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PACE-IT, Security+3.7: Overview of Security Assessment Tools

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CompTIA exam study guide presentations by instructor Brian Ferrill, PACE-IT (Progressive, Accelerated Certifications for Employment in Information Technology)

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PACE-IT, Security+3.7: Overview of Security Assessment Tools

  1. 1. Overview of security assessment tools.
  2. 2. Page 2 Instructor, PACE-IT Program – Edmonds Community College Areas of Expertise Industry Certifications  PC Hardware  Network Administration  IT Project Management  Network Design  User Training  IT Troubleshooting Qualifications Summary Education  M.B.A., IT Management, Western Governor’s University  B.S., IT Security, Western Governor’s University Entrepreneur, executive leader, and proven manger with 10+ years of experience turning complex issues into efficient and effective solutions. Strengths include developing and mentoring diverse workforces, improving processes, analyzing business needs and creating the solutions required— with a focus on technology.
  3. 3. Page 3 PACE-IT. – Types of security assessments. – Assessment tools.
  4. 4. Page 4 Overview of security assessment tools.
  5. 5. Page 5 Security assessments are a necessity, but they will not do any good if the results are misinterpreted. It is vital that the personnel conducting the security assessments understand how to do them properly (e.g., using the correct tool for the correct job) or the results may not be accurate. This could lead to an unknown weakness in the security of an organization. Just as important as using the proper tools, is properly interpreting the results. A misinterpretation of the results can lead to an incorrect conclusion on the security posture of the organization. Because of this, it is crucial that security assessments be conducted with the correct tools and that the results be properly interpreted. Overview of security assessment tools.
  6. 6. Page 6 Overview of security assessment tools. – Assessment types. » Risk assessments or risk analysis: identifying all risks to all assets within an organization and determining how those threats will be treated. • The usual steps include: identifying assets, identifying threats against assets, prioritizing the threats, and determining how threats will be treated (handled). » Threat assessments: identifying the individual threats to individual assets within an organization. They are conducted as part of the risk assessment process. • Assets may have more than one threat present. » Vulnerability assessments: the process of identifying any weaknesses that may be present in the configuration of computing systems, network appliances, and networks. • Most vulnerability assessments are conducted automatically using special software tools called vulnerability scanners. • Most vulnerability scanners take a passive approach to the assessment; they are not attacking the system, only trying to identify possible weaknesses in the configuration.
  7. 7. Page 7 Overview of security assessment tools. – Assessment techniques. » Baseline reporting: using a baseline—how the system operates under normal conditions—after an incident has occurred to help determine what may be causing system issues. » Code review: having a security tester review and analyze application code developed by in-house programmers before deploying an application. » Attack surface review: having a security expert review all of the software and services (the attack surfaces) that are running on any system. • The goal is to remove any unnecessary software or services to reduce the attack surfaces that are present. » Architecture review: a review of the underlying structure (architecture) to ensure that all applications and services operate in the correct manner (e.g., determining that an application does not have access to kernel code). » Design review: a careful review of systems and solutions from a security point of view. • Should be done before implementation—secure by design. • Should be conducted after implementation—to ensure that what was requested (designed) was actually implemented.
  8. 8. Page 8 Overview of security assessment tools.
  9. 9. Page 9 Overview of security assessment tools. – Protocol analyzer (packet sniffer). » A tool that will passively collect information that is traversing the network. It can be used to determine what systems and processes are in operation. • One goal, when used for security purposes, is to determine if sensitive information is being transmitted in clear text. – Port scanner. » A tool that will actively scan the network for the status of ports. • One goal, when used for security purposes, is to determine if any vulnerable ports are open (easy to exploit), so they can be closed. – Vulnerability scanner. » A tool that is similar to the port scanner, but is actively searching the system for known vulnerabilities. » It will not only check for open ports, but it will also verify configurations and patch levels. • It checks the scan results against a database of known vulnerabilities.
  10. 10. Page 10 Overview of security assessment tools. – Banner grabbing. » Often used in conjunction with a port scan or vulnerability scan type assessment. • When used with either the port or vulnerability scan, it will return what software (and which version of it) is operating on the open port. • The information returned can be used to determine if the open port truly represents a security issue. – Honeypots and honeynets. » A computing system or network established with the sole purpose of attracting any hackers who breach the network. • They have a high level of auditing in place in order to help determine how the hacker entered the system and any actions that the hacker engaged in while in the system. • The actual assessment of the results of hacked honeypots/honeynets is used to further harden the legitimate system.
  11. 11. Page 11 Some assessment tools are passive and some are active. It is important to know which are which. Passive assessment tools are used to collect information on the network (or system) but do not actually attempt to exploit any weaknesses. Active assessment tools do the same thing, but then probe the vulnerabilities to actively determine if they can be exploited. Using an active assessment tool without explicit permission from the organization being examined can lead to being prosecuted. Active assessments are, in actuality, a form of hacking—which, of course, is an illegal activity. Overview of security assessment tools.
  12. 12. Page 12 Overview of security assessment tools. When conducting a security assessment, it is vital that security experts understand what type of assessment to conduct and how to interpret the results, or the assessment may not be valid. The different types of security assessments include: risk, threat, and vulnerability assessments. Assessment techniques include: baseline reporting, code review, attack surface review, architecture review, and design review. Topic Types of security assessments. Summary There are different tools available to security experts that can be used when conducting a security assessment. Some of those tools include: packet analyzers, port scanners, vulnerability scanners, banner grabbing applications, and honeypots and honeynets. It is important to know the difference between passive and active assessment tools. Using an active assessment tool without proper authorization could lead to the security expert being prosecuted. Assessment tools.
  13. 13. Page 13 THANK YOU!
  14. 14. This workforce solution was 100 percent funded by a $3 million grant awarded by the U.S. Department of Labor's Employment and Training Administration. The solution was created by the grantee and does not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Labor. The Department of Labor makes no guarantees, warranties, or assurances of any kind, express or implied, with respect to such information, including any information on linked sites and including, but not limited to, accuracy of the information or its completeness, timeliness, usefulness, adequacy, continued availability or ownership. Funded by the Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration, Grant #TC-23745-12-60-A-53. PACE-IT is an equal opportunity employer/program and auxiliary aids and services are available upon request to individuals with disabilities. For those that are hearing impaired, a video phone is available at the Services for Students with Disabilities (SSD) office in Mountlake Terrace Hall 159. Check www.edcc.edu/ssd for office hours. Call 425.354.3113 on a video phone for more information about the PACE-IT program. For any additional special accommodations needed, call the SSD office at 425.640.1814. Edmonds Community College does not discriminate on the basis of race; color; religion; national origin; sex; disability; sexual orientation; age; citizenship, marital, or veteran status; or genetic information in its programs and activities.