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ANATOMY AND
PHYSIOLOGY OF FEMALE
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY:
DR. MS. PALLAVI PATHANIA MINAKSHI RANA
ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR M.SC. NURSING 1ST YEAR
SHIMLA NURSING COLLEGE SHIMLA NURSING COLLEGE
INDEX:
SR.NO. CONTENT
1) INTRODUCTION
2) DEFINITION
3) PARTS OF FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
4) FUNCTION OF FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
INDEX: contd..
5) REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE
6) MENOPAUSE
7) BREASTS
INTRODUCTION:
 The female reproductive system is made up of the
internal and external sex organs that function in
reproduction of new offspring.
 In humans, the female reproductive system is
mature at birth and develops to maturity at
puberty to be able to produce the gametes, and to
carry a fetus to full terms.
DEFINITION:
 The female reproductive system is
the set of organs and the hormonal
signals they send and receive, which
are responsible for ovulation,
implantation, pregnancy, and delivery.
PARTS OF FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE
SYSTEM:
 The female reproductive system comprises of parts which
are both internal and external to the body.
a) External
genitalia
b) Internal
genitalia
a) EXTERNAL GENITALIA:
 The external genitalia are known collectively as the vulva, and
consist of the:
1) Labia majora 2) Labia minora
Contd..
3) Clitoris
4) Vestibule
glands (
Bartholin’s gland)
5) Hymen
1) Labia majora:
 These are two large folds forming the
boundary of the vulva.
 They are composed of skin, fibrous
tissue and fat and contain large
numbers of sebaceous gland.
Contd..
 Anterior the folds join in front of the
symphysis pubis, and posteriorly they
merge with the skin of the perineum.
 After puberty, hair grows on the mons
pubis and on the lateral surface of the
labia majora.
2) Labia minora:
 The labia minora are smaller folds (forchette)
of skin that lie inside the labia majora.
 Contains no hair follicles or sweat glands.
 The folds contain connective tissues,
numerous sebaceous gland, erectile muscle
fibers and numerous vessels and nerve endings
Contd..
 surround the openings to the vagina
(the canal that joins the lower part of
the uterus to the outside of the body)
and urethra (the tube that carries
urine from the bladder to the outside
of the body).
3) Clitoris
 It is small cylindrical erectile body.
 Measuring about 1.5 to 2cm.
 The clitoris is covered by a fold of skin,
called the prepuce, richly supplied with
nerves.
 The clitoris is very sensitive to stimulation
and can become erect.
4) Hymen:
 The hymen is a thin layer of mucous
membrane that partially occludes the
opening of the vagina.
 It is normally incomplete to allow for
passages of menstrual flow and is stretched
torn away by sexual intercourse, insertion of
a tampon or childbirth.
4) Vestibular gland:
 The vestibular glands (Bartholin’s glands) are
situated one on each side near the vaginal
opening.
 They are about the size of a small pea and their
ducts open into the vestibule immediately lateral
to the attachment of the hymen.
 They secrete mucus that keeps the vulva moist.
BLOOD SUPPLY, LYMPH DRAINAGE
AND NERVE SUPPLY:
Arterial supply: This is by branches
from the internal pudendal arteries
that branch from the internal iliac
arteries and by external pudendal
arteries that branch from the femoral
arteries.
Contd..
Venous drainage: This forms a large plexus
which eventually drains into the internal iliac
veins.
Lymph drainage: This is through the superficial
inguinal nodes.
Nerve supply: This is by branches from
pudendal nerve.
Perineum:
 The perineum is a roughly triangular area
extending from the base of the labia minora to
the anal canal.
 It consists of connective tissue, muscle and fat.
 It gives attachment to the muscle of the pelvic
floor.
FUNCTION OF THE EXTERNAL
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE
STRUCTURES:
 To enable sperm to enter the body.
 Protect the internal genital organs from
infectious organisms.
ANSWER THE FOLLOWING
QUESTIONS:
1. Define female reproductive system.
2. Enlist the parts of external genitalia.
3. What are the function of the external female
reproductive structures.
ASSIGNMENT:
 Draw neat labelled diagram of external genitalia.
b) INTERNAL GENITALIA:
 The internal organs of the female reproductive
system lie in the pelvic cavity and consist of:
1) Vagina
2) Uterus
Contd..
3) Two uterine tube
4) Two ovaries
1) Vagina
 The vagina is a fibromuscular tube
lined with stratified squamous
epithelium opening into the vestibule
at its distal end, and with the uterine
cervix protruding into its proximal
end.
Contd..
 It runs obliquely upward and backward at an
angle of about 45 degree between the bladder in
front and rectum and anus behind.
 In the adult, the anterior wall is about 7.5 cm
long and the posterior wall about 9 cm long.
 The difference is due to the angle of insertion of
the cervix through the anterior wall.
STRUCTURE OF THE VAGINA:
 The vaginal wall has three layers: an outer
covering of areolar tissue, middle layer of
smooth muscle and an inner lining of
stratified squamous epithelium that forms
ridges or rugae.
 It has no secretory glands but the surface is
kept moist by cervical secreation.
Contd..
 Between puberty and the menopause,
lactobacillus acidophilus, bacteria that secrete
lactic acid, are normally present maintaining
the pH between 4.9 and 3.5.
 The acidity inhibits the growth of most other
micro- organism that may enter the vagina
from the perineum or during sexual
intercourse.
BLOOD SUPPLY, LYMPH DRAINAGE
AND NERVE SUPPLY:
Arterial supply: an arterial plexus is
formed round the vagina, derived from the
uterine and vaginal arteries, which are
branches of the internal iliac arteries.
Venous drainage: a venous plexus, situated
in the muscular wall, drains into the internal
iliac veins.
Contd..
Lymph drainage: this is through the deep
and superficial iliac glands.
Nerve supply: this consists of
parasympathetic fibers from the sacral
outflow, sympathetic fibers from the lumber
outflow and somatic sensory fibers from the
pudendal nerves.
FUNCTION OF VAGINA:
 The vagina acts as the receptable
for the penis during sexual
intercourse (coitus), and provides
an elastic passageway through
which the baby passes during
childbirth.
2) Uterus:
 The uterus is a hollow muscular pear-
shaped organ, flattened
anteroposteriorly.
 It lies in the pelvic cavity between the
urinary bladder and the rectum.
Contd..
 In the most women, it leans forward,
and is bent forward almost at right
angles to the vagina, so that its anterior
wall rests partly against the bladder
below, forming the vesicouterine pouch
between the two organs.
Contd..
 When the body is upright, the uterus lies in
an almost horizontal position.
 It is about 7.5 cm long, 5 cm wide and its
walls are about 2.5 cm thick.
 It weighs between 30 and 40 grams.
 The parts of the uterus are the fundus, body
and cervix.
Contd..
A) Fundus: This is the dome shaped part of the uterus
above the opening of the uterine tubes.
B) Body: This is the main part. It is narrowest
inferiorly at the internal os where it is continuous with
the cervix.
C) Cervix (neck of the uterus): this protrudes through
the anterior wall of the vagina, opening into it at the
external os.
LAYERS OF UTERUS :
 The wall of the uterus are composed
of three layers of tissue:
a) Perimetrium
b) Myometrium
c) endometrium
a) Perimetrium:
 The perimetrium which is distributed
differently on the various surfaces of
the uterus.
 Anteriorly it lies over the fundus and
the body where it is folded on to the
upper surface of the urinary bladder.
 This folds of peritoneum forms the
vesticouterine pouch.
Contd..
 Posteriorly the peritoneum covers the
fundus, the body and the cervix, then it folds
back on to the rectum to form the
rectouterine pouch.
 Laterally, only the fundus is covered because
the peritoneum forms a double fold with the
uterine tubes in the upper free border.
Contd..
 This double fold is the broad
ligament, which, at its lateral
ends. Attaches the uterus to
the sides of the pelvis.
b) Myometrium:
 This is the thickest layer of tissue
in the uterine wall. It is a mass of
smooth muscle fibers interlaced
with areolar tissue, blood vessels
and nerves.
c) Endometrium:
 This consists of columnar epithelium covering
a layer of connective tissue containing a large
number of mucus secreting tubular glands.
 It is richly supplied with blood by spiral
arteries, branches of the uterine artery.
 It is divided functionally into two layers:
Contd..
 The functional layer is the upper
layer and it thickens and become
rich in blood vessels in the first half
of the menstrual cycle.
 If the ovum is not fertilized and does
not implant, this layer is shed during
menstruation.
Contd..
 The basal layer lies next to the
myometrium, and is not lost during
menstruation.
 It is the layer from which the fresh
functional layer is regenerated during
each cycle.
BLOOD SUPPLY , LYMPH DRAINAGE
AND NERVE SUPPLY:
Arterial supply: This is by the uterine arteries,
branches of the internal iliac arteries.
 They pass up the lateral aspects of the uterus
between the two layers of the broad ligaments.
 They supply the uterus and uterine tubes and
join with the ovarian arteries to supply the
ovaries.
Contd..
Venous drainage: The veins follow the same
route as the arteries and eventually drain onto the
internal iliac veins.
Lymph drainage: deep and superficial lymph
vessels drain lymph from the uterus and the
uterine tubes to the aortic lymph nodes and groups
of nodes associated with the iliac blood vessels.
Contd..
Nerve supply: The nerve supplying the
uterus and the uterine tubes consist of
parasympathetic fibers from the sacral
outflow and sympathetic fibers from the
lumbar outflow.
FUNCTIONS OF THE UTERUS:
 Uterus accept a fertilized ovum which becomes
implanted into the endometrium, and derives
nourishment from blood vessels which develop
exclusively for this purpose.
 It provide mechanical protection's to help
prevent physical damage to the fetus.
 It provide nutritional support, helping the fetus
gain the nutrients it needs for proper growth.
ANSWER THE FOLLOWING
QUESTIONS:
1.Enlist the parts of internal genitalia.
2.What are the layers of uterus.
3.What are the functions of the uterus.
ASSIGNMENT:
 Draw neat labelled diagram of uterus.
3) UTERINE TUBE:
 The uterine( fallopian) tubes are about 10 cm
long and extend from the sides of the uterus
between the body and the fundus.
 They lie in the upper free border of the broad
ligament and their trumpet shaped lateral ends
penetrated the posterior wall, opening into the
peritoneal cavity to the ovaries.
Contd..
 The end of each tube has fingerlike
projection called fimbriae.
 The longest of these is the ovarian
fimbria, which is in close association
with the ovary.
STRUCTURE:
 The uterine tubes are covered with
peritoneum (broad ligament), have a
middle layer of smooth muscle and are
lined with ciliated epithelium.
 Blood and nerve supply and lymphatic
drainage are as for the uterus.
FUNCTIONS:
 The uterine tubes propel the ovum from the ovary
to the uterus by peristalsis and ciliary movements.
 The secreation of the uterine tube nourish both
ovum and spermatozoa.
 Fertilization of the ovum usually takes place in the
uterine tube, and the zygote is propelled into the
uterus for implantation.
4) OVARIES:
 The ovaries are the female gonads, and they lie in a
shallow fossa on the lateral walls of the pelvis.
 They are 2.5-3.5 cm long, 2 cm wide and 1 cm thick.
 Each is attached to the upper part of the uterus by the
ovarian ligament and to the back of the broad ligament
by a broad band of tissue, the mesovarium. Blood
vessels and nerves pass to the ovary through the
mesovarium.
STRUCTURE:
 The ovaries have two layers of tissue.
Medulla: This lies in the centre and consists
of fibrous tissue, blood vessels and nerves.
Cortex: This surrounds the medulla.
 It has a framework of connective tissue, or
stroma, covered by germinal epithelium.
Contd..
 It contains ovarian follicles in various
stages of maturity, each of which contains an
ovum.
 Before puberty the ovaries are inactive but
the stroma already contains immature
follicles, which the female has from birth.
Contd..
 During the child bearing years, about every
28 days, one or more ovarian follicle (
graafian follicle) matures, ruptures and
release its ovum into the peritoneal cavity.
 This is called ovulation and it occurs
during most menstrual cycles.
BLOOD SUPPLY, LYMPH DRAINAGE
AND NERVE SUPPLY:
Arterial supply: this is by the ovarian arteries,
which branch form the abdominal aorta just
below the renal arteries.
Venous drainage: this is into a plexus of veins
behind the uterus from which the ovarian veins
arise.
Contd..
 The right ovarian vein opens into the
inferior vena cava and the left into
the left renal vein.
Lymph drainage: this is to the lateral
aortic and preaortic lymph nodes. The
lymph vessels follow the same route as
the arteries.
Contd..
Nerve supply: the ovaries are supplied
by parasympathetic nerves from the
sacral outflow and sympathetic nerves
from the lumber outflow.
FUNCTIONS:
 The ovary is the organ in which the female
gametes are stored and develop prior to
ovulation.
 Their maturation is controlled by the
hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary
gland, which release gonadotrophins (FSH,
LH),both of which act on the ovary.
Contd..
 In addition, the ovary has endocrine
functions, and release hormones
essentials to the physiological
changes during the reproductive
cycles.
FUNCTION OF FEMALE
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM:
a) Formation of ova
b) Reception of
spermatozoa
c) Parturition (childbirth)
Contd..
d) Provision of suitable
environments for fertilization
and fetal development
e) lactation, the production of
breast milk, which provides
complete nourishment for the
baby in its early life
THE REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE:
 This is a series of events, occurring regularly in
female every 26 to 30 days through out the
childbearing period between menarche and
menopause.
 The cycle consists of a series of changes taking
place concurrently in the ovaries and uterine
lining, stimulated by changes in blood
concentration of hormones.
Contd..
 The hypothalamus secretes luteinizing
hormone releasing hormone, which
stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete:
o Follicle stimulating hormone(FSH), which
promotes the maturation of ovarian follicles
and the secretion of oestrogen, leading to
ovulation.
Contd..
o FSH is therefore predominantly active in
the first half of the cycle.
o Its secretion is suppressed once ovulation
has taken place, to prevent other follicles
maturing during the current cycle.
Contd..
o Luteinising hormone (LH), which
triggers ovulation, stimulates the
development of the corpus luteum
and the secretion of progesterone.
Contd..
 The hypothalamus responds to change in the
blood levels of oestrogen and progesterone.
 It is stimulated by high levels of oestrogen
alone (as happens in the first half of the cycle)
but suppressed by oestrogen and progesterone
together (as happen in the second half of the
cycle).
Contd..
 The average length of the cycle is about 28 days.
 By convention the day of the cycle are
numbered from the beginning of the menstrual
phase, which usually lasts about 4 days.
 This is followed by the proliferative phase
(approximately 10 days), then by the secretory
phase ( about 12 days).
1) Menstrual phase:
 When the ovum in not fertilized, the
corpus luteum start to degenerate.(in the
events of pregnancy, the corpus luteum is
supported by human chorionic
gonadotrophin (hCG) secreted by the
developing embryo).
Contd..
 Progesterone and oestrogen levels
therefore fall, and the functional
layer of the endometrium, which is
dependent on high levels of these
ovarian hormones, is shed in
menstruation.
Contd..
 The menstrual flow consists of the
secretions from endometrial glands,
endometrial cells, blood from the
degenerating capillaries and the
unfertilized ovum.
Contd..
 During the menstrual phase, levels of oestrogen
and progesterone are very low because the corpus
luteum that had been active during the second half
of the precious cycle has degenerated.
 This mean the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary
can resume their cyclical activity, and levels of
FSH begin to rise, initiating a new cycle.
ANSWER THE FOLLOWING
QUESTION:
1. What are the functions of ovary.
2. What are the functions of female reproductive
system.
ASSIGNMENT:
 Draw neat labelled diagram of ovary.
2) Proliferative phase:
 At this stage an ovarian follicle,
stimulated by FSH, is growing toward
maturity and is producing oestrogen,
which stimulates proliferation of the
functional layer of the endometrium in
preparation for the reception of a
fertilized ovum.
Contd..
 The endometrium thickness, becoming very
vascular and rich in mucus – secreting glands.
 Rising level of oestrogen are responsible for
triggering a surge if LH approximately mid
cycle.
 This LH surge triggers ovulation, marking the
end of the proliferative phase.
3) Secretory phase:
 After ovulation, LH from the anterior
pituitary stimulates development of
the corpus luteum from the ruptured
follicle, which produces
progesterone, some oestrogen, and
inhibin.
Contd..
 Under the influence of progesterone, the
endometrium become oedematous and the
secretory glands produce increased amounts of
watery mucus.
 This assist the passage of the spermatozoa
through the uterus to the uterine tubes where
the ovum is usually fertilized.
Contd..
 There is a similar increase in secretion
of watery mucus by the glands of the
uterine tubes and by cervical glands that
lubricate the vagina.
 The ovum may survive in a fertilsable
form for a very short time after
ovulation, probably as little as 8 hours.
Contd..
 The spermatozoa, deposited in the vagina
during intercourse, may be capable of
fertilizing the ovum for only about 24 hours
although they can survive for several days.
 This mean that the period in each cycle
during which fertilization can occur is
relatively short.
Contd..
 Observable changes in the woman’s body occur
around the time of ovulations.
 Cervical mucus, normally thick and dry,
becomes thin, elastic and watery, and body
temperature rises by about 1 degree C
immediately following ovulations.
Contd..
 Some women's experiences abdominal
discomfort in the middle of the cycle,
thought to correspond to rupture of the
follicle and release of its contents into
the abdominal cavity.
Contd..
 After ovulation, the combination of
progesterone, oestrogen and inhibin from the
corpus luteum suppress the hypothalamus and
anterior pituitary, so FHS and LH levels fall.
 Low FHS levels in the second half of the cycle
prevent further follicular development in case a
pregnancy results from the current cycle.
Contd..
 If the ovum is not fertilized, falling LH levels
leads to degeneration and death of the corpus
luteum, which is dependent on LH for survival.
 The resultant steady decline in circulating
oestrogen, progesterone and inhibin leads to
degeneration of the uterine lining and
menstruation, with the initiation of a new cycle.
Contd..
 If the ovum is fertilized there is no breakdown
of the endometrium and no menstruation.
 The fertilized ovum travels through the uterine
tube to the uterus where it become embedded
in the wall and produce human chorionic
gonadotrophin, which is similar to anterior
pituitary luteinizing hormone.
Contd..
 This hormone keeps the corpus luteum intact,
enabling it to continue secreting progesterone and
oestrogen for the first 3-4 months of the
pregnancy, inhibiting the maturation of further
ovarian follicles.
 During that time the placenta develops and
produces oestrogen, progesterone and
gonadotrophin.
MENOPAUSE:
 The ceasing of menstruation is known as
menopause.
 The menopause usually occurs between the ages
of 45 and 55 years, marking the end of the
childbearing period.
Contd..
 The ovaries gradually become less responsive
to FHS and LH, and ovulation and the
menstrual cycle become irregular, eventually
ceasing.
 Several other phenomena may occur at the
same time, including:
 Shrinkage of the breast
Contd..
 Axillary and pubic hair become sparse
 Atrophy of the sex hormone
 Episodes of uncharacteristic behaviour,
e.g. irritability, mood changes
 Gradual thinning of skin.
BREASTS:
 Either of the two soft, protruding
organs on the upper front of a
woman’s body which secrete milk
after birth is known as breast.
 They exist also in the male, but in
only a rudimentary form.
STRUCTURE:
 The mammary glands or breast consist
of varying amounts of glandular tissue,
responsible for milk production,
supported by fatty tissue and fibrous
connective tissue that anchor the breast
to the chest wall.
Contd..
 Each breast contains about 20 lobes,
each of which contains a number of
glandular structure called lobules, where
milk is produced.
 Lobules open into tiny lactiferous ducts,
which drain milk toward the nipple.
Contd..
 Supporting fatty and connective tissue
run through the breast, surrounding the
lobules, and the breast itself is covered
in subcutaneous fat.
 In the lactating breast, glandular tissue
proliferates to support milk production,
and recedes again after lactation stops.
THE NIPPLE:
 This is a small conical eminence at the
centre of the breast surrounded by a
pigmented area, the areola.
 On the surface of the areola are numerous
sebaceous glands, which lubricate the nipple
during lactations.
FUNCTIONS:
 In the female, the breasts are small and
immature until puberty.
 Thereafter they grow and develop under
the influence of oestrogen and
progesterone.
 During pregnancy these hormone
stimulate further growth.
Contd..
 After the baby is born the hormone
prolactin from the anterior pituitary
stimulates the production of milk, and
oxytocin from the posterior pituitary
stimulates the release of milk in response
to the stimulation of the nipple by the
sucking.
CONCLUSION:
 The reproductive organ in female are those which
concerned with copulation, fertilization, growth
and development of fetus and its subsequent exit
to the outer ward. The female reproductive system
functions to produce gametes and reproductive
hormones.
SUMMARY:
RECAPITALIZATION:
 Enlist the phases of reproductive cycle.
 What are the functions of female reproductive
system.
 Enlist the parts of external genitalia.
BIBLIOGRAPHY:
 Wilson and Ross. A textbook of Anatomy & Physiology
in health and illness: Elsevier publisher; 12th edition. Page
no. 462- 471
 www.slideshare.com. On viewed> 25/05/2020 P.
JEYANTHI
Anatomy and Physiology of Female reproductive system.

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Anatomy and Physiology of Female reproductive system.

  • 1. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY: DR. MS. PALLAVI PATHANIA MINAKSHI RANA ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR M.SC. NURSING 1ST YEAR SHIMLA NURSING COLLEGE SHIMLA NURSING COLLEGE
  • 2. INDEX: SR.NO. CONTENT 1) INTRODUCTION 2) DEFINITION 3) PARTS OF FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 4) FUNCTION OF FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
  • 3. INDEX: contd.. 5) REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE 6) MENOPAUSE 7) BREASTS
  • 4.
  • 5. INTRODUCTION:  The female reproductive system is made up of the internal and external sex organs that function in reproduction of new offspring.  In humans, the female reproductive system is mature at birth and develops to maturity at puberty to be able to produce the gametes, and to carry a fetus to full terms.
  • 6. DEFINITION:  The female reproductive system is the set of organs and the hormonal signals they send and receive, which are responsible for ovulation, implantation, pregnancy, and delivery.
  • 7. PARTS OF FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM:  The female reproductive system comprises of parts which are both internal and external to the body. a) External genitalia b) Internal genitalia
  • 8. a) EXTERNAL GENITALIA:  The external genitalia are known collectively as the vulva, and consist of the: 1) Labia majora 2) Labia minora
  • 9. Contd.. 3) Clitoris 4) Vestibule glands ( Bartholin’s gland) 5) Hymen
  • 10. 1) Labia majora:  These are two large folds forming the boundary of the vulva.  They are composed of skin, fibrous tissue and fat and contain large numbers of sebaceous gland.
  • 11. Contd..  Anterior the folds join in front of the symphysis pubis, and posteriorly they merge with the skin of the perineum.  After puberty, hair grows on the mons pubis and on the lateral surface of the labia majora.
  • 12. 2) Labia minora:  The labia minora are smaller folds (forchette) of skin that lie inside the labia majora.  Contains no hair follicles or sweat glands.  The folds contain connective tissues, numerous sebaceous gland, erectile muscle fibers and numerous vessels and nerve endings
  • 13. Contd..  surround the openings to the vagina (the canal that joins the lower part of the uterus to the outside of the body) and urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body).
  • 14. 3) Clitoris  It is small cylindrical erectile body.  Measuring about 1.5 to 2cm.  The clitoris is covered by a fold of skin, called the prepuce, richly supplied with nerves.  The clitoris is very sensitive to stimulation and can become erect.
  • 15. 4) Hymen:  The hymen is a thin layer of mucous membrane that partially occludes the opening of the vagina.  It is normally incomplete to allow for passages of menstrual flow and is stretched torn away by sexual intercourse, insertion of a tampon or childbirth.
  • 16. 4) Vestibular gland:  The vestibular glands (Bartholin’s glands) are situated one on each side near the vaginal opening.  They are about the size of a small pea and their ducts open into the vestibule immediately lateral to the attachment of the hymen.  They secrete mucus that keeps the vulva moist.
  • 17. BLOOD SUPPLY, LYMPH DRAINAGE AND NERVE SUPPLY: Arterial supply: This is by branches from the internal pudendal arteries that branch from the internal iliac arteries and by external pudendal arteries that branch from the femoral arteries.
  • 18. Contd.. Venous drainage: This forms a large plexus which eventually drains into the internal iliac veins. Lymph drainage: This is through the superficial inguinal nodes. Nerve supply: This is by branches from pudendal nerve.
  • 19. Perineum:  The perineum is a roughly triangular area extending from the base of the labia minora to the anal canal.  It consists of connective tissue, muscle and fat.  It gives attachment to the muscle of the pelvic floor.
  • 20. FUNCTION OF THE EXTERNAL FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE STRUCTURES:  To enable sperm to enter the body.  Protect the internal genital organs from infectious organisms.
  • 21. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: 1. Define female reproductive system. 2. Enlist the parts of external genitalia. 3. What are the function of the external female reproductive structures.
  • 22. ASSIGNMENT:  Draw neat labelled diagram of external genitalia.
  • 23. b) INTERNAL GENITALIA:  The internal organs of the female reproductive system lie in the pelvic cavity and consist of: 1) Vagina 2) Uterus
  • 24. Contd.. 3) Two uterine tube 4) Two ovaries
  • 25. 1) Vagina  The vagina is a fibromuscular tube lined with stratified squamous epithelium opening into the vestibule at its distal end, and with the uterine cervix protruding into its proximal end.
  • 26. Contd..  It runs obliquely upward and backward at an angle of about 45 degree between the bladder in front and rectum and anus behind.  In the adult, the anterior wall is about 7.5 cm long and the posterior wall about 9 cm long.  The difference is due to the angle of insertion of the cervix through the anterior wall.
  • 27. STRUCTURE OF THE VAGINA:  The vaginal wall has three layers: an outer covering of areolar tissue, middle layer of smooth muscle and an inner lining of stratified squamous epithelium that forms ridges or rugae.  It has no secretory glands but the surface is kept moist by cervical secreation.
  • 28. Contd..  Between puberty and the menopause, lactobacillus acidophilus, bacteria that secrete lactic acid, are normally present maintaining the pH between 4.9 and 3.5.  The acidity inhibits the growth of most other micro- organism that may enter the vagina from the perineum or during sexual intercourse.
  • 29. BLOOD SUPPLY, LYMPH DRAINAGE AND NERVE SUPPLY: Arterial supply: an arterial plexus is formed round the vagina, derived from the uterine and vaginal arteries, which are branches of the internal iliac arteries. Venous drainage: a venous plexus, situated in the muscular wall, drains into the internal iliac veins.
  • 30. Contd.. Lymph drainage: this is through the deep and superficial iliac glands. Nerve supply: this consists of parasympathetic fibers from the sacral outflow, sympathetic fibers from the lumber outflow and somatic sensory fibers from the pudendal nerves.
  • 31. FUNCTION OF VAGINA:  The vagina acts as the receptable for the penis during sexual intercourse (coitus), and provides an elastic passageway through which the baby passes during childbirth.
  • 32.
  • 33. 2) Uterus:  The uterus is a hollow muscular pear- shaped organ, flattened anteroposteriorly.  It lies in the pelvic cavity between the urinary bladder and the rectum.
  • 34. Contd..  In the most women, it leans forward, and is bent forward almost at right angles to the vagina, so that its anterior wall rests partly against the bladder below, forming the vesicouterine pouch between the two organs.
  • 35. Contd..  When the body is upright, the uterus lies in an almost horizontal position.  It is about 7.5 cm long, 5 cm wide and its walls are about 2.5 cm thick.  It weighs between 30 and 40 grams.  The parts of the uterus are the fundus, body and cervix.
  • 36. Contd.. A) Fundus: This is the dome shaped part of the uterus above the opening of the uterine tubes. B) Body: This is the main part. It is narrowest inferiorly at the internal os where it is continuous with the cervix. C) Cervix (neck of the uterus): this protrudes through the anterior wall of the vagina, opening into it at the external os.
  • 37. LAYERS OF UTERUS :  The wall of the uterus are composed of three layers of tissue: a) Perimetrium b) Myometrium c) endometrium
  • 38. a) Perimetrium:  The perimetrium which is distributed differently on the various surfaces of the uterus.  Anteriorly it lies over the fundus and the body where it is folded on to the upper surface of the urinary bladder.  This folds of peritoneum forms the vesticouterine pouch.
  • 39. Contd..  Posteriorly the peritoneum covers the fundus, the body and the cervix, then it folds back on to the rectum to form the rectouterine pouch.  Laterally, only the fundus is covered because the peritoneum forms a double fold with the uterine tubes in the upper free border.
  • 40. Contd..  This double fold is the broad ligament, which, at its lateral ends. Attaches the uterus to the sides of the pelvis.
  • 41. b) Myometrium:  This is the thickest layer of tissue in the uterine wall. It is a mass of smooth muscle fibers interlaced with areolar tissue, blood vessels and nerves.
  • 42. c) Endometrium:  This consists of columnar epithelium covering a layer of connective tissue containing a large number of mucus secreting tubular glands.  It is richly supplied with blood by spiral arteries, branches of the uterine artery.  It is divided functionally into two layers:
  • 43. Contd..  The functional layer is the upper layer and it thickens and become rich in blood vessels in the first half of the menstrual cycle.  If the ovum is not fertilized and does not implant, this layer is shed during menstruation.
  • 44. Contd..  The basal layer lies next to the myometrium, and is not lost during menstruation.  It is the layer from which the fresh functional layer is regenerated during each cycle.
  • 45. BLOOD SUPPLY , LYMPH DRAINAGE AND NERVE SUPPLY: Arterial supply: This is by the uterine arteries, branches of the internal iliac arteries.  They pass up the lateral aspects of the uterus between the two layers of the broad ligaments.  They supply the uterus and uterine tubes and join with the ovarian arteries to supply the ovaries.
  • 46. Contd.. Venous drainage: The veins follow the same route as the arteries and eventually drain onto the internal iliac veins. Lymph drainage: deep and superficial lymph vessels drain lymph from the uterus and the uterine tubes to the aortic lymph nodes and groups of nodes associated with the iliac blood vessels.
  • 47. Contd.. Nerve supply: The nerve supplying the uterus and the uterine tubes consist of parasympathetic fibers from the sacral outflow and sympathetic fibers from the lumbar outflow.
  • 48. FUNCTIONS OF THE UTERUS:  Uterus accept a fertilized ovum which becomes implanted into the endometrium, and derives nourishment from blood vessels which develop exclusively for this purpose.  It provide mechanical protection's to help prevent physical damage to the fetus.  It provide nutritional support, helping the fetus gain the nutrients it needs for proper growth.
  • 49. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: 1.Enlist the parts of internal genitalia. 2.What are the layers of uterus. 3.What are the functions of the uterus.
  • 50. ASSIGNMENT:  Draw neat labelled diagram of uterus.
  • 51. 3) UTERINE TUBE:  The uterine( fallopian) tubes are about 10 cm long and extend from the sides of the uterus between the body and the fundus.  They lie in the upper free border of the broad ligament and their trumpet shaped lateral ends penetrated the posterior wall, opening into the peritoneal cavity to the ovaries.
  • 52. Contd..  The end of each tube has fingerlike projection called fimbriae.  The longest of these is the ovarian fimbria, which is in close association with the ovary.
  • 53. STRUCTURE:  The uterine tubes are covered with peritoneum (broad ligament), have a middle layer of smooth muscle and are lined with ciliated epithelium.  Blood and nerve supply and lymphatic drainage are as for the uterus.
  • 54. FUNCTIONS:  The uterine tubes propel the ovum from the ovary to the uterus by peristalsis and ciliary movements.  The secreation of the uterine tube nourish both ovum and spermatozoa.  Fertilization of the ovum usually takes place in the uterine tube, and the zygote is propelled into the uterus for implantation.
  • 55. 4) OVARIES:  The ovaries are the female gonads, and they lie in a shallow fossa on the lateral walls of the pelvis.  They are 2.5-3.5 cm long, 2 cm wide and 1 cm thick.  Each is attached to the upper part of the uterus by the ovarian ligament and to the back of the broad ligament by a broad band of tissue, the mesovarium. Blood vessels and nerves pass to the ovary through the mesovarium.
  • 56. STRUCTURE:  The ovaries have two layers of tissue. Medulla: This lies in the centre and consists of fibrous tissue, blood vessels and nerves. Cortex: This surrounds the medulla.  It has a framework of connective tissue, or stroma, covered by germinal epithelium.
  • 57. Contd..  It contains ovarian follicles in various stages of maturity, each of which contains an ovum.  Before puberty the ovaries are inactive but the stroma already contains immature follicles, which the female has from birth.
  • 58. Contd..  During the child bearing years, about every 28 days, one or more ovarian follicle ( graafian follicle) matures, ruptures and release its ovum into the peritoneal cavity.  This is called ovulation and it occurs during most menstrual cycles.
  • 59. BLOOD SUPPLY, LYMPH DRAINAGE AND NERVE SUPPLY: Arterial supply: this is by the ovarian arteries, which branch form the abdominal aorta just below the renal arteries. Venous drainage: this is into a plexus of veins behind the uterus from which the ovarian veins arise.
  • 60. Contd..  The right ovarian vein opens into the inferior vena cava and the left into the left renal vein. Lymph drainage: this is to the lateral aortic and preaortic lymph nodes. The lymph vessels follow the same route as the arteries.
  • 61. Contd.. Nerve supply: the ovaries are supplied by parasympathetic nerves from the sacral outflow and sympathetic nerves from the lumber outflow.
  • 62. FUNCTIONS:  The ovary is the organ in which the female gametes are stored and develop prior to ovulation.  Their maturation is controlled by the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary gland, which release gonadotrophins (FSH, LH),both of which act on the ovary.
  • 63. Contd..  In addition, the ovary has endocrine functions, and release hormones essentials to the physiological changes during the reproductive cycles.
  • 64. FUNCTION OF FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM: a) Formation of ova b) Reception of spermatozoa c) Parturition (childbirth)
  • 65. Contd.. d) Provision of suitable environments for fertilization and fetal development e) lactation, the production of breast milk, which provides complete nourishment for the baby in its early life
  • 66. THE REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE:  This is a series of events, occurring regularly in female every 26 to 30 days through out the childbearing period between menarche and menopause.  The cycle consists of a series of changes taking place concurrently in the ovaries and uterine lining, stimulated by changes in blood concentration of hormones.
  • 67. Contd..  The hypothalamus secretes luteinizing hormone releasing hormone, which stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete: o Follicle stimulating hormone(FSH), which promotes the maturation of ovarian follicles and the secretion of oestrogen, leading to ovulation.
  • 68. Contd.. o FSH is therefore predominantly active in the first half of the cycle. o Its secretion is suppressed once ovulation has taken place, to prevent other follicles maturing during the current cycle.
  • 69. Contd.. o Luteinising hormone (LH), which triggers ovulation, stimulates the development of the corpus luteum and the secretion of progesterone.
  • 70. Contd..  The hypothalamus responds to change in the blood levels of oestrogen and progesterone.  It is stimulated by high levels of oestrogen alone (as happens in the first half of the cycle) but suppressed by oestrogen and progesterone together (as happen in the second half of the cycle).
  • 71. Contd..  The average length of the cycle is about 28 days.  By convention the day of the cycle are numbered from the beginning of the menstrual phase, which usually lasts about 4 days.  This is followed by the proliferative phase (approximately 10 days), then by the secretory phase ( about 12 days).
  • 72. 1) Menstrual phase:  When the ovum in not fertilized, the corpus luteum start to degenerate.(in the events of pregnancy, the corpus luteum is supported by human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) secreted by the developing embryo).
  • 73. Contd..  Progesterone and oestrogen levels therefore fall, and the functional layer of the endometrium, which is dependent on high levels of these ovarian hormones, is shed in menstruation.
  • 74. Contd..  The menstrual flow consists of the secretions from endometrial glands, endometrial cells, blood from the degenerating capillaries and the unfertilized ovum.
  • 75. Contd..  During the menstrual phase, levels of oestrogen and progesterone are very low because the corpus luteum that had been active during the second half of the precious cycle has degenerated.  This mean the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary can resume their cyclical activity, and levels of FSH begin to rise, initiating a new cycle.
  • 76. ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTION: 1. What are the functions of ovary. 2. What are the functions of female reproductive system.
  • 77. ASSIGNMENT:  Draw neat labelled diagram of ovary.
  • 78. 2) Proliferative phase:  At this stage an ovarian follicle, stimulated by FSH, is growing toward maturity and is producing oestrogen, which stimulates proliferation of the functional layer of the endometrium in preparation for the reception of a fertilized ovum.
  • 79. Contd..  The endometrium thickness, becoming very vascular and rich in mucus – secreting glands.  Rising level of oestrogen are responsible for triggering a surge if LH approximately mid cycle.  This LH surge triggers ovulation, marking the end of the proliferative phase.
  • 80. 3) Secretory phase:  After ovulation, LH from the anterior pituitary stimulates development of the corpus luteum from the ruptured follicle, which produces progesterone, some oestrogen, and inhibin.
  • 81. Contd..  Under the influence of progesterone, the endometrium become oedematous and the secretory glands produce increased amounts of watery mucus.  This assist the passage of the spermatozoa through the uterus to the uterine tubes where the ovum is usually fertilized.
  • 82. Contd..  There is a similar increase in secretion of watery mucus by the glands of the uterine tubes and by cervical glands that lubricate the vagina.  The ovum may survive in a fertilsable form for a very short time after ovulation, probably as little as 8 hours.
  • 83. Contd..  The spermatozoa, deposited in the vagina during intercourse, may be capable of fertilizing the ovum for only about 24 hours although they can survive for several days.  This mean that the period in each cycle during which fertilization can occur is relatively short.
  • 84. Contd..  Observable changes in the woman’s body occur around the time of ovulations.  Cervical mucus, normally thick and dry, becomes thin, elastic and watery, and body temperature rises by about 1 degree C immediately following ovulations.
  • 85. Contd..  Some women's experiences abdominal discomfort in the middle of the cycle, thought to correspond to rupture of the follicle and release of its contents into the abdominal cavity.
  • 86. Contd..  After ovulation, the combination of progesterone, oestrogen and inhibin from the corpus luteum suppress the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary, so FHS and LH levels fall.  Low FHS levels in the second half of the cycle prevent further follicular development in case a pregnancy results from the current cycle.
  • 87. Contd..  If the ovum is not fertilized, falling LH levels leads to degeneration and death of the corpus luteum, which is dependent on LH for survival.  The resultant steady decline in circulating oestrogen, progesterone and inhibin leads to degeneration of the uterine lining and menstruation, with the initiation of a new cycle.
  • 88. Contd..  If the ovum is fertilized there is no breakdown of the endometrium and no menstruation.  The fertilized ovum travels through the uterine tube to the uterus where it become embedded in the wall and produce human chorionic gonadotrophin, which is similar to anterior pituitary luteinizing hormone.
  • 89. Contd..  This hormone keeps the corpus luteum intact, enabling it to continue secreting progesterone and oestrogen for the first 3-4 months of the pregnancy, inhibiting the maturation of further ovarian follicles.  During that time the placenta develops and produces oestrogen, progesterone and gonadotrophin.
  • 90. MENOPAUSE:  The ceasing of menstruation is known as menopause.  The menopause usually occurs between the ages of 45 and 55 years, marking the end of the childbearing period.
  • 91. Contd..  The ovaries gradually become less responsive to FHS and LH, and ovulation and the menstrual cycle become irregular, eventually ceasing.  Several other phenomena may occur at the same time, including:  Shrinkage of the breast
  • 92. Contd..  Axillary and pubic hair become sparse  Atrophy of the sex hormone  Episodes of uncharacteristic behaviour, e.g. irritability, mood changes  Gradual thinning of skin.
  • 93. BREASTS:  Either of the two soft, protruding organs on the upper front of a woman’s body which secrete milk after birth is known as breast.  They exist also in the male, but in only a rudimentary form.
  • 94. STRUCTURE:  The mammary glands or breast consist of varying amounts of glandular tissue, responsible for milk production, supported by fatty tissue and fibrous connective tissue that anchor the breast to the chest wall.
  • 95. Contd..  Each breast contains about 20 lobes, each of which contains a number of glandular structure called lobules, where milk is produced.  Lobules open into tiny lactiferous ducts, which drain milk toward the nipple.
  • 96. Contd..  Supporting fatty and connective tissue run through the breast, surrounding the lobules, and the breast itself is covered in subcutaneous fat.  In the lactating breast, glandular tissue proliferates to support milk production, and recedes again after lactation stops.
  • 97. THE NIPPLE:  This is a small conical eminence at the centre of the breast surrounded by a pigmented area, the areola.  On the surface of the areola are numerous sebaceous glands, which lubricate the nipple during lactations.
  • 98. FUNCTIONS:  In the female, the breasts are small and immature until puberty.  Thereafter they grow and develop under the influence of oestrogen and progesterone.  During pregnancy these hormone stimulate further growth.
  • 99. Contd..  After the baby is born the hormone prolactin from the anterior pituitary stimulates the production of milk, and oxytocin from the posterior pituitary stimulates the release of milk in response to the stimulation of the nipple by the sucking.
  • 100. CONCLUSION:  The reproductive organ in female are those which concerned with copulation, fertilization, growth and development of fetus and its subsequent exit to the outer ward. The female reproductive system functions to produce gametes and reproductive hormones.
  • 102.
  • 103. RECAPITALIZATION:  Enlist the phases of reproductive cycle.  What are the functions of female reproductive system.  Enlist the parts of external genitalia.
  • 104. BIBLIOGRAPHY:  Wilson and Ross. A textbook of Anatomy & Physiology in health and illness: Elsevier publisher; 12th edition. Page no. 462- 471  www.slideshare.com. On viewed> 25/05/2020 P. JEYANTHI