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Social Networks for Managers
Patti Anklam
Willamette University
March 4, 2014
I’ve become convinced that understanding
how networks work is an essential 21st
century literacy.
Howard Rheingold
Agenda
Social Network Analysis
―The language of networks
―Networks in organizations

Overview of Tools and
Technologies

S...
http://www.dftdigest.com/images/Spyglass.jpg

The New Language of Networks
Networks Matter
• We live in networks all the time: communities, organizations, teams
• The complexity of work in today’s
...
Structure Matters
• There is science to support the
understanding of network
structure
• The structure of a network
provid...
The Importance of Understanding Networks

“Teaching executives to see social capital” http://faculty.chicagobooth.edu/rona...
The new science of networks
• Beginning in the 1990’s computer
science made it possible to map and
analyze large social ne...
Meanwhile…
• …by 2013 we started to see a lot of interest in accessing our
public personas to understand networks

“big da...
But it still all comes down to 0s and 1s
Node

• A network is a collection of entities
linked by a type of relationship
• ...
Rob Cross’s Classic Case

From: The Organizational Network Fieldbook, Rob Cross et al, Jossey-Bass 2010

Social Networks f...
A Classic Case

From: The Organizational Network Fieldbook, Rob Cross et al, Jossey-Bass 2010

Social Networks for Manager...
A Classic Case

From: The Organizational Network Fieldbook, Rob Cross et al, Jossey-Bass 2010

Social Networks for Manager...
A Classic Case

From: The Organizational Network Fieldbook, Rob Cross et al, Jossey-Bass 2010

Social Networks for Manager...
A Classic Case

From: The Organizational Network Fieldbook, Rob Cross et al, Jossey-Bass 2010

Social Networks for Manager...
It’s all about Questions

Patterns provide
insights that provoke
good questions.
Full stop.

Social Networks for Managers
...
Network Analysis in Organizations
Why managers should be interested:

Management Practice

Examples (Short List)

Leadersh...
The Crux of the Analysis: The Questions
Problem (Examples)

Relationships of Interest

• Improve collaboration
• Finding c...
The Unit of Analysis: The Relationship

19

Social Networks for Managers
…and the demographics that govern them
• We collect as much information
about the attributes of the
people in the network*...
Different Questions, Different Maps
“I interact with this person somewhat
frequently”

“I understand this person’s knowled...
More Terminology
• Direction
– If ties are directed, it matters which
way they go.

Directed ties

– If it doesn’t matter,...
California Computer
CEO Leers must choose someone to lead a strategic task force.
Leers
CEO

O'Hara
S/W Applications

Cald...
California Computer
CEO Leers must choose someone to lead a strategic task force.
Leers
CEO

O'Hara
S/W Applications

Cald...
Was Harris a Good Choice?
Whom do you
go to for help
or advice?

CEO
Software Applications
Field Design
ICT
Data Control S...
The Question of Trust
Whom would
you trust to
keep in
confidence
your concerns
about a workrelated issue?

26

Social Netw...
The Question of Trust
Whom would
you trust to
keep in
confidence
your concerns
about a workrelated issue?

27

Social Netw...
Network Analysis Also Provides Metrics

Structural Metrics
• Look at the whole network
and its components

Centrality Metr...
Structural Metrics
Look at the whole network and its components
• Common measures:
–Density of interactions
–Average degre...
Interpreting Results
“I interact with this person twice a month
or more”

Density: 11%
Distance: 2.7

I understand this ...
How the Metrics Enhance the Maps
Year

#

Density

2009

55

2.2%

1.2

2010

90

2.7%

2.4

2011

85

5.3%

4.5

2012

82...
Centrality Metrics
Look at positions of individuals in the network
• Common measures:
– Number of connections (degrees)

–...
Identifying Key People
Who are the people who are best positioned to move information through the network?
In-degree: 11
B...
Which Technology Scout is Most Successful?

Social Networks for Managers

It's Whom You Know Not What You Know: A Social N...
The Importance of Diversity

People who live in the intersection of social
worlds are at higher risk of having good ideas....
Detecting Diversity
• Who is more likely to have
access to new ideas?
– Tom

– Marion

• Why?

Social Networks for Manager...
Organizational Interventions
Ways to change patterns in
networks

Practices from the KM Repertoire

Create more connection...
Organizational Networks Summary
• The science of networks has brought insights into the structure
of organizational networ...
http://quilting.about.com/od/picturesofquilts/ig/Alzheimer-s-Quilts/The-Ties-that-Bind.htm

Overview of Tools and Technolo...
Basics of Network Map
Periphery
Isolates

Core

Cluster

Social Networks for Managers

Structural Hole
Map Patterns
Multi-Hub

Hub and Spoke

Stove-piped (Siloed)

Core/Periphery

Social Networks for Managers

41
What Sorts of Tools Are There?

Hands-on Tools

• Range in complexity of
function & cost

Social Media
Graph apps

• Let y...
Mapping and Analysis Tools

Social Networks for Managers
Tool Basics – the Dataset (0s and 1s)
Information about the nodes (vertices) and the ties (edges)

44

Social Networks for...
Load and Draw…1

45

Social Networks for Managers
Load and Draw…2

46

Social Networks for Managers
Load and Draw…3

47

Social Networks for Managers
Short List of Resources for SNA/ONA Tools
http://tinyurl.com/SNA-ONA-Tools

48

Social Networks for Managers
On the Internet, What’s in a Tie?
• Social network platforms:
– A Facebook Friend
– A LinkedIn Connection

– A Twitter Fol...
Networks in Social Media
Analyzing Twitter networks with NodeXL: Broadcast Networks
1.

Krugman tweets a
link to an articl...
Enterprise Networks
Syndio Social Uses SNA to Build Management Dashboards

Highest social capital

Most favorable to chang...
Our Personal Networks
http://inmaps.linkedinlabs.com/

Social Networks for Managers

52
Understanding Your Personal Network
Focus

Purpose

How to Develop

Operational

Getting work done
efficiently

Identify p...
Who’s Connected into Different Parts of My Network?

Social Networks for Managers

54
Facebook

Social Networks for Managers

https://apps.facebook.com/namegenweb/

55
Facebook from NodeXL

Social Networks for Managers

56
The PNA (Personal Network Assessment)

Social Networks for Managers

57
Summary
• Social network analysis tools and methods are available to map
organizational, Internet, enterprise, and an indi...
• patti@pattianklam.com

•http://www.pattianklam.com

Thank you.
Question
59
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Social networks for managers

Revision of Previous Show on SNA and Introduction to Tools
The Language of Networks
Introduction to Social Network Analysis/ Cases
Tools for Analyzing social networks, including graphing Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter networks

Social networks for managers

  1. 1. Social Networks for Managers Patti Anklam Willamette University March 4, 2014
  2. 2. I’ve become convinced that understanding how networks work is an essential 21st century literacy. Howard Rheingold
  3. 3. Agenda Social Network Analysis ―The language of networks ―Networks in organizations Overview of Tools and Technologies Social Networks for Managers 3
  4. 4. http://www.dftdigest.com/images/Spyglass.jpg The New Language of Networks
  5. 5. Networks Matter • We live in networks all the time: communities, organizations, teams • The complexity of work in today’s world is such that no one can understand – let alone complete – a task alone – Individual-individual – Team-team – Company-company – Eco-system to eco-system • Strong networks are correlated with health: – People with stronger personal networks are more productive, happier, and better performers – Companies who know how to manage alliances are more flexible, adaptive and resilient – Our personal health and well-being is often tied to our social networks Social Networks for Managers 5
  6. 6. Structure Matters • There is science to support the understanding of network structure • The structure of a network provides insights into how the network “works” • Once you understand the structure, you can make decisions about how to manage the network’s context • Network analysis tools help you understand the structure 6 Social Networks for Managers
  7. 7. The Importance of Understanding Networks “Teaching executives to see social capital” http://faculty.chicagobooth.edu/ronald.burt/research/files/TESSC.pdf (2006) Social Networks for Managers 7
  8. 8. The new science of networks • Beginning in the 1990’s computer science made it possible to map and analyze large social networks. • Insights became accessible to the public. 2009 2004 2003 2009 2002 2002 2005 2002 Social Networks for Managers • By 2009, network science and analysis are accepted practice in science and management 2004 8
  9. 9. Meanwhile… • …by 2013 we started to see a lot of interest in accessing our public personas to understand networks “big data mindset” Social Networks for Managers 9
  10. 10. But it still all comes down to 0s and 1s Node • A network is a collection of entities linked by a type of relationship • So we can applying network concepts in many contexts: Tie – People-groups-organizations – Use of information artifacts – Ideas & issues 10 Social Networks for Managers
  11. 11. Rob Cross’s Classic Case From: The Organizational Network Fieldbook, Rob Cross et al, Jossey-Bass 2010 Social Networks for Managers 11
  12. 12. A Classic Case From: The Organizational Network Fieldbook, Rob Cross et al, Jossey-Bass 2010 Social Networks for Managers 12
  13. 13. A Classic Case From: The Organizational Network Fieldbook, Rob Cross et al, Jossey-Bass 2010 Social Networks for Managers From: The Hidden Power of Social Networks, Rob Cross and Andrew Parker, Harvard Business School Press, 2004 13
  14. 14. A Classic Case From: The Organizational Network Fieldbook, Rob Cross et al, Jossey-Bass 2010 Social Networks for Managers 14
  15. 15. A Classic Case From: The Organizational Network Fieldbook, Rob Cross et al, Jossey-Bass 2010 Social Networks for Managers 15
  16. 16. It’s all about Questions Patterns provide insights that provoke good questions. Full stop. Social Networks for Managers 16
  17. 17. Network Analysis in Organizations Why managers should be interested: Management Practice Examples (Short List) Leadership Development Personal Leadership Succession Planning Innovation Identify energy sources Bridge boundaries Knowledge management Expertise location Communities of practice Improving information flow Organizational Change and Development Change management Mergers and acquisition Talent Management Positioning people in roles Professional network development Organizational Performance Team building Social Networks for Managers 17
  18. 18. The Crux of the Analysis: The Questions Problem (Examples) Relationships of Interest • Improve collaboration • Finding connectors and influencers in organizations and communities • Leadership development • Performance benchmarking • Integration of units following merger/acquisition • • • • • • • Access to expertise Innovative capacity Collaborative capacity Ease of knowledge flow Decision-making and task flow Innovation potential Energy Shares new ideas with Works closely with Social Networks for Managers Knows expertise of Seeks help for problem-solving
  19. 19. The Unit of Analysis: The Relationship 19 Social Networks for Managers
  20. 20. …and the demographics that govern them • We collect as much information about the attributes of the people in the network* – Organizational unit – Job title/role – Location – Expertise – Job level – Age – Gender *within the bounds of what is legal and appropriate Social Networks for Managers 20
  21. 21. Different Questions, Different Maps “I interact with this person somewhat frequently” “I understand this person’s knowledge and skills “ (Agree or Strongly Agree) 21 Social Networks for Managers
  22. 22. More Terminology • Direction – If ties are directed, it matters which way they go. Directed ties – If it doesn’t matter, they are undirected – When ties are directed, sometimes reciprocity matters • Degree – The number of ties each node has is its degree Undirected ties – If ties are directed, then the node will have an in-degree and an out-degree – If ties are undirected, then the node has simply a degree Social Networks for Managers 22
  23. 23. California Computer CEO Leers must choose someone to lead a strategic task force. Leers CEO O'Hara S/W Applications Calder Field Design Lang ICT Stern Data Control Bair Harris Muller Huttle Stewart Benson Jules Atkins Ruiz Fleming Baker Kibler Church Daven Martin Thomas Lee Zanados Wilson Swinney Huberman Fiola Social Networks for Managers From “Informal Networks: The Company” David Krackhardt and Jeffrey R. Hanson HBR, 1993 23
  24. 24. California Computer CEO Leers must choose someone to lead a strategic task force. Leers CEO O'Hara S/W Applications Calder Field Design Lang ICT Stern Data Control Bair Harris Muller Huttle Stewart Benson Jules Atkins Ruiz Fleming Baker Kibler Church Daven Martin Thomas Lee Zanados Wilson Swinney Huberman Fiola Social Networks for Managers From “Informal Networks: The Company” David Krackhardt and Jeffrey R. Hanson HBR, 1993 24
  25. 25. Was Harris a Good Choice? Whom do you go to for help or advice? CEO Software Applications Field Design ICT Data Control Systems 25 Social Networks for Managers
  26. 26. The Question of Trust Whom would you trust to keep in confidence your concerns about a workrelated issue? 26 Social Networks for Managers
  27. 27. The Question of Trust Whom would you trust to keep in confidence your concerns about a workrelated issue? 27 Social Networks for Managers
  28. 28. Network Analysis Also Provides Metrics Structural Metrics • Look at the whole network and its components Centrality Metrics • Look at positions of individuals in the network 28 Social Networks for Managers
  29. 29. Structural Metrics Look at the whole network and its components • Common measures: –Density of interactions –Average degree of separation –Cross-group or cross-organization connectivity • Good for comparing questions, groups within networks or for comparing changes in a network over time 29 Social Networks for Managers
  30. 30. Interpreting Results “I interact with this person twice a month or more” Density: 11% Distance: 2.7 I understand this person’s knowledge and skills (Agree or Strongly Agree) Density: 28% Distance: 1.8 30 Social Networks for Managers
  31. 31. How the Metrics Enhance the Maps Year # Density 2009 55 2.2% 1.2 2010 90 2.7% 2.4 2011 85 5.3% 4.5 2012 82 8% 6.88 2011 Avg # ties 2010 2009 2012 31 Social Networks for Managers
  32. 32. Centrality Metrics Look at positions of individuals in the network • Common measures: – Number of connections (degrees) – Frequency of occurrence on paths between others – Diversity of connections – Quality of connections • Good for identifying people who are well positioned to influence the network or to move information around  The people with the most connections are not necessarily the most influential! 32 Social Networks for Managers
  33. 33. Identifying Key People Who are the people who are best positioned to move information through the network? In-degree: 11 Betweenness: 469 In-degree: 16 Betweenness: 1125 In-degree: 5 Betweenness: 586 In-degree: 9 Betweenness: 415 Social Networks for Managers 33
  34. 34. Which Technology Scout is Most Successful? Social Networks for Managers It's Whom You Know Not What You Know: A Social Network Analysis Approach to Talent Management, Eoin Whelan, SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1694453 34
  35. 35. The Importance of Diversity People who live in the intersection of social worlds are at higher risk of having good ideas. – Ron Burt Social Networks for Managers 35
  36. 36. Detecting Diversity • Who is more likely to have access to new ideas? – Tom – Marion • Why? Social Networks for Managers 36
  37. 37. Organizational Interventions Ways to change patterns in networks Practices from the KM Repertoire Create more connections Make introductions through meetings and webinars, face-to-face events (like knowledge fairs); implement social software or social network referral software; social network stimulation Increase the flow of knowledge Establish collaborative workspaces, install instant messaging systems, make existing knowledge bases more accessible and usable Discover connections Implement expertise location and/or; discovery systems; social software; social networking applications Decentralize Social software; blogs, wikis; shift knowledge to the edge Connect disconnected clusters Establish knowledge brokering roles; expand communication channels Create more trusted relationships Assign people to work on projects together Alter the behavior of individual nodes Create awareness of the impact of an individual’s place in a network; educate employees on personal knowledge networking Increase diversity Add nodes; connect and create networks; encourage people to bring knowledge in from their networks in the world Social Networks for Managers 37
  38. 38. Organizational Networks Summary • The science of networks has brought insights into the structure of organizational networks • Organizational network analysis lets us map relationships that reveal the informal networks through which work gets done • Developing and sharing these maps helps organizations improve collaborative capacity, overcome obstacles to effective sharing, and redesign their work relationships • Results are a guide to asking good questions and should never be interpreted as an “answer” 38 Social Networks for Managers
  39. 39. http://quilting.about.com/od/picturesofquilts/ig/Alzheimer-s-Quilts/The-Ties-that-Bind.htm Overview of Tools and Technologies
  40. 40. Basics of Network Map Periphery Isolates Core Cluster Social Networks for Managers Structural Hole
  41. 41. Map Patterns Multi-Hub Hub and Spoke Stove-piped (Siloed) Core/Periphery Social Networks for Managers 41
  42. 42. What Sorts of Tools Are There? Hands-on Tools • Range in complexity of function & cost Social Media Graph apps • Let you access and map your own network Enterprise Analytics • High-end measurement & dashboards Specialized assessment instruments • PNA (personal network assessment) tool offers individualized results Social Networks for Managers 42
  43. 43. Mapping and Analysis Tools Social Networks for Managers
  44. 44. Tool Basics – the Dataset (0s and 1s) Information about the nodes (vertices) and the ties (edges) 44 Social Networks for Managers
  45. 45. Load and Draw…1 45 Social Networks for Managers
  46. 46. Load and Draw…2 46 Social Networks for Managers
  47. 47. Load and Draw…3 47 Social Networks for Managers
  48. 48. Short List of Resources for SNA/ONA Tools http://tinyurl.com/SNA-ONA-Tools 48 Social Networks for Managers
  49. 49. On the Internet, What’s in a Tie? • Social network platforms: – A Facebook Friend – A LinkedIn Connection – A Twitter Following • Social media content platforms: – Likes, posts, replies, shares, and uploads – Mentions or “retweet” #hashtags Social Networks for Managers 49
  50. 50. Networks in Social Media Analyzing Twitter networks with NodeXL: Broadcast Networks 1. Krugman tweets a link to an article 2. There are a number of Tweeters who publish links to the article but these are not connected to other Tweeters 3. There are two densely interconnected groups of people who share the link and discuss it http://www.pewinternet.org/2014/02/20/mapping-twitter-topic-networks-from-polarized-crowds-to-community-clusters/ Social Networks for Managers 50
  51. 51. Enterprise Networks Syndio Social Uses SNA to Build Management Dashboards Highest social capital Most favorable to change Social Networks for Managers 51
  52. 52. Our Personal Networks http://inmaps.linkedinlabs.com/ Social Networks for Managers 52
  53. 53. Understanding Your Personal Network Focus Purpose How to Develop Operational Getting work done efficiently Identify people who can block or support a project Personal Develop and maintain professional skills and reputation Participate in professional associations, clubs, and physical and online communities Strategic Figure out and obtain support for future priorities and challenges Identify lateral and vertical relationships outside your immediate control Source: “How Leaders Create and Use Networks,” Herminia Ibarra and Mark Hunter, Harvard Business Review January 2007 Social Networks for Managers 53
  54. 54. Who’s Connected into Different Parts of My Network? Social Networks for Managers 54
  55. 55. Facebook Social Networks for Managers https://apps.facebook.com/namegenweb/ 55
  56. 56. Facebook from NodeXL Social Networks for Managers 56
  57. 57. The PNA (Personal Network Assessment) Social Networks for Managers 57
  58. 58. Summary • Social network analysis tools and methods are available to map organizational, Internet, enterprise, and an individual’s personal network • The tools matter less than the network mindset – and the understanding that the structure of a network matters Social Networks for Managers 58
  59. 59. • patti@pattianklam.com •http://www.pattianklam.com Thank you. Question 59

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