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Teaching english language

  1. 1. Teaching English Language Methods and approaches
  2. 2. Contents 1 Language education 1 1.1 Need for language education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 History of foreign language education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2.1 Ancient to medieval period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2.2 18th century . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2.3 19th–20th century . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.3 Teaching foreign language in classrooms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.4 Online and self-study courses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.4.1 Audio recordings and books . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.4.2 Internet and software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.5 Learning strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.5.1 Listening as a way of learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.5.2 Reading as a way to learn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.5.3 Learning vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.5.4 Code switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.6 Teaching strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.6.1 Blended learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.6.2 Skills teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.6.3 Sandwich technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.6.4 Mother tongue mirroring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.6.5 Back-chaining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.7 Language education by region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.8 Language study holidays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.9 Minority language education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.9.1 Minority language education policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.9.2 Materials and e-learning for minority language education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.10 Acronyms and abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.11 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.12 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.13 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1.14 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1.15 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 i
  3. 3. ii CONTENTS 2 Teaching English as a foreign language 10 2.1 Teaching techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.1.1 Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.1.2 Communicative language teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.1.3 Blended learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.1.4 Online classroom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.2 Qualifications for TEFL teachers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.3 Pay and conditions worldwide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.4 TEFL region and country locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.4.1 Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.4.2 Asia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.4.3 Americas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.4.4 Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.4.5 India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2.7 Further reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2.8 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3 Direct method (education) 18 3.1 Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 3.2 Aims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 3.3 Essentials of direct method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 3.4 Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 3.5 Nature of direct method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 3.6 Merits of direct method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 3.7 Demerits of Direct method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 3.8 Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 3.9 Pedagogy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 3.10 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 3.11 Historical context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 3.12 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 3.13 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 3.14 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 4 Grammar-translation method 22 4.1 History and philosophy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 4.2 Principles and goals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 4.3 Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 4.4 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 4.5 Reception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 4.6 Influence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
  4. 4. CONTENTS iii 4.7 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 4.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 5 Audio-lingual method 24 5.1 Oral drills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 5.2 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 5.3 Historical roots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 5.4 In practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 5.5 Fall from popularity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 5.6 Today . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 5.7 In popular culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 5.8 Main Features of Audio Lingual Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 5.9 Techniques of Audio Lingual Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 5.10 Emphasizing the audio in the Audio-Lingual Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 5.11 Aims of Audio Lingual Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 5.12 Advantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 5.13 Disadvantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 5.14 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 5.15 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 6 Communicative language teaching 29 6.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 6.1.1 Societal influences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 6.1.2 Academic influences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 6.1.3 Communicative syllabi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 6.2 Outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 6.3 Classroom activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 6.4 Critiques of CLT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 6.5 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 6.6 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 6.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 7 English for academic purposes 32 7.1 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 7.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 7.3 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 8 English for specific purposes 33 8.1 Definition of ESP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 8.1.1 Absolute characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 8.1.2 Variable characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 8.2 Teaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 8.3 See also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
  5. 5. iv CONTENTS 8.4 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 8.5 Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 8.6 External links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 8.6.1 Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 8.6.2 Articles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 8.6.3 Journals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 8.7 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 8.7.1 Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 8.7.2 Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 8.7.3 Content license . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
  6. 6. Chapter 1 Language education “Language Teaching” redirects here. For the journal, see Language Teaching (journal). Language education is the teaching and learning of a foreign or second language. Language education is a branch of applied linguistics. 1.1 Need for language education Increasing globalization has created a large need for peo- ple in the workforce who can communicate in multiple languages. The uses of common languages are in areas such as trade, tourism, international relations, technol- ogy, media, and science. Many countries such as Korea (Kim Yeong-seo, 2009), Japan (Kubota, 1998) and China (Kirkpatrick & Zhichang, 2002) frame education poli- cies to teach at least one foreign language at the primary and secondary school levels. However, some countries such as India, Singapore, Malaysia, Pakistan, and the Philippines use a second official language in their gov- ernments. According to GAO (2010), China has recently been putting enormous importance on foreign language learning, especially the English language. 1.2 History of foreign language ed- ucation 1.2.1 Ancient to medieval period Although the need to learn foreign languages is almost as old as human history itself, the origins of modern lan- guage education are in the study and teaching of Latin in the 17th century. Latin had for many centuries been the dominant language of education, commerce, religion, and government in much of the Western world, but it was displaced by French, Italian, and English by the end of the 16th century. John Amos Comenius was one of many people who tried to reverse this trend. He com- posed a complete course for learning Latin, covering the entire school curriculum, culminating in his Opera Didac- tica Omnia, 1657. In this work, Comenius also outlined his theory of language acquisition. He is one of the first theorists to write systematically about how languages are learned and about pedagogical methodology for language acqui- sition. He held that language acquisition must be allied with sensation and experience. Teaching must be oral. The schoolroom should have models of things, and fail- ing that, pictures of them. As a result, he also published the world’s first illustrated children’s book, Orbis Sensual- ium Pictus. The study of Latin diminished from the study of a living language to be used in the real world to a sub- ject in the school curriculum. Such decline brought about a new justification for its study. It was then claimed that its study developed intellectual abilities, and the study of Latin grammar became an end in and of itself. “Grammar schools” from the 16th to 18th centuries fo- cused on teaching the grammatical aspects of Classical Latin. Advanced students continued grammar study with the addition of rhetoric.[1] 1.2.2 18th century The study of modern languages did not become part of the curriculum of European schools until the 18th cen- tury. Based on the purely academic study of Latin, stu- dents of modern languages did much of the same ex- ercises, studying grammatical rules and translating ab- stract sentences. Oral work was minimal, and students were instead required to memorize grammatical rules and apply these to decode written texts in the target lan- guage. This tradition-inspired method became known as the grammar-translation method.[1] 1.2.3 19th–20th century Innovation in foreign language teaching began in the 19th century and became very rapid in the 20th century. It led to a number of different and sometimes conflicting meth- ods, each trying to be a major improvement over the pre- vious or contemporary methods. The earliest applied lin- guists included Jean Manesca, Heinrich Gottfried Ollen- dorff (1803–1865), Henry Sweet (1845–1912), Otto Jes- persen (1860–1943), and Harold Palmer (1877–1949). 1
  7. 7. 2 CHAPTER 1. LANGUAGE EDUCATION Henry Sweet was a key figure in establishing the applied linguis- tics tradition in language teaching They worked on setting language teaching principles and approaches based on linguistic and psychological theo- ries, but they left many of the specific practical details for others to devise.[1] Those looking at the history of foreign-language educa- tion in the 20th century and the methods of teaching (such as those related below) might be tempted to think that it is a history of failure. Very few students in U.S. uni- versities who have a foreign language as a major manage to reach something called “minimum professional pro- ficiency”. Even the “reading knowledge” required for a PhD degree is comparable only to what second-year lan- guage students read and only very few researchers who are native English speakers can read and assess information written in languages other than English. Even a number of famous linguists are monolingual.[2] However, anecdotal evidence for successful second or foreign language learning is easy to find, leading to a discrepancy between these cases and the failure of most language programs, which helps make the research of second language acquisition emotionally charged. Older methods and approaches such as the grammar transla- tion method or the direct method are dismissed and even ridiculed as newer methods and approaches are invented and promoted as the only and complete solution to the problem of the high failure rates of foreign language stu- dents. Most books on language teaching list the various meth- ods that have been used in the past, often ending with the author’s new method. These new methods are usu- ally presented as coming only from the author’s mind, as the authors generally give no credence to what was done before and do not explain how it relates to the new method. For example, descriptive linguists seem to claim unhesitatingly that there were no scientifically based lan- guage teaching methods before their work (which led to the audio-lingual method developed for the U.S. Army in World War II). However, there is significant evidence to the contrary. It is also often inferred or even stated that older methods were completely ineffective or have died out completely when even the oldest methods are still used (e.g. the Berlitz version of the direct method). One reason for this situation is that proponents of new methods have been so sure that their ideas are so new and so correct that they could not conceive that the older ones have enough validity to cause controversy. This was in turn caused by emphasis on new scientific advances, which has tended to blind researchers to precedents in older work.[2] (p. 5) There have been two major branches in the field of lan- guage learning, the empirical and theoretical, and these have almost completely separate histories, with each gain- ing ground over the other at one point in time or another. Examples of researchers on the empiricist side are Jes- person, Palmer, and Leonard Bloomfield, who promote mimicry and memorization with pattern drills. These methods follow from the basic empiricist position that language acquisition basically results from habits formed by conditioning and drilling. In its most extreme form, language learning is seen as basically the same as any other learning in any other species, human language being essentially the same as communication behaviors seen in other species. On the theoretical side are, for example, Francois Gouin, M.D. Berlitz, and Elime de Sauzé, whose rationalist theo- ries of language acquisition dovetail with linguistic work done by Noam Chomsky and others. These have led to a wider variety of teaching methods ranging from the grammar-translation method to Gouin’s “series method” to the direct methods of Berlitz and de Sauzé. With these methods, students generate original and meaningful sentences to gain a functional knowledge of the rules of grammar. This follows from the rationalist position that man is born to think and that language use is a uniquely human trait impossible in other species. Given that hu- man languages share many common traits, the idea is that humans share a universal grammar which is built into our brain structure. This allows us to create sentences that we have never heard before but that can still be immediately understood by anyone who understands the specific lan- guage being spoken. The rivalry of the two camps is in- tense, with little communication or cooperation between them.[2]
  8. 8. 1.4. ONLINE AND SELF-STUDY COURSES 3 1.3 Teaching foreign language in classrooms Main article: Methods of teaching foreign languages Language education may take place as a general school High school Spanish taught as a second language to a class of native English speakers at an American private school in Massachusetts. subject or in a specialized language school. There are many methods of teaching languages. Some have fallen into relative obscurity and others are widely used; still others have a small following, but offer useful insights. While sometimes confused, the terms “approach”, “method” and “technique” are hierarchical concepts. An approach is a set of assumptions about the nature of language and language learning, but does not involve pro- cedure or provide any details about how such assumptions should be implemented into the classroom setting. Such can be related to second language acquisition theory. There are three principal “approaches": 1. The structural view treats language as a system of structurally related elements to code meaning (e.g. grammar). 2. The functional view sees language as a vehicle to express or accomplish a certain function, such as re- questing something. 3. The interactive view sees language as a vehicle for the creation and maintenance of social relations, focusing on patterns of moves, acts, negotiation and interaction found in conversational exchanges. This approach has been fairly dominant since the 1980s.[1] A method is a plan for presenting the language material to be learned, and should be based upon a selected ap- proach. In order for an approach to be translated into a method, an instructional system must be designed con- sidering the objectives of the teaching/learning, how the content is to be selected and organized, the types of tasks to be performed, the roles of students, and the roles of teachers. 1. Examples of structural methods are grammar trans- lation and the audio-lingual method. 2. Examples of functional methods include the oral ap- proach / situational language teaching. 3. Examples of interactive methods include the direct method, the series method, communicative lan- guage teaching, language immersion, the Silent Way, Suggestopedia, the Natural Approach, Total Physical Response, Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling and Dogme language teaching. A technique (or strategy) is a very specific, concrete stratagem or trick designed to accomplish an immediate objective. Such are derived from the controlling method, and less directly, from the approach.[1] 1.4 Online and self-study courses Hundreds of languages are available for self-study, from scores of publishers, for a range of costs, using a variety of methods.[3] The course itself acts as a teacher and has to choose a methodology, just as classroom teachers do. 1.4.1 Audio recordings and books Audio recordings use native speakers, and one strength is helping learners improve their accent.[4] Some recordings have pauses for the learner to speak. Others are continu- ous so the learner speaks along with the recorded voice, similar to learning a song.[5] Audio recordings for self-study use many of the methods used in classroom teaching, and have been produced on records, tapes, CDs, DVDs and websites. Most audio recordings teach words in the target language by using explanations in the learner’s own language. An alternative is to use sound effects to show meaning of words in the target language.[6][7] The only language in such recordings is the target language, and they are com- prehensible regardless of the learner’s native language. Language books have been published for centuries, teaching vocabulary and grammar. The simplest books are phrasebooks to give useful short phrases for travelers, cooks, receptionists,[8] or others who need specific vocab- ulary. More complete books include more vocabulary, grammar, exercises, translation, and writing practice. Also, various other “language learning tools” have been entering the market in recent years. There are as simple examples as Vocabulary Stickers, but also technologically complex augmented reality translation apps.
  9. 9. 4 CHAPTER 1. LANGUAGE EDUCATION 1.4.2 Internet and software Software can interact with learners in ways that books and audio cannot: 1. Some software records the learner, analyzes the pro- nunciation, and gives feedback.[9] 2. Software can present additional exercises in areas where a particular learner has difficulty, until the concepts are mastered. 3. Software can pronounce words in the target lan- guage and show their meaning by using pictures[10] instead of oral explanations. The only language in such software is the target language. It is compre- hensible regardless of the learner’s native language. Websites provide various services geared toward lan- guage education. Some sites are designed specifically for learning languages: 1. Some software runs on the web itself, with the ad- vantage of avoiding downloads, and the disadvan- tage of requiring an internet connection. 2. Some publishers use the web to distribute audio, texts and software, for use offline. 3. Some websites offer learning activities such as quizzes or puzzles to practice language concepts. 4. Language exchange sites connect users with com- plementary language skills, such as a native Spanish speaker who wants to learn English with a native En- glish speaker who wants to learn Spanish. Language exchange websites essentially treat knowledge of a language as a commodity, and provide a marketlike environment for the commodity to be exchanged. Users typically contact each other via chat, VoIP, or email. Language exchanges have also been viewed as a helpful tool to aid language learning at language schools. Language exchanges tend to benefit oral proficiency, fluency, colloquial vocabulary acquisi- tion, and vernacular usage, rather than formal gram- mar or writing skills. Many other websites are helpful for learning languages, even though they are designed, maintained and marketed for other purposes: 1. All countries have websites in their own languages, which learners elsewhere can use as primary mate- rial for study: news, fiction, videos, songs, etc. In a study conducted by the Center for Applied Lin- guistics, it was noted that the use of technology and media has begun to play a heavy role in facilitating language learning in the classroom. With the help of the internet, students are readily exposed to foreign media (music videos, television shows, films) and as a result, teachers are taking heed of the internet’s in- fluence and are searching for ways to combine this exposure into their classroom teaching.[11] 2. Translation sites let learners find the meaning of for- eign text or create foreign translations of text from their native language.[12][13] 3. Speech synthesis or text to speech (TTS) sites and software let learners hear pronunciation of arbitrary written text, with pronunciation similar to a native speaker. 4. Course development and learning management sys- tems such as Moodle are used by teachers, including language teachers. 5. Web conferencing tools can bring remote learners together; e.g. Elluminate Live. 6. Players of computer games can practice a target lan- guage when interacting in massively multiplayer on- line games and virtual worlds. In 2005, the virtual world Second Life started to be used for foreign lan- guage tuition, sometimes with entire businesses be- ing developed.[14][15] In addition, Spain’s language and cultural institute Instituto Cervantes has an “is- land” on Second Life. Some Internet content is free, often from government and nonprofit sites such as BBC Online, Book2, Foreign Service Institute, with no or minimal ads. Some is ad- supported, such as newspapers and YouTube. Some re- quires a payment. 1.5 Learning strategies Language learning strategies have attracted increasing fo- cus as a way of understanding the process of language acquisition. 1.5.1 Listening as a way of learning Clearly listening is used to learn, but not all language learners employ it consciously. Listening to understand is one level of listening but focused listening[16] is not some- thing that most learners employ as a strategy. 1.5.2 Reading as a way to learn Many people read to understand but the strategy of read- ing text to learn grammar and discourse styles can also be employed.[17]
  10. 10. 1.6. TEACHING STRATEGIES 5 1.5.3 Learning vocabulary Translation and rote memorization have been the two strategies that have been employed traditionally. There are other strategies that also can be used such as guess- ing, based on looking for contextual clues, spaced rep- etition with a use of various apps, games and tools (e.g. DuoLingo, LingoMonkey and Vocabulary Stickers). Knowledge about how the brain works can be utilized in creating strategies for how to remember words.[18] 1.5.4 Code switching Main article: Code-switching Code switching, that is, changing between languages at some point in a sentence or utterance, is a commonly used communication strategy among language learners and bilinguals. While traditional methods of formal in- struction often discourage code switching, students, es- pecially those placed in a language immersion situation, often use it. If viewed as a learning strategy, wherein the student uses the target language as much as possi- ble but reverts to their native language for any element of an utterance that they are unable to produce in the tar- get language (as, e.g., in Wolfgang Butzkamm's concept of enlightened monolingualism), then it has the advan- tages that it encourages fluency development and motiva- tion and a sense of accomplishment by enabling the stu- dent to discuss topics of interest to him or her early in the learning process—before requisite vocabulary has been memorized. It is particularly effective for students whose native language is English, due to the high probability of a simple English word or short phrase being understood by the conversational partner.[19] 1.6 Teaching strategies 1.6.1 Blended learning Main article: Blended learning Blended learning combines face-to-face teaching with distance education, frequently electronic, either computer-based or web-based. It has been a major growth point in the ELT (English Language Teaching) industry over the last ten years. Some people, though, use the phrase 'Blended Learning' to refer to learning taking place while the focus is on other activities. For example, playing a card game that requires calling for cards may allow blended learning of numbers (1 to 10). 1.6.2 Skills teaching When talking about language skills, the four basic ones are: listening, speaking, reading and writing. However, other, more socially based skills have been identified more recently such as summarizing, describing, narrat- ing etc. In addition, more general learning skills such as study skills and knowing how one learns have been ap- plied to language classrooms.[20] In the 1970s and 1980s, the four basic skills were gener- ally taught in isolation in a very rigid order, such as lis- tening before speaking. However, since then, it has been recognized that we generally use more than one skill at a time, leading to more integrated exercises.[20] Speaking is a skill that often is underrepresented in the traditional classroom. This is due to the fact that it is considered harder to teach and test. There are numerous texts on teaching and testing writing but relatively few on speak- ing. More recent textbooks stress the importance of students working with other students in pairs and groups, some- times the entire class. Pair and group work give oppor- tunities for more students to participate more actively. However, supervision of pairs and groups is important to make sure everyone participates as equally as possible. Such activities also provide opportunities for peer teach- ing, where weaker learners can find support from stronger classmates.[20] 1.6.3 Sandwich technique Main article: Sandwich technique In foreign language teaching, the sandwich technique is the oral insertion of an idiomatic translation in the mother tongue between an unknown phrase in the learned lan- guage and its repetition, in order to convey meaning as rapidly and completely as possible. The mother tongue equivalent can be given almost as an aside, with a slight break in the flow of speech to mark it as an intruder. When modeling a dialogue sentence for students to re- peat, the teacher not only gives an oral mother tongue equivalent for unknown words or phrases, but repeats the foreign language phrase before students imitate it: L2 => L1 => L2. For example, a German teacher of English might engage in the following exchange with the students: Teacher: “Let me try - lass mich versuchen - let me try.” Students: “Let me try.” 1.6.4 Mother tongue mirroring Main article: Mother tongue mirroring
  11. 11. 6 CHAPTER 1. LANGUAGE EDUCATION Mother tongue mirroring is the adaptation of the time- honoured technique of literal translation or word-for word translation for pedagogical purposes. The aim is to make foreign constructions salient and transparent to learners and, in many cases, spare them the technical jar- gon of grammatical analysis. It differs from literal trans- lation and interlinear text as used in the past since it takes the progress learners have made into account and only focuses upon a specific structure at a time. As a didactic device, it can only be used to the extent that it remains intelligible to the learner, unless it is combined with a normal idiomatic translation. This technique is seldom referred to or used these days. 1.6.5 Back-chaining Main article: Back-chaining Back-chaining is a technique used in teaching oral lan- guage skills, especially with polysyllabic or difficult words.[21] The teacher pronounces the last syllable, the student repeats, and then the teacher continues, working backwards from the end of the word to the beginning.[22] For example, to teach the name ‘Mussorgsky' a teacher will pronounce the last syllable: -sky, and have the stu- dent repeat it. Then the teacher will repeat it with -sorg- attached before: -sorg-sky, and all that remains is the first syllable: Mus-sorg-sky. 1.7 Language education by region Main article: Language education by region Practices in language education may vary by region how- ever the underlying understandings which drive it are fun- damentally similar. Rote repetition, drilling, memorisa- tion and grammar conjugating are used the world over. Sometimes there are different preferences teaching meth- ods by region. Language immersion is popular in some European countries, but is not used very much in the United States, in Asia or in Australia. The languages being learned differ; in the United States, Spanish is the most popular language to be learned, whereas the most popular languages to be learned in Australia are Italian and Mandarin Chinese. 1.8 Language study holidays See also: Language school An increasing number of people are now combining holidays with language study in the native country. This enables the student to experience the target culture by meeting local people. Such a holiday often combines for- mal lessons, cultural excursions, leisure activities, and a homestay, perhaps with time to travel in the country af- terwards. Language study holidays are popular across Eu- rope (Malta & UK being the most popular because almost everyone speaks English as a first language) and Asia due to the ease of transportation and variety of nearby countries. These holidays have become increasingly more popular in Central and South America in such countries as Guatemala, Ecuador and Peru. As a consequence of this increasing popularity, several international language education agencies have flourished in recent years.[23] With the increasing prevalence of international business transactions, it is now important to have multiple lan- guages at one’s disposal. This is also evident in businesses outsourcing their departments to Eastern Europe. 1.9 Minority language education 1.9.1 Minority language education policy The principal policy arguments in favor of promoting mi- nority language education are the need for multilingual workforces, intellectual and cultural benefits and greater inclusion in global information society.[24] Access to edu- cation in a minority language is also seen as a human right as granted by the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages and the UN Human Rights Committee.[25] Bilingual Education has been im- plemented in many countries including the United States, in order to promote both the use and appreciation of the minority language, as well as the majority language concerned.[26] 1.9.2 Materials and e-learning for minor- ity language education Suitable resources for teaching and learning minority lan- guages can be difficult to find and access, which has led to calls for the increased development of materials for mi- nority language teaching. The internet offers opportuni- ties to access a wider range of texts, audios and videos.[27] Language learning 2.0 (the use of web 2.0 tools for lan- guage education)[28] offers opportunities for material de- velopment for lesser-taught languages and to bring to- gether geographically dispersed teachers and learners.[29] 1.10 Acronyms and abbreviations See also: English language learning and teaching for in- formation on language teaching acronyms and abbrevia- tions which are specific to English.
  12. 12. 1.11. SEE ALSO 7 • ALL: Apprenticeship Language Learning • CALL: computer-assisted language learning • CLIL: content and language integrated learning • CELI: Certificato di Conoscenza della Lingua Ital- iana • CLL: community language learning • DELE: Diploma de Español como Lengua Extran- jera • DELF: diplôme d'études en langue française • EFL: English as a foreign language • ELL: English language learning • ELT: English language teaching • FLL: foreign language learning • FLT: foreign language teaching • HLL: heritage language learning • L1: first language, native language, mother tongue • L2: second language (or any additional language) • LDL: Lernen durch Lehren (German for learning by teaching) • LOTE: Languages Other Than English • SLA: second language acquisition • TELL: technology-enhanced language learning • TEFL: teaching English as a foreign language N.B. This article is about travel-teaching. • TEFLA: teaching English as a foreign language to adults • TESOL: teaching English to speakers of other lan- guages • TPR: Total Physical Response • TPRS: Teaching Proficiency through Reading and Storytelling • UNIcert is a European language education system of many universities based on the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. 1.11 See also • American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Lan- guages • Eikaiwa school • Error analysis (linguistics) • Foreign language anxiety • Foreign language writing aid • Foreign language reading aid • Glossary of language teaching terms and ideas • How to learn a foreign language • Language festival • Lexicography • Linguistic rights • List of language acquisition researchers • Monolingual learner’s dictionary • Self access language learning centers 1.12 Notes [1] Richards, Jack C.; Theodore S. Rodgers (2001). Ap- proaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-00843-3. [2] Diller, Karl Conrad (1978). The Language Teaching Con- troversy. Rowley, Massachusetts: Newbury House. ISBN 0-912066-22-9. [3] “Reviews of Language Self-Study Courses: Comparison, Problems, Ratings”. Lang1234. Retrieved 17 July 2012. [4] “Good Accents”. Lang1234. Retrieved 5 August 2012. [5] “Shadowing Step by Step”. ForeignLanguageExper- tise.com. Retrieved 17 July 2012. [6] Amazing Hear-Say, by Donald Rivera, Penton Overseas Inc., ISBN 1-56015-677-5, ISBN 1-59125-350-0, ISBN 1-59125-353-5, ISBN 1-59125-349-7, ISBN 1-59125- 351-9 [7] “Lessons for Beginners in English, mp3”. 15 August 2013. Retrieved 3 May 2014. [8] “Workers and Guests Have Different Language Needs in a Hotel”. 20 April 2013. Retrieved 3 May 2014. [9] “Scoring Your Pronunciation”. Lang1234. Retrieved 5 August 2012. [10] “Language Guide”. Language Guide. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  13. 13. 8 CHAPTER 1. LANGUAGE EDUCATION [11] “What We Can Learn From Foreign Language Teaching In Other Countries”. Center for Applied Linguistics. Re- trieved 8 May 2012. [12] “Google Translate”. Retrieved 3 May 2014. [13] “Bing Translator”. Microsoft. Retrieved 3 May 2014. [14] Dorveaux, Xavier (15 July 2007). “Study and teach in Second Life”. iT’s Magazines. Retrieved 15 July 2007. [15] Dorveaux, Xavier (15 July 2007). “Apprendre une langue dans un monde virtuel”. Le Monde. Retrieved 15 July 2007. [16] Andrew Weiler: focused listening [17] Andrew Weiler: strategy of reading [18] Andrew Weiler: How to remember vocabulary [19] Butzkamm, Wolfgang (1998). “Code-Switching in a Bilingual History Lesson: The Mother Tongue as a Con- versational Lubricant”. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 1:2, pp.81-99. [20] Holden, Susan; Mickey Rodgers (1998). English language teaching. Mexico City: DELTI. ISBN 968-6820-12-4. [21] “Backchaining.” Glossary. Retrieved April 4, 2009, from http://www.usingenglish.com/glossary/backchaining. html [22] “Backchaining.” Teaching English. Retrieved April 4, 2009, from http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/ knowledge-wiki/backchaining [23] “Travel agents missing out on profitable language travel holidays – Sprachcaffe”. TravelWeek. Retrieved 2015- 03-04. [24] Sachdev, I; McPake, J (2008). “Community Languages in Higher Education: Towards realising the potential”. Routes into Languages. p. 76. Retrieved 26 June 2009. [25] de Varennes, Fernand (2004). “The right to education and minority language”. EUMAP: EU Monitoring and Advo- cacy Program Online Journal. Archived from the original on 4 April 2009. Retrieved 26 June 2009. [26] National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning (July 1999). “Two-Way Bilin- gual Education Programs in Practice: A National and Lo- cal Perspective”. Center for Applied Linguistics. Re- trieved 26 June 2009. [27] Sachdev, I; McPake, J (2008). “Community Languages in Higher Education: Towards realising the potential”. Routes into Languages. pp. 61–62. Retrieved 26 June 2009. [28] Diouri, Mourad (2009). “Language learning 2.0 in action: web .0 tools to enhance language learning” (PDF). 4th Plymouth e-Learning Conference 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 November 2009. Retrieved 26 June 2009. [29] Ikeda, A. Sho; Doty, Christopher (14 March 2009). “New Roles for Technology in Language Maintenance and Re- vitalization”. 1st International Conference on Language Documentation and Conservation (ICLDC). Retrieved 26 June 2009. 1.13 References • Pérez-Milans, M (2013). Urban schools and English language education in late modern China: A Critical sociolinguistic ethnography. New York & London: Routledge. • Gao, Xuesong (Andy). (2010).Strategic Language Learning.Multilingual Matters:Canada, 2010 • Kim Yeong-seo (2009) “History of English educa- tion in Korea” • Kirkpatrick, A & Zhichang, X (2002).”Chinese pragmatic norms and “China English”. World En- glishes. Vol. 21, pp. 269–279. • Kubota, K (1998) “Ideologies of English in Japan” World Englishes Vol.17, No.3, pp. 295–306. 1.14 Further reading • Bernhardt, E. B. (Ed.) (1992). Life in language im- mersion classrooms. Clevedon, England: Multilin- gual Matters, Ltd. • Genesee, F. (1985). Second language learning through immersion: A review of U.S. programs. Review of Educational Research, 55(4), 541–561. • Genesee, F. (1987). Learning Through Two Lan- guages: Studies of Immersion and Bilingual Educa- tion. Cambridge, Mass.: Newbury House Publish- ers. • Lindholm-Leary, K. (2001). Theoretical and con- ceptual foundations for dual language education pro- grams. In K. Lindholm-Leary, Dual language edu- cation (pp. 39–58). Clevedon, England: Multilin- gual Matters Ltd. • McKay, Sharon; Schaetzel, Kirsten, Facilitating Adult Learner Interactions to Build Listening and Speaking Skills, CAELA Network Briefs, CAELA and Center for Applied Linguistics • Meunier, Fanny; Granger, Sylviane, “Phraseology in foreign language learning and teaching”, Amster- dam and Philadelphia : John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2008
  14. 14. 1.15. EXTERNAL LINKS 9 • Met, M., & Lorenz, E. (1997). Lessons from U.S. immersion programs: Two decades of experience. In R. Johnson & M. Swain (Eds.), Immersion ed- ucation: International perspectives (pp. 243–264). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. • Swain, M. & Johnson, R. K. (1997). Immersion ed- ucation: A category within bilingual education. In R. K. Johnson & M. Swain (Eds.), Immersion edu- cation: International perspectives (pp. 1–16). NY: Cambridge University Press. 1.15 External links • Language Education at DMOZ • LANGWISER - Social platform for online language learning • CILT UK, The National Centre for Languages • The REALIA Project • UCLA Language Materials Project
  15. 15. Chapter 2 Teaching English as a foreign language Further information: English as a second or foreign language Teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL) refers to teaching English to students whose first language is not English. TEFL can occur in the student’s own country, either within the state school system, or privately, e.g., in an after-hours language school or with a tutor. TEFL can also take place in an English-speaking immigrant coun- try, for people who have moved (either temporarily for school or work, or permanently). TEFL teachers may be native or non-native speakers of English. Other acronyms for TEFL are TESL 'Teaching English as a Second Lan- guage', TESOL 'Teaching English as a Second or Other Language', and ESL 'English as a Second Language'. 2.1 Teaching techniques See also: Language teaching methods 2.1.1 Reading TEFL that uses literature aimed at children and teenagers is rising in popularity. Youth-oriented literature offers simpler material (“simplified readers” are produced by major publishers), and often provides a more conversa- tional style than literature for adults. Children’s literature in particular sometimes provides subtle cues to pronunci- ation, through rhyming and other word play. One method for using these books is the multiple-pass technique. The instructor reads the book, pausing often to explain cer- tain words and concepts. On the second pass, the instruc- tor reads the book completely through without stopping. Textbooks contain a variety of literature like poetry, sto- ries, essays, plays etc. through which certain linguistic items are taught. 2.1.2 Communicative language teaching Communicative language teaching (CLT) emphasizes in- teraction as both the means and the ultimate goal of learn- ing a language. Despite a number of criticisms,[1] it con- tinues to be popular, particularly in Japan, Taiwan,[2] and Europe. In India CBSE ( Central Board of Sec- ondary Education) has adopted this approach in its af- filiated schools. The task-based language learning approach to CLT has gained ground in recent years. Proponents believe CLT is important for developing and improving speaking, writ- ing, listening, and reading skills, and that it prevents stu- dents’ merely listening passively to the teacher without in- teraction. Dogme[3] is a similar communicative approach that encourages teaching without published textbooks, in- stead focusing on conversational communication among the learners and the teacher.[4] 2.1.3 Blended learning Blended learning is a combination of face-to-face teach- ing and online interactions (also known as computer- assisted language learning), achieved through a virtual learning environment (VLE). VLEs have been a major growth point in the English Lan- guage Teaching (ELT) industry over the last five years. There are two types: • Externally hosted platforms that a school or insti- tution exports content to (e.g., the proprietary Web Course Tools, or the open source Moodle) • Content-supplied, course-managed learning plat- forms (e.g. the Macmillan English Campus) The former provides pre-designed structures and tools, while the latter supports course-building by the language school—teachers can blend existing courses with games, activities, listening exercises, and grammar reference units contained online. This supports classroom, self- study or remote practice (for example in an internet café). Kendriya Vidyalaya Sangathan in India has launched a 10
  16. 16. 2.3. PAY AND CONDITIONS WORLDWIDE 11 web portal ECTLT where learners can learn English and other subject online and interact with their own teachers of KVS across the country. 2.1.4 Online classroom Advances in technology made it possible to get a TEFL qualification online. Students can enroll into online classes that are accredited by organizations such as Ac- creditat. It should be noted that there is no single over- arching accreditation body for TEFL.[5] Study materials are divided into modules. Students take one or multiple tests per study module. Support is handled by tutors, who can be reached via email. After successfully finishing the last module the student is granted a certificate. It comes in digital form or can be shipped to the student’s address. Getting such a certificate can be beneficial in many ways. The student can get a bigger paycheck or teach English in foreign countries. 2.2 Qualifications for TEFL teach- ers Qualification requirements vary considerably from coun- try to country and among employers within the same country. In many institutions it is possible to teach with- out a degree or teaching certificate. Some institutions will consider it necessary to be a native speaker with an MA TESOL. A university degree in English language and lit- erature can also be of value, as indeed can any special- ist degree. Other institutions consider a proof of En- glish proficiency, a University degree and a basic teach- ing qualification to be more than sufficient. However, the level of academic qualification need not be the most im- portant qualification, as many schools will be more inter- ested in your interpersonal skills. For trainers wishing to enter the academic field, publications can be as important as qualifications, especially if they relate to English use in your field. Where there is a high demand for teachers and no statutory requirements, employers may accept other- wise unqualified candidates. Each country is different, and acceptance depends on demand for English teachers and the teacher’s previous teaching and life experiences. As a general rule, schools will tend to prefer qualifications that involve a significant amount of assessed teaching: it is often said that “Learning to teach without classroom practice is like learning to drive without ever encounter- ing traffic”.[6] Shorter courses and online courses often lack assessed teaching practice. Course makers have rec- ognized this and have begun introducing combined TEFL courses which have an element of assessed teaching.[7] Some educational facilities are now offering two or three well-defined certificates instead of one general certificate. For example, Introduction to Language Teaching - 40 hours, Practice of Language Training - 30 hours, and Lit- eracy - 30 hours. Private language schools are likely to require at least a certificate based on successful completion of a course consisting of a minimum of 100 hours. Major pro- grams like EPIK will offer a higher salary to teachers who have completed any TEFL Course, online or otherwise, so long as the program meets the minimum 100 hour requirement.[8] Internet-based TEFL courses are gener- ally accepted worldwide, and particularly in Asia, where the largest jobs markets exist in China, Korea, Taiwan and Japan.[9] In Asia there has also been a tendency to hire TEFL teach- ers on superficial criteria, such as race (with Caucasians preferred) on the assumption that an English teacher, or native English speaker should be 'white', this is proven especially true in a Thailand, a big employer of TEFL teachers, with adverts frequently calling explicitly for native-English speakers. Partly this is driven by com- mercial expectations in the private sector, where parents feel that paying extra fees for TEFL teacher should war- rant an American or British TEFL teacher, the schools will not risk losing students over this. Nascent demand from China also means that quite often an inexperienced and/or under qualified person may get favoured over oth- ers if their nationality fits the parent-driven demand, to the exclusion of many Filipino teachers with masters in education. Age/gender requirements might also be encountered. In some countries outside Europe and America, for example the Middle East, schools might hire men over women or vice versa. And they might hire only teachers in a cer- tain age range; usually between 20 and 40 years of age. Anyone under 19 may be able to teach TEFL, but usually only in a volunteer situation, such as a refugee camp. 2.3 Pay and conditions worldwide As in most fields, the pay depends greatly on educa- tion, training, experience, seniority, and expertise. As with much expatriate work, employment conditions vary among countries, depending on the level of economic de- velopment and how much people want to live there. In relatively poor countries, even a low wage may equate to a comfortable middle class lifestyle.[10] EFL Teachers who wish to earn money often target countries in East Asia such as China, South Korea and Japan where demand is high. The Middle East is also often named as one of the best paying areas, although usually better qualifica- tions are needed: at least a CELTA and one or two years’ experience.[11] There is a danger of exploitation by employers. Spain in particular has encountered widespread criticism given the overwhelming number of small to medium businesses (in- cluding TEFL schools) which routinely dodge the teach-
  17. 17. 12 CHAPTER 2. TEACHING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE ers’ social security contributions as a means of maximis- ing profits. The result is that most teachers are entitled to less unemployment or sick pay than they would be en- titled to if their salaries and contributions were declared in accordance with the law. Similar situations increase in countries with labor laws that may not apply to foreign employees, or which may be unenforced. An employer might ignore contract provisions, especially regarding working hours, working days, and end-of-contract pay- ments. Difficulties faced by foreign teachers regarding language, culture, or simply limited time can make it difficult to demand pay and conditions that their con- tracts stipulate. Some disputes arise from cross-cultural misunderstandings. Teachers who can't adapt to living and working in a foreign country often leave after a few months. It is especially difficult at this time for teach- ers to recognize which jobs are legitimate, as many of the leading jobs boards allow unfiltered paid posting, but there are new sites that have risen up to help stop these issues.[12] 2.4 TEFL region and country loca- tions 2.4.1 Europe Major European cities have established language schools on-site or operated as agencies sending teachers to var- ious locations. September is the peak recruiting month, and many annual contracts last from October until June. Employers prefer graduates with experience in teaching Business English or in teaching young learners. Instructors from the United Kingdom and Ireland, coun- tries within the European Union, do not need any visas to work within the EU, which reduces demand for non- EU teachers. Immigration laws require that non-EU job applicants submit documents from their home countries in person after the European employer files an officially documented job offer. If the worker has travelled to Eu- rope to find the job, this means they must return home and wait for some time. Following the process correctly does not guarantee getting a visa. Many private-sector employers do not subsidise them at all, because they are able to hire the staff easily from the EU countries. International schools hire some experienced and well- qualified non-EU teachers. Education ministries, i.e. those of France and Spain, offer opportunities for as- sistant language instructors in public schools. Part-time employment is usually allowed under an education visa, but this visa also requires proper attendance at an ac- credited EU college or university, institute, or other ed- ucational program. Other teachers work illegally under tourist visas, since the “don't ask, don't tell” method is the only viable solution to avoiding impossible bureau- cracy and eventual job rejection. Despite claims from websites that sell courses, state schools often do not accept brief TEFL courses as a sub- stitute for a university degree in English education.[13] In Spain it is impossible to get a job with a state school un- less you go through the process of getting your foreign teaching degree accepted in Spain and then pass the civil service examination (“oposiciones”). Demand for TEFL tends to be stronger in countries which joined the European Union recently. They also tend to have lower costs of living. Non-EU teachers usually find legal work there with less difficulty. The Balkan former Yugoslav countries have seen recent growth in TEFL— private schools have recruited Anglophone teachers there for several years. Very few foreign instructors work in Scandinavia, where stricter immigration laws and a policy of relying on bilin- gual local teachers apply. 2.4.2 Asia Cambodia Demand for English teachers in Cambodia has grown over the past decade, though the country has a small pop- ulation and is dependent on foreign aid for much of its economic development, limiting growth. China Many opportunities exist within the People’s Republic of China, including preschool, university, private schools and institutes, companies, and tutoring. NGOs, such as Teach For China, are an opportunity as well. The provinces and the Ministry of Education in Beijing tightly govern public schools, while private schools have more freedom to set work schedules, pay, and requirements. English teaching salaries in China are dependent on mul- tiple factors including; Teaching hours specified in con- tract, location, inclusions/bonuses, and public vs pri- vate sector. It is important to note that due to high demand, salaries have increased significantly over re- cent years. A standard contract within the public school system generally entails less than 20 hours of teach- ing time, weekends off, included accommodations, flight stipend/reimbursement for 1 year contracts, paid pub- lic holidays, medical insurance and Z visa (working per- mit) sponsorship. These positions offer an average base salary of 6,000 - 7,000 RMB per month in smaller cities and rural areas. In Beijing, Shanghai, Shenzhen, and Guangzhou these positions now offer 10,000 RMB plus per month due to higher living costs. The private sec- tor is less uniform with salaries going as high as 20,000 RMB per month for DOS’s in major cities.[14] Private po- sitions tend to demand higher hours, may include teach- ing in multiple locations, and often require weekend and evening working schedules. They also are more flexible
  18. 18. 2.4. TEFL REGION AND COUNTRY LOCATIONS 13 with housing options, often offering teachers a choice be- tween provided accommodations, or a stipend towards rental costs. By law, all non-Chinese English teachers should hold a minimum bachelor’s degree in any discipline, be at least 25 years old, have at least 2 years of working experience (unrelated is fine).[15] Due to demand, these rules are of- ten overlooked, and schools often are able to obtain work permits for teachers who do not meet the minimums, al- though this is tightening up in the major cities. Public schools usually pay during vacations, but not for summer break unless the teacher renews the contract,[16] while many private schools have shortened vacation schedules and may pay for whatever short number of days is allowed for vacation. Company jobs vary, depending on the number of employ- ees they want to train. They may employ a teacher for one or two classes, or a complete set of 14 to 16 hours a week. Tutoring also varies, as in some cases a whole family of students or just one family member. Some teachers work successfully on an independent ba- sis with several contracts for tutoring, individual college classes, and some company work. The majority of teach- ers accept contracts with schools. Public school con- tracts are fairly standard, while private schools set their own requirements. Schools try to hire teachers from Anglophone countries, but because of demand, others with good English language skills can find positions. Be aware, there are many small business which recruit foreign teachers and find them either a formal job or tutoring positions. Many of these small businesses are known to rip off unsuspected foreigners. If offered posi- tions or you feel this may be the case, a good search with Google may produce hopefully good reports. For bigger cities, there are large expat communities and many online groups which can be used for researching as well. There are also a few webpages/Facebook groups such as teach- ingjobsaroundchina which were created by Expats listing quality safe jobs that the Expats have experience with. Before deciding whether to work with the recruitment agency or school, ask their SAIC business license num- ber for Chinese schools; local business license for foreign agencies; check recruiter’s website and make sure it has a clearly stated address. Remember, legitimate employer will offer you Z visa. Never accept working on tourist or business visa.[17] Hong Kong Hong Kong was once a British Crown colony, and English-language education is taken seriously there, as demonstrated by government-funded research.[11] Hong Kong was handed back to the People’s Republic of China in 1997 and became known as Hong Kong Special Ad- ministrative Region (HKSAR). Teaching English in Hong Kong has become quite a business. Many English teaching institutions have since opened. Big private names include Headstart Group Lim- ited and English for Asia. Native English speakers may quickly find a job teaching English, although foreign- ers should be aware of shady companies who often pull tricks on their employees. A qualification in Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) has become a pre- requisite to enter the Native English-speaking Teacher Scheme (NET scheme), which is funded by the HKSAR government and provides the ultimate career destination for an English teacher. On top of attractive salary, hous- ing is provided with all the other fringe benefits includ- ing full holiday pay, provident fund and health insurance. Housing or rental support is the biggest incentive to for- eign teachers as housing cost in HK is ranked one of the highest in the world. Once a teacher is on the NET scheme, they can move from school to school after completion of, normally, a two-year contract. Therefore, a teacher has a lot of op- portunities to land themselves an ideal position at an ideal school, provided they have strong track record. While many foreigners think coming to HK with a short online TEFL qualification is sufficient, both public and private schools are looking for TEFL qualifications listed with the Hong Kong Council for Accreditation of Vocational and Academic Qualifications and Hong Kong Education Bureau There are less than a handful of them. Acquir- ing one of those qualifications gives a foreigner a definite advantage to securing a preferred teaching position at a formal school, whether private or public, kindergarten, primary or secondary. When selecting NET, schools will not normally consider learning centre experience due to the differences in class size, continuity of student group, level of classroom management skills and sophistication in teaching pedagogy required between schools and cen- tres. Japan In Japan, the JET Programme employs assistant language teachers and teaching assistants to work in Japanese high schools and elementary schools. Other teachers work in eikaiwa (private language schools). The largest of these chains are Aeon and ECC. The sector is not well regulated. Nova, one of the largest chains with over 900 branches, collapsed in October 2007, leaving thou- sands of foreign teachers without income or, for some, a place to live. Other teachers work in universities. Agen- cies are increasingly used to send English speakers into kindergartens, primary schools, and private companies whose employees need to improve their Business English. Agencies, known in Japan as haken, or dispatch compa- nies, have recently been competing among themselves to get contracts from various Boards of Education for El- ementary, Junior and Senior High Schools, and wages have decreased steadily. JALT (the Japan Association for
  19. 19. 14 CHAPTER 2. TEACHING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE Language Teaching) is the largest NPO (not-for-profit or- ganization) for language teachers (mainly native English speakers), with nearly 3,000 members.[18] Laos English language has been increasingly important in edu- cation, international trade and cooperation in Laos since the 1990s. The government started to promote foreign direct investment, and the introduction of Laos as an ob- server at ASEAN in 1992 also increased the necessity of English. Laos was considered as a full member of ASEAN in 1997. From 1992-97, the government had to improve its fluency in English. More recently, high-ranking officials, business people, and shareholders have started to work at their English. This trend looks set to increase as English is due to be included and taught in the field of education too. Middle East and North Africa Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and other wealthy Persian Gulf states are the main locations for in- structors to work in this region. Many positions provide a higher salary with more benefits but tend to require more qualifications and experience. Private academies and university programs are the main venues of instruc- tion. Some public primary and secondary schools, such as those in Abu Dhabi, have begun to recruit foreign En- glish instructors. Other Middle Eastern and North African countries of- fer more modestly-paid positions. Amideast and the British Council operate in a number of countries pro- viding teaching opportunities in their English language courses. English language is also taught in Iran as the second lan- guage since 6th grade. Mongolia The Peace Corps has 136 volunteers in Mongolia, many of whom are English teachers[19] mostly teaching in the vast rural areas, where the population density is low. In Ulaanbaatar, a modest number of professional NETs teach at private institutes, universities, and some schools. In addition to foreign instructors from the major English- speaking countries, there are Filipinos teaching in Mon- golian schools, institutes and large industrial or mining companies. South Korea There is great demand for native English speakers willing to teach in South Korea, though it is dropping. In 2013, the number of native English speakers teaching in pub- lic schools dropped 7.7% in one year to 7,011.[20] Most of the nation’s provinces are removing foreign English teachers from their middle and high schools. As with Japan, Korea is also nurturing a government-run program for teacher placement called English Program in Korea (EPIK). EPIK reported that it recruited 6,831 foreign teachers to work in Korean public schools. There are a number of associations for English teachers in Korea, the largest one with a significant number of native speakers is KOTESOL. Institutions commonly provide round-trip airfare and a rent-free apartment for a one-year contract. Note that since March 15, 2008, visa rules have changed. Prospec- tive teachers must now undergo a medical examination and a criminal background check, produce an original degree certificate, and provide sealed transcripts. On ar- riving in South Korea, teachers must undergo a further medical check before they receive an ARC (Alien Regis- tration Card) card. Korean labor law provides all workers with a severance pay equivalent to one month’s salary is paid at the end of a contract. Most job contracts are for 1 year and include entrance and exit plane tickets. Citizens of the USA, Canada and Australia[21] also receive back their pension contributions and their employers’ part of the pension contributions on leaving the country. The average start- ing pay for those with no previous teaching experience and no degree in the English language is usually between USD $1,800 to USD $2,200.[22] There are four main places to work in South Ko- rea: universities, private schools, public schools (EPIK), and private language academies (known in South Ko- rea as hagwons). Private language academies (in 2005 there were over thirty thousand such academies teach- ing English[23] ), the most common teaching location in Korea, can be for classes of school children, housewives, university students (often at the university itself), or busi- nesspeople. There are numerous, usually small indepen- dent hagwons but also numerous large chains. Taiwan In Taiwan, most teachers work in cram schools, known locally as bushibans or buxibans. Some are part of chains, like Hess and Kojen. Others operate indepen- dently. Such schools pay around US$2,000 per month. End-of-contract bonuses equivalent to an extra month’s pay are not mandated by law as in South Korea, and are uncommon in Taiwan. Also, under current law it is illegal for foreigners to teach English in pre-schools or kinder- gartens, though it is almost always overlooked by both the schools and the government, thereby making the practice common and accepted. To teach English and live in Tai- wan, you must be a holder of an Alien Resident Card (ARC) which is supplied to passport holders of native
  20. 20. 2.5. SEE ALSO 15 English speaking countries, by hiring schools ARC can- didates must hold a bachelor’s degree from a four-year university, or an accredited. Thailand Thailand has a great demand for native English speakers, and has a ready-made workforce in the form of travel- ers and expatriates attracted by the local lifestyle despite relatively low salaries. Teachers can expect to earn a min- imum starting salary of around 25,000 Baht.[24] Because Thailand prohibits foreigners from most non-skilled and skilled occupations, a high percentage of foreign residents teach English for a living, and are able to stay in the coun- try. There is also a growing demand for Filipino English teachers, as they are often hired for about half the salary of a native speaker. Qualifications for EFL teachers in Thailand have become stricter in the last couple of years, with most schools now requiring a bachelor’s degree plus a 120-hour TEFL course . It is possible to find work with- out a degree in Thailand. However, as a degree makes getting a work permit far easier, to work without a degree is often to work illegally, opening teachers up to exploita- tion by employers.[25] 2.4.3 Americas There has been significant growth in TEFL within the wealthier non-Anglophone countries of North, Central, and South America as well as the Caribbean. In par- ticular, many teachers work in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela. Chile has even made it a na- tional goal to become a bilingual nation within the com- ing years. As proof of its commitment to this goal the Chilean Ministry of Education sponsors English Opens Doors, a program that recruits English speakers to work in Chilean Public High Schools. Costa Rica Costa Rica is a popular choice among EFL teachers in light of the high market demand for English instructors, the stable economic and political atmosphere, and the vi- brant culture. Teaching positions are available through public and private schools, language schools, universi- ties and colleges, and through private tutoring. Language schools typically hire all year round, and teachers of Busi- ness English are also in high demand. There are quality Costa Rica TEFL training courses that offer certification as well as job placement assistance following completion of a course. CEC Classroom building on the National Polytechnic School cam- pus in Quito, Ecuador. Ecuador There is a TEFL course at CEC-EPN, Continuing Edu- cation Center, in English National Polytechnic School in Quito, Ecuador. (In Spanish, Centro de Educación Con- tinua - Escuela Politécnica Nacional). CEC-EPN in Quito, Ecuador • • • • 2.4.4 Africa TEFL in Africa has historically been linked to aid pro- grams such as the US Peace Corps or the multinational Voluntary Service Overseas organization, as well as other aid programs. Most African countries employ bilingual local teachers. Poverty and instability in some African countries has made it difficult to attract foreign teachers. There has been increasing government investment in ed- ucation and a growing private sector. 2.4.5 India Oxford TEFL Kerala {Cochin International Language Academy (CILA)} is the leading TEFL/ TESOL course provider in India. Additional English instruction takes place at levels of public and private schools. 2.5 See also • Applied linguistics
  21. 21. 16 CHAPTER 2. TEACHING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE • English language learning and teaching • Language education • The Learning English Video Project • List of countries by English-speaking population • Second language acquisition • Sociolinguistics • Trinity College London ESOL • Glossary of language teaching terms and ideas • English Opens Doors • Test of English as a Foreign Language known as TOEFL • EF Standard English Test, open-access standardized English assessment tools • Teaching English as a second language • English as a second or foreign language 2.6 References [1] Van Hattum, Ton (2006). “Communicative Approach Rethought”. tonvanhattum.com.br. [2] “The Trend and Challenge for Teaching EFL at Taiwanese Universities”. sagepub.com. [3] Meddings, L and Thornbury, S (2009) Teaching Unplugged: Dogme in English Language Teaching. Peaslake: Delta. [4] Luke, Meddings (2004-03-26). “Throw away your text- books”. The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2009-06-22. [5] “A Guide to TEFL Accreditation”. The Guardian. Re- trieved 23 April 2014. [6] " World TEFL Info, World TEFL Info [7] “Distance learning courses can also be a good introduc- tion, but feedback on your teaching practice is important and most distance courses will not include this, and there- fore will not be acceptable to many teaching institutes.” The British Council [8] http://www.epik.go.kr/contents.do?contentsNo=49& menuNo=278 [9] “Will this TEFL course be accepted or recognized?". es- linsider.com. [10] “TEFL Pay”. Cactus TEFL. Retrieved 2010-05-19. There does however seem to be a basic TEFL LAW, which states that if you're on a full-time contract of 24-26 teaching hours per week, you will have enough money to pay rent in a modest, possibly shared apartment, pay for food, get out and about to explore at weekends, have the odd beer or glass of wine of an evening, and, over the period of your contract, get some money put aside for flights home at Christmas. Generally speaking, you tend to live fairly ba- sically, and what you earn is not usually enough to support partners, family back home or pay back debts or mortgage instalments. In many ways, TEFL can be a bit of a return to your student days, where there is less emphasis on ma- terial 'stuff' and more in being absorbed into the culture of the experience. [11] “TEFL Salary Map”. TEFLicious. Retrieved 2014-04-21. Hover over a country to see average monthly pay and re- quired qualifications. [12] "- ESL Ready”. eslready.com. [13] Teacher Training (TEFL) Frauds, Frank Adamo [14] “Disney English Language Learning Director in China”. GaijinPot Jobs. [15] “TEFL - China TEFL Jobs”. mytefl.net. [16] Dr. Gregory Mavrides (2008). “Travel and Medical Ben- efits for Foreign Teachers in China”. Middle Kingdom Life. [17] “Finding A Safe And Honest Employer or School In China”. eTeachersHub. [18] “About JALT”. jalt.org. [19] Peace Corps. “Mongolia | Asia | Peace Corps”. Peacecorps.gov. Retrieved 2013-08-02. [20] . “Native English teacher head count continues decline- The Korea Herald”. Nwww.koreaherald.com. Retrieved 2013-08-02. [21] Australian Embassy, Republic of Korea: Australia-Korea Social Security Agreement [22] http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED511524.pdf [23] publications.gc.ca (PDF). p. 6 http://publications.gc. ca/collections/collection_2007/ic/Iu44-41-2007E.pdf. Missing or empty |title= (help) [24] “Teach English in Thailand”, With a degree, a respected TEFL qualification and all the relevant paperwork you can expect to earn a starting salary of around 25,000 Baht (US$800) a month but that could be as high as 60,000 (US$1850) depending on your experience and the loca- tion of the school. [25] “Government vs. Private Language Schools in Thailand” Some TEFL certificate providers have started offering res- idential courses in Thailand as a way of ensuring their stu- dents the necessary government-required experience and cultural awareness. 2.7 Further reading • Paul Z. Jambor “Protectionist Measures in Postsec- ondary Ontario (Canada) TESL”, U.S. Department of Education: Educational Resources Information Center, 2012
  22. 22. 2.8. EXTERNAL LINKS 17 • Brandt, C. (2006). Success on your certificate course in English language teaching: A guide to be- coming a teacher in ELT/TESOL. London: Sage. ISBN 1-4129-2059-0, ISBN 978-1-4129-2059-9 • Paul Z. Jambor “The 'Foreign English Teacher' A Necessary 'Danger' in South Korea”, United States of America; Department of Education - Education Resources Information Center, 2010 • Teaching English Abroad, Susan Griffith, Vacation Work Press, Oxford. Many editions. ISBN 1- 85458-352-2, ISBN 978-1-85458-352-9 • Teach English in Italy, Frank Adamo, Lulu.com, Second Edition. ISBN 978-1-4461-9318-1 • English Teacher X Guide to Teaching English Abroad, English Teacher X, Amazon.com and Smashwords.com, 2010 ASIN: B004SOYD70 ISBN 1-4663-3005-8 ISBN 978-1466330054 2.8 External links • Teaching English article on Wikivoyage
  23. 23. Chapter 3 Direct method (education) The direct method of teaching, which is sometimes called the natural method, and is often (but not exclu- sively) used in teaching foreign languages, refrains from using the learners’ native language and uses only the target language. It was established in Germany and France around 1900 and contrasts with the Grammar translation method and other traditional approaches, as well as with C.J.Dodson’s bilingual method. It was adopted by key in- ternational language schools such as Berlitz and Inlingua in the 1970s and many of the language departments of the Foreign Service Institute of the U.S. State Department in 2012.[1] In general, teaching focuses on the development of oral skills.[2] Characteristic features of the direct method are: • teaching concepts and vocabulary through pan- tomiming, real-life objects and other visual mate- rials • teaching grammar by using an inductive approach (i.e. having learners find out rules through the pre- sentation of adequate linguistic forms in the target language) • centrality of spoken language (including a native- like pronunciation) • focus on question-answer patterns 3.1 Definition Direct method is a method of teaching language di- rectly establishing a direct or immediate association be- tween experience and expression,between the English word,phrase or idiom and its meaning through demon- stration, dramatization without the use of the mother tongue[3] 3.2 Aims 1. Direct method aims to build a direct relation be- tween experience and language, word and idea, thought and expression 2. This method intends that students learn how to com- municate in the target language 3. This method is based on the assumption that the learner should experience the new language in the same way as his/her experienced his/her mother tongue[4] 3.3 Essentials of direct method 1. No translation 2. Concepts are taught by means of objects or by nat- ural contexts 3. Oral training helps in reading and writing 4. Grammar are taught indirectly[5] 3.4 Techniques 1. Question answer exercise- the teacher ask questions of any type and the student answer 2. Dictation-the teacher chooses a grade appropriate passage and reads it aloud 3. Reading aloud - the students take turn reading sec- tions of a passage, play or a dialogue aloud 4. Student self - correction- when a student makes a mistake the teacher will offer him/her a second chance by giving a choice 5. Conversion practice- the students are given an op- portunity to ask their own questions to the other stu- dents or to the teacher, because, there is a teacher- learner interaction, as well as learner-learner inter- action 6. Paragraph writing- the students are asked to write a passage in their own words[6] 18
  24. 24. 3.7. DEMERITS OF DIRECT METHOD 19 3.5 Nature of direct method 1. Direct method is also known as natural method, it is developed as a reaction to the translation and gram- mar method and it take you into the domain of En- glish in most natural manner 2. The main objective is to impart perfect command of foreign language, it is the crux of the problem make them think in English in the same manner as in learning of his mother-tongue, in the most natural way 3. it was found that there was very little pupil- participation and the teaching tended to be long,dull and drab nomologue by the teacher[7] 3.6 Merits of direct method 1. Facilitates understanding of language- it helps to understanding of language becomes easier due to the inhibition of the linguistic interferences of the mother tongue . it establishes the direct bond and helps in understanding directly what he hears and reads 2. Improves fluency of the speech- if the student gets fluency of speech it results in easy writing and it tends to improve expression incomes speech and ex- pression in writing, it is the quickest way of learning and expanding vocabulary 3. Aids reading- the reading of language becomes easy and pleasant and helps in promoting a habit of crit- ical study 4. Improves to develop language sense 5. This method is based on full of activity so,it is very interesting, exciting 6. It emphasize on the target language,so it helps the pupil to express their thoughts and feelings directly by the English without the usage of mother tongue 7. LSRW are developed 8. It helps in bringing the words of the passive vocab- ulary into active vocabulary 9. It helps in proceeding the English language from particular to general,it bridges the gap between the practice and the theory 10. It makes use of audio-visual aids and also facilates reading and writing 11. This method facilities alertness and participation of students[8][9] 3.7 Demerits of Direct method 1. This method ignores systematic written work and reading activities 2. This method may not hold well in higher classes where the translation method is found suitable 3. Limited vocabulary- it restricts the scope of vocab- ulary as all words cannot be directly associated with their meanings 4. Lacked application- the method aims at active com- mand of a language, only the clever child can profit by this method 5. Lack of skilled teachers- most of the teachers in In- dian schools themselves have poor command of En- glish. The time allotted to English in the school also is limited 6. This method does not suit or satisfy the needs of in- dividual students in large classes 7. This method is inconvenient in huge class 8. It ignores reading and writing aspects of language learning 9. Grammar are not thought systematically 10. It is time consuming in creating real life situations 11. This method finds difficulty for slow learnersy.[10][11] 3.8 Principles 1. Classroom instructions are conducted exclusively in the target language. 2. Only everyday vocabulary and sentences are taught during the initial phase; grammar, reading and writ- ing are introduced in intermediate phase. 3. Oral communication skills are built up in a carefully graded progression organized around question-and- answer exchanges between teachers and students in small, intensive classes. 4. Grammar is taught inductively. 5. New teaching points are introduced orally. 6. Concrete vocabulary is taught through demonstra- tion, objects, and pictures; abstract vocabulary is taught by association of ideas. 7. Both speech and listening comprehensions are taught. 8. Correct pronunciation and grammar are empha- sized.
  25. 25. 20 CHAPTER 3. DIRECT METHOD (EDUCATION) 9. Student should be speaking approximately 80% of the time during the lesson. 10. Students are taught from inception to ask questions as well as answer them. 3.9 Pedagogy The key Aspects of this method are: I. Introduction of new word, number, alphabet character, sentence or concept (referred to as an Element) : • SHOW...Point to Visual Aid or Gestures (for verbs), to ensure student clearly understands what is being taught. • SAY...Teacher verbally introduces Element, with care and enunciation. • TRY...Student makes various attempts to pronounce new Element. • MOLD...Teacher corrects student if neces- sary, pointing to mouth to show proper shaping of lips, tongue and relationship to teeth. • REPEAT...Student repeats each Element 5- 20 times. NOTE: Teacher should be aware of “high frequency words and verbs” and prioritize teaching for this. (i.e. Teach key verbs such as “To Go” and “To Be” before un- usual verbs like “To Trim” or “To Sail"; likewise, teach Apple and Orange before Prune and Cranberry.) II. Syntax, the correct location of new Element in sen- tence: • SAY & REPEAT...Teacher states a phrase or sentence to student; Student repeats such 5- 20 times. • ASK & REPLY IN NEGATIVE...Teacher uses Element in negative situations (e.g. “Are you the President of the United States?" or “Are you the teacher?"); Students says “No”. If more advanced, may use the negative with “Not”. • INTERROGATIVES Teacher provides in- tuitive examples using 5 “w"s (Who, What, Where, Why, When) or How”. Use random variations to practice. • PRONOUNS WITH VERBS Using visu- als (such as photos or illustrations) or gestures, Teacher covers all pronouns. Use many ran- dom variations such as “Is Ana a woman?" or “Are they from France?" to practice. • USE AND QUESTIONS...Student must choose and utilize the correct Element, as well as posing appropriate questions as Teacher did. III. Progress, from new Element to new Element (within same lesson): A. Random Sequencing: 1. After new Element (X) is taught and learned, go to next Element (Y). 2. After next Element (Y) is taught and learned, return to practice with Element (X). 3. After these two are alternated (X-Y; Y-X; Y-Y, etc), go to 3rd Element (Z). 4. Go back to 1 and 2, mix in 3, practice (X-Y- Z; Z-Y-X; Y-Y-Z, etc.) and continue building up to appropriate number of Elements (may be as many as 20 per lesson, depending on student, see B.1), practicing all possible combinations and repeating 5-20 times each combination. B. Student-Led Limits: 1. Observe student carefully, to know when mental “saturation” point is reached, indicat- ing student should not be taught more Elements until another time. 2. At this point, stop imparting new informa- tion, and simply do Review as follows: C. Review: Keep random, arbitrary sequenc- ing. If appropriate, use visuals, pointing quickly to each. Employ different examples of Element that are easy to understand, changing country/city names, people names, and words student already knows. Keep a list of everything taught, so proper testing may be done. D. Observation and Notation: Teacher should maintain a student list of words/phrases that are most difficult for that student. The list is called “Special Attention List” IV. Progress, from Lesson to Lesson: • LESSON REVIEW The first few minutes of each lesson are to review prior lesson(s). • GLOBAL REVIEW Transition from Les- son Review to a comprehensive review, which should always include items from the Special Attention List. V. Advanced Concepts: • Intermediate and Advanced Students may skip some Element introduction as appropriate; become aware of student’s language abilities, so they are not frustrated by too much review. If Student immediately shows recognition and knowledge, move to next Element. • Non-Standard Alphabets: Teaching Stu- dent to recognize letters/characters and read- ing words should employ same steps as in above
  26. 26. 3.12. SEE ALSO 21 Aspect I. and alphabet variations may be taught using Aspect III. Writing characters and words should initially be done manually, either on pa- per or whiteboard. • Country Accents: Any student at interme- diate stages or higher should be made aware of subtle variations in pronunciation, which de- pend on geography within a country or from country to country. It should be noted that an integral aspect of the Direct Method is varying the setting of teaching; instructors try different scenarios using the same Element. This makes the lessons more “real world,” and it allows for some confusing distractions to the student and employ organic variables common in the culture and locale of language use.[12] 3.10 Conclusion Direct method of teaching English can be applied in the lower classes where less explanatory devise in teaching English is required, the method is good at laying a firm basis for acquiring linguistic habit .however, the direct method of teaching can create problems as sometimes the students fail to follow what is being taught prop- erly,however many teachers did modify the direct method to meet practical requirements of own schools, imple- mented main principles, teaching through oral practice and banning all translation into target language. obvi- ously compromise was needed. direct method did pave the way for more communicative, oral based approach, and as such represented an important step forward in the history of language teaching.[13] 3.11 Historical context The direct method was an answer to the dissatisfac- tion with the older grammar translation method, which teaches students grammar and vocabulary through direct translations and thus focuses on the written language. There was an attempt to set up conditions that imitate mother tongue acquisition, which is why the beginnings of these attempts were called the natural method. At the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries, Sauveur and Franke proposed that language teaching should be undertaken within the target-language system, which was the first stimulus for the rise of the direct method.[14] The audio-lingual method was developed in an attempt to address some of the perceived weaknesses of the direct method. 3.12 See also • Language education • Second language acquisition 3.13 Notes [1] See http://inlingua.com [2] http://www.inlingua-beograd.com/learn_serbian.php? lang=en&web_page_ls=About%20school [3] naik, hemavathi .s. content cum methodlogy of teaching english. sapna book house in2013. p. 68. [4] muthuja, babu. teaching of english (2009 ed.). centrum press. p. 87. [5] teaching of enghlish (2005 ed.). aph publishing corpora- tion. p. 66. |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help) [6] muthuja, babu. teaching of english (2009 ed.). centrum press. p. 87. [7] teaching of enghlish (2005 ed.). aph publishing corpora- tion. p. 66. |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help) [8] muthuja, babu. teaching of english (2009 ed.). centrum press. p. 87. [9] naik, hemavathi .s. content cum methodlogy of teaching english. sapna book house in2013. p. 68. [10] muthuja, babu. teaching of english (2009 ed.). centrum press. p. 87. [11] naik, hemavathi .s. content cum methodlogy of teaching english. sapna book house in2013. p. 68. [12] Société internationale des écoles Inlingua (1999), Inlingua Teacher Manual (3rd Edition), Berne Switzerland. [13] muthuja, babu. teaching of english (2009 ed.). centrum press. p. 87. [14] Chomsky, N. (1975). Reflections on Language. New York: Pantheon Books. 3.14 References • Bussmann, Hadumod (1996), Routledge Dictionary of Language and Linguistics, London/New York, s.v. direct method • Krause, C. A. (1916), The Direct Method in Modern Languages, New York. • Societe Internationale des Ecoles Inlingua (1973), Inlingua English First Book, Berne Switzerland. • Societe Internationale des Ecoles Inlingua (1999), Inlingua Teacher Manual (3rd Edition), Berne Switzerland.
  27. 27. Chapter 4 Grammar-translation method The grammar translation method is a method of teaching foreign languages derived from the classical (sometimes called traditional) method of teaching Greek and Latin. In grammar-translation classes, students learn grammatical rules and then apply those rules by translating sentences between the target language and the native language. Advanced students may be required to translate whole texts word-for-word. The method has two main goals: to enable students to read and translate litera- ture written in the target language, and to further students’ general intellectual development. 4.1 History and philosophy The grammar-translation method originated from the practice of teaching Latin. In the early 1500s, Latin was the most widely-studied foreign language due to its prominence in government, academia, and business. However, during the course of the century the use of Latin dwindled, and it was gradually replaced by English, French, and Italian. After the decline of Latin, the pur- pose of learning it in schools changed. Whereas previ- ously students had learned Latin for the purpose of com- munication, it came to be learned as a purely academic subject. Throughout Europe in the 18th and 19th centuries, the education system was formed primarily around a con- cept called faculty psychology. This theory dictated that the body and mind were separate and the mind consisted of three parts: the will, emotion, and intellect. It was believed that the intellect could be sharpened enough to eventually control the will and emotions. The way to do this was through learning classical literature of the Greeks and Romans, as well as mathematics. Additionally, an adult with such an education was considered mentally pre- pared for the world and its challenges. At first it was believed that teaching modern languages was not useful for the development of mental discipline and thus they were left out of the curriculum. When modern languages did begin to appear in school curric- ula in the 19th century, teachers taught them with the same grammar-translation method as was used for clas- sical Latin and Greek.[1] As a result, textbooks were es- sentially copied for the modern language classroom. In the United States of America, the basic foundations of this method were used in most high school and college foreign language classrooms. 4.2 Principles and goals There are two main goals to grammar-translation classes. One is to develop students’ reading ability to a level where they can read literature in the target language. [2] The other is to develop students’ general mental disci- pline. The users of foreign language wanted simply to note things of their interest in the literature of foreign languages. Therefore, this method focuses on reading and writing and has developed techniques which facili- tate more or less the learning of reading and writing only. As a result, speaking and listening are overlooked. 4.3 Method Grammar-translation classes are usually conducted in the students’ native language. Grammar rules are learned deductively; students learn grammar rules by rote, and then practice the rules by doing grammar drills and trans- lating sentences to and from the target language. More attention is paid to the form of the sentences being trans- lated than to their content. When students reach more advanced levels of achievement, they may translate en- tire texts from the target language. Tests often consist of the translation of classical texts. There is not usually any listening or speaking practice, and very little attention is placed on pronunciation or any communicative aspects of the language. The skill exer- cised is reading, and then only in the context of transla- tion. 4.4 Materials The mainstay of classroom materials for the grammar- translation method is the textbook. Textbooks in the 22
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Aprendizaje Mezclado: Postítulo de Actualización Académica

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