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MRS.PALLAVI CHAUHAN
HEALTH PROMOTION MODEL
INTRODUCTION
 The health promotion model (HPM) proposed by Nola J
Pender (1982; revised, 1996) was designed to be a
“complementary counterpart to models of health protection.”
 It defines health as a positive dynamic state not merely the
absence of disease.
 Health promotion is directed at increasing a client’s level of
wellbeing.
 The health promotion model describes the multi
dimensional nature of persons as they interact within their
environment to pursue health.
 The model focuses on following three areas:
 · Individual characteristics and experiences
 · Behavior-specific cognitions and affect
 · Behavioral outcomes
 The health promotion model notes that each person has
unique personal characteristics and experiences that
affect subsequent actions.
 The set of variables for behavioral specific knowledge
and affect have important motivational significance.
 These variables can be modified through nursing
actions. Health promoting behavior is the desired
behavioral outcome and is the end point in the HPM.
 Health promoting behaviors should result in improved
health, enhanced functional ability and better quality of
life at all stages of development.
 The final behavioral demand is also influenced by the
immediate competing demand and preferences, which
can derail an intended health promoting actions.
ASSUMPTIONS OF THE HEALTH PROMOTION MODEL
 The HPM is based on the following assumptions, which reflect both nursing and
behavioral science perspectives:
 1. Persons seek to create conditions of living through which they can express their
unique human health potential.
 2. Persons have the capacity for reflective self-awareness, including assessment of
their own competencies.
 3. Persons value growth in directions viewed as positive and attempts to achieve a
personally acceptable balance between change and stability.
 4. Individuals seek to actively regulate their own behavior.
 5. Individuals in all their biopsychosocial complexity interact with the environment,
progressively transforming the environment and being transformed over time.
 6. Health professionals constitute a part of the interpersonal environment, which
exerts influence on persons throughout their lifespan.
 7. Self-initiated reconfiguration of person-environment interactive patterns is
essential to behavior change.
 THE MAJOR CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS OF THE HEALTH
PROMOTION MODEL
 Individual Characteristics and Experience
 v PRIOR RELATED BEHAVIOR
 Frequency of the similar behaviour in the past. Direct and indirect
effects on the likelihood of engaging in health promoting behaviors.
 v PERSONAL FACTORS
 Personal factors categorized as biological, psychological and socio-
cultural. These factors are predictive of a given behavior and shaped by
the nature of the target behaviour being considered.
 Personal biological factors
 Include variable such as age gender body mass index pubertal status,
aerobic capacity, strength, agility, or balance.
 Personal psychological factors
 Include variables such as self esteem self motivation personal competence
perceived health status and definition of health.
 Personal socio-cultural factors
 Include variables such as race ethnicity, accuculturation, education and
socioeconomic status.
 Behavioural Specific Cognition and Affect
 v PERCEIVED BENEFITS OF ACTION
 Anticipated positive out comes that will occur from health behaviour.
 v PERCEIVED BARRIERS TO ACTION
 Anticipated, imagined or real blocks and personal costs of understanding a
given behaviour
 v PERCEIVED SELF EFFICACY
 Judgment of personal capability to organise and execute a health-promoting
behaviour. Perceived self efficacy influences perceived barriers to action so
higher efficacy result in lowered perceptions of barriers to the performance of
the behavior.
 v ACTIVITY RELATED AFFECT
 Subjective positive or negative feeling that occur before, during and following
behavior based on the stimulus properties of the behaviour itself. Activity-
related affect influences perceived self-efficacy, which means the more positive
the subjective feeling, the greater the feeling of efficacy. In turn, increased
feelings of efficacy can generate further positive affect.
 v INTERPERSONAL INFLUENCES
 Cognition concerning behaviours, beliefs, or attitudes of the others.
Interpersonal influences include: norms (expectations of significant others),
social support (instrumental and emotional encouragement) and modelling
(vicarious learning through observing others engaged in a particular
behaviour). Primary sources of interpersonal influences are families, peers, and
healthcare providers.
 v SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES

Personal perceptions and cognitions of any given situation or context that can
facilitate or impede behaviour. Include perceptions of options available,
demand characteristics and aesthetic features of the environment in which
given health promoting is proposed to take place. Situational influences may
have direct or indirect influences on health behaviour
 Behavioural Outcome
 v COMMITMENT TO PLAN OF ACTION
 The concept of intention and identification of a planned strategy leads to
implementation of health behaviour.
 v IMMEDIATE COMPETING DEMANDS AND PREFERENCES
 Competing demands are those alternative behaviour over which individuals
have low control because there are environmental contingencies such as work
or family care responsibilities. Competing preferences are alternative behaviour
over which individuals exert relatively high control, such as choice of ice cream
or apple for a snack
 v HEALTH PROMOTING BEHAVIOUR
 Endpoint or action outcome directed toward attaining positive health outcome
such as optimal well-being, personal fulfillment, and productive living.
Health promotion model
Health promotion model

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Health promotion model

  • 2. HEALTH PROMOTION MODEL INTRODUCTION  The health promotion model (HPM) proposed by Nola J Pender (1982; revised, 1996) was designed to be a “complementary counterpart to models of health protection.”  It defines health as a positive dynamic state not merely the absence of disease.  Health promotion is directed at increasing a client’s level of wellbeing.  The health promotion model describes the multi dimensional nature of persons as they interact within their environment to pursue health.  The model focuses on following three areas:  · Individual characteristics and experiences  · Behavior-specific cognitions and affect  · Behavioral outcomes
  • 3.  The health promotion model notes that each person has unique personal characteristics and experiences that affect subsequent actions.  The set of variables for behavioral specific knowledge and affect have important motivational significance.  These variables can be modified through nursing actions. Health promoting behavior is the desired behavioral outcome and is the end point in the HPM.  Health promoting behaviors should result in improved health, enhanced functional ability and better quality of life at all stages of development.  The final behavioral demand is also influenced by the immediate competing demand and preferences, which can derail an intended health promoting actions.
  • 4.
  • 5. ASSUMPTIONS OF THE HEALTH PROMOTION MODEL  The HPM is based on the following assumptions, which reflect both nursing and behavioral science perspectives:  1. Persons seek to create conditions of living through which they can express their unique human health potential.  2. Persons have the capacity for reflective self-awareness, including assessment of their own competencies.  3. Persons value growth in directions viewed as positive and attempts to achieve a personally acceptable balance between change and stability.  4. Individuals seek to actively regulate their own behavior.  5. Individuals in all their biopsychosocial complexity interact with the environment, progressively transforming the environment and being transformed over time.  6. Health professionals constitute a part of the interpersonal environment, which exerts influence on persons throughout their lifespan.  7. Self-initiated reconfiguration of person-environment interactive patterns is essential to behavior change.
  • 6.  THE MAJOR CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS OF THE HEALTH PROMOTION MODEL  Individual Characteristics and Experience  v PRIOR RELATED BEHAVIOR  Frequency of the similar behaviour in the past. Direct and indirect effects on the likelihood of engaging in health promoting behaviors.  v PERSONAL FACTORS  Personal factors categorized as biological, psychological and socio- cultural. These factors are predictive of a given behavior and shaped by the nature of the target behaviour being considered.  Personal biological factors  Include variable such as age gender body mass index pubertal status, aerobic capacity, strength, agility, or balance.
  • 7.  Personal psychological factors  Include variables such as self esteem self motivation personal competence perceived health status and definition of health.  Personal socio-cultural factors  Include variables such as race ethnicity, accuculturation, education and socioeconomic status.  Behavioural Specific Cognition and Affect  v PERCEIVED BENEFITS OF ACTION  Anticipated positive out comes that will occur from health behaviour.  v PERCEIVED BARRIERS TO ACTION  Anticipated, imagined or real blocks and personal costs of understanding a given behaviour  v PERCEIVED SELF EFFICACY  Judgment of personal capability to organise and execute a health-promoting behaviour. Perceived self efficacy influences perceived barriers to action so higher efficacy result in lowered perceptions of barriers to the performance of the behavior.
  • 8.  v ACTIVITY RELATED AFFECT  Subjective positive or negative feeling that occur before, during and following behavior based on the stimulus properties of the behaviour itself. Activity- related affect influences perceived self-efficacy, which means the more positive the subjective feeling, the greater the feeling of efficacy. In turn, increased feelings of efficacy can generate further positive affect.  v INTERPERSONAL INFLUENCES  Cognition concerning behaviours, beliefs, or attitudes of the others. Interpersonal influences include: norms (expectations of significant others), social support (instrumental and emotional encouragement) and modelling (vicarious learning through observing others engaged in a particular behaviour). Primary sources of interpersonal influences are families, peers, and healthcare providers.  v SITUATIONAL INFLUENCES  Personal perceptions and cognitions of any given situation or context that can facilitate or impede behaviour. Include perceptions of options available, demand characteristics and aesthetic features of the environment in which given health promoting is proposed to take place. Situational influences may have direct or indirect influences on health behaviour
  • 9.  Behavioural Outcome  v COMMITMENT TO PLAN OF ACTION  The concept of intention and identification of a planned strategy leads to implementation of health behaviour.  v IMMEDIATE COMPETING DEMANDS AND PREFERENCES  Competing demands are those alternative behaviour over which individuals have low control because there are environmental contingencies such as work or family care responsibilities. Competing preferences are alternative behaviour over which individuals exert relatively high control, such as choice of ice cream or apple for a snack  v HEALTH PROMOTING BEHAVIOUR  Endpoint or action outcome directed toward attaining positive health outcome such as optimal well-being, personal fulfillment, and productive living.