for the Milwaukee Art Museum Addition, The Structural Engineers Association of Illinois The Leonardo da Vinci Medal, by the SEFI for having made an outstanding contribution of international significance to engineering education, SEFIRENZE 2000, Florence. 2001 Prize Exitos 2000 to the best architectural work for the Science Museum in Valencia, Madrid Award for Excellence in Design for the Time Capsule, American Museum of Natural History, New York European Award for Steel Structures for the Europe Bridge over the Loire River, Orléans 2000 Doctor Honoris Causa of Architecture, Università degli Studi di Ferrara «Das Goldene Dach 2000», The Golden Roof, Structural Completion of the «Pfalzkeller», St. Gallen Guest of Honour, Mexico City, D.F. Government 2000 Algur H. Meadows Award for Excellence in the Arts, Meadows School of Arts, Dallas Gold Medal, Círculo de Bellas Artes, Valencia A W A R D S