BAYELSA STATE
 ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT

AND DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

       (BY - SEEDS)
FOREWORD

Bayelsa State Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (BY-SEEDS),
like the National Economic Empowerment S...
TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                         Page
Forward
Preface
Executive Summary

PART O...
PART FOUR
KEFORMING GOVERNMENT AND ITS INSTITUTIONS

4.1     The Public Sector in the State
4.1.2   PoliticaYCivil Service...
PREFACE
Bayelsa State Economic Empowerment and Development Suategy (BY-SEEDS) is
our home-grown mustard SEEDS planted for ...
In conjunction with UNICEF project team and desk officers, the Ministry which
coordinates UNICEF activities visited many c...
Special thanks go to His Excellency, Chief DSP Alamieyesigha, the Executive
Governor of Bayelsa State, whose financial, ma...
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Despite the concerted efforts in the past five years to improve the standards of
living, the developmen...
projects and programmes. A key target of BY-SEEDS is to reduce government
expenditure by at least 20 per cent by the year ...
Concerted efforts will be made to enable small and medium-sized enterprises
(SMEs) to overcome their financial, technologi...
between annual budgets, rolling plans and the perspective plan the thereby
      minimize plan distortions. However, plan ...
moral rectitude, respect for elders and good traditional values and culture; equity
and care for the weak, destitute and v...
1.2    BAYELSA STATE DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES

Bayelsa State, created out of the old Rivers State on October 1, 1996 by Gene...
Bayelsa State is rich in natural resources which include mineral deposits - crude
oil, gas, gravels, sand, ceramic clay; f...
Achieve higher levels of self-sufficiency in food production and other agro-
       based raw materials.
   0   Relevant E...
BY-SEEDS has not left out the ways to seek and see the Kingdom of God so that
all other things, include good health, prosp...
science and technology-oriented citizenry, well equipped with appropriate
machinery, skills and entrepreneurship.

The mai...
would have driven the brave Bayelsans guarding their oil wealth to drown in their
oil wells or in the Atlantic Ocean and t...
MORAL AND SPIRITUAL DEVELOPMENT

The role of religion and morality must be examined in a development strategy that
will be...
in religious promiscuity by seek;& a w o r in prayer houses and church gathering
in periods of serious crises.

This lack ...
The love of money and power appears to be the root of most evils. Nations and
individuals that climb through crude and cru...
income in the Niger Delta region was below the country's average of US$280.
Similarly, health indicators are low, lagging ...
aud determine the extent and distribution of poverty among the population.
Therefore, poverty will prevail until effective...
The DSP Scheme will also give matching grants to individuals and communities
that embark on real self or community develop...
enrolment of 27,203 and 730 teachers; one Technical College with 84 students and
8 teachers; 4 craft centers and 3 schools...
Ineffective school inspection and evaluative feedback due to poor transport
    and conlmunication facilities and the resu...
reclaim and develop swampy building sites, and frequent repairs of building and
equipment damaged by flood and erosion.

2...
Ensure that 80 per cent of educational institutions at all levels have
        conducive teaching and learning environment...
Establish a Technical College of Education
      Appoint only qualified and experienced educationists as Chairmen and
    ...
four doctors who were on specialist training, the State Government recently sent
twenty-two (22) Medical Doctors for Post ...
Production and circulation of fake drugs
    Lack of accurate vital and other basic health statistics needed for effective...
2.2.2         SOME SOCIAL HEALTH INDICATORS IN
              BAYELSA STATE, 2004

        Infant mortality rate 1 1511,000...
Provide primary health care facilities for 20 per cent under-served
      communities by 2007
      Provision of accessibi...
Appraise and expand the Bayelsa Health Service Scheme to cover more
        areas and facilities
   w    Provide appropria...
2.2.7         PROBLEMS AND CONSTRAINTS

Bayelsa State still faces the following problems despite efforts already made in t...
Ensure full and easy access to anti-retroviral drugs by 2007.

2.2.9         IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES

The State will ado...
Commissioners and Judges Estate comprising 50 luxurious duplexes,
       (30No.) 3-bedroom bungalows and (l5No.) Service q...
Provision, survey and layout preparation of land in Twon Brass for the
       construction of 5,000 housing units by IKI C...
2.3.4         TARGETS AND STRATEGIES

The following strategies will be adopted to achieve the above objectives:

        E...
By May 1999, the Board had rehabilitated the Yenagoa Waterworks and other
schemes in the State capital. Water facilities i...
The high iron content is caused by natural geological processes.
   * Indiscriminate installation of boreholes without ass...
The completion of on-going water schemes in both the urban and rural areas
        Encourage public-private partnership su...
Introduction of safe sanitation technology
        Provision of pipes sewerage systems that are separate from storm water
...
2.5.1         ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

The environmental problems facing Bayelsa include:

        Costal and marine erosio...
infrastructural development. Yenagoa Master Plan was produced in 2003 to guide
the orderly development of the State Capita...
2.5.3            IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES

To achieve the above targets, the government will:

   0    Formulate state en...
INFORMATION, CULTURE AND TOURISM

In a young state like Bayelsa, the need to modernize and organize properly the
informati...
Bayelsa State Broadcasting Corporation (BSBC) popularly called the Glory
         FM (Radio Bayelsa)
         Bayelsa Stat...
Improved hnding and provision of essential infrastructural facilities
        Showcasing the abundant wealth of the state ...
WOMEN. YOUTH AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

Social development addresses issues and problems which enhance access to
resources, t...
Bayelsa State Seeds
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Bayelsa State Seeds

  1. 1. BAYELSA STATE ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT AND DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY (BY - SEEDS)
  2. 2. FOREWORD Bayelsa State Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (BY-SEEDS), like the National Economic Empowerment Strategy (NEEDS), is aimed at laying a solid foundation for sustainable poverty reduction, employment generation, wealth creation and value re-orientation. Poverty is a riivaging economic and social phenomenon that manifests in the inability to acquire the basic necessities of life needed for a decent living, in low self-esteem, in dependency syndrome, and in the absence of the means of self-actualization. We have made modest socio-economic progress in the past five years and will leave no stone unturned to turnaround the economy of the state. BY-SEEDS is the State's Medium -Term (2005-07) Plan for prosperity. It is driven by a vision that aims to make poverty in the State a thing of the past. The Government aims to make reforms and in the process empower the people and the private sector, which is currently very weak, to create jobs and generate wealth. It is expected that greater discipline, accountability and transparency would attend Government business, and that systems, structures and procedures, would be put in place to ensure greater value for money. The value re-orientation imperatives of BY-SEEDS would aim to enthrone truthfulness, righteousness, holiness, hardwork, loyalty, integrity, probity, self-reliance, justice, discipline and respect for constituted authority and elders. The preparation of BY-SEEDS witnessed an unprecedented level of consultation across various stakeholders in the State to guarantee acceptability. Therefore, all concerned must assert ownership and jealously guide the implementation of the Strategy, monitoring and evaluation of BY-SEEDS. We would also encourage the Local Goveminents in the State to rise up t the challenge of preparing the L c l o oa Government Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (LEEDS) to complement the effoiis of the State in auaining a thoroligh going, hoiistic and rapid development of the state. Wc believe tha the resolve of all of us and the supporl and guidance of God, our concened and coileciive efloiis to build a bmer and just Bayelsa State will be c r o w d ibh S M ~ S S .
  3. 3. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Forward Preface Executive Summary PART ONE BACKGROUND AND IMACRO-ECONOMICFRAMEWORK 1.1 Planning in Nigeria and Bayelsa State 1.2 Bayelsa State Development Challenges 1.3 The Ultimate Objectives and Priorities of BY-SEEDS 1.4 The Vision, Values and Mission 1.5 Moral and Spiritual Development 1.6 Unemployment, Inequality and Poverty Reduction 1.6.2 DSP Economic Empowerment Scheme PART TWO HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENTIEMPOWERING PEOPLE 2.1 Education 72 Health . 2.3 Housing 2.4 Water Supply and Sanitation 3.5 Environmental Planning and Protection 3.6 Information, Culture and Tourism 2.7 Women, Youth and Social Development 2.8 Infornlation and Communication Technology (ICT) PART THREE GROWiXG THE PRIVATE SECTOR
  4. 4. PART FOUR KEFORMING GOVERNMENT AND ITS INSTITUTIONS 4.1 The Public Sector in the State 4.1.2 PoliticaYCivil Service Reforms 4.1.3 Public/Civil Service Reforms 4.2 Budgetary Reforms 4.3 Due Process 4.4 Public Debt Management 4.5 Security, Peace and Justice 4.6 Managing Confiict PART FIVE PLAN FINANCING AND IMPLEMENTATION 5.0 FINANCING THE PLAN 5.1 Sources of Funding 5.1.2 Federation Account 5.1.3 Internally Generated Revenue 5.1.6 Eliminati~ig Wastehl Expenditure 5.1.7 Loadcapital Market 5.1.8 External Financing 5-19 Publiflrivate Partnership 5.2 PLAN IMPLEMENTATION 5.2.2 Independent Monitoring and Implementation Committee 5.2.5 Internal and Public Progress ReportsReviews 5.2.10Communication Strategy 5.2.1 1 Conclusion APPENDIX 1- Bayelsa State 2005 Capital Expenditure
  5. 5. PREFACE Bayelsa State Economic Empowerment and Development Suategy (BY-SEEDS) is our home-grown mustard SEEDS planted for the growth, development, peace and prosperity of Bayelsa State. BY-SEEDS sees development as improvement in the material, physical, mental, moral and spirituai quality of life resulting from rising real incomes and wealth, the reduction of poverty, unemployment, unjustified inequalities and injustice; the provision of better food, housing, health, education, and security of life and property; high self-esteem, self-respect, self-confidence and self-reliance; increased keedom of choice and ability to determine one's own destiny or self-determination. Self-reliance is the healthy confidence in one's own abilities and efforts to achieve one's set objectives without depending on others. No independent nation or state can claim to be h e if it is exploited and dominated by others and does not have the power to determine its own destiny. In a globalizing world village, increasing interdependence among countries and states is inevitable. But interdependence becomes dependence, domination, oppression, marginalization and internal colonialism when a State is almost totally dependent on external factors to meet most of its basic needs. Despite the inequalities and disparities in the distribution of power, wealth, r e s o w . and status, Bayelsans will take the bull by the horns and pull themselves up by thzir own bootstraps and become self-reliant and self-respecting citizens. With rich human and nawral resources, especially oil and gas, Bayelsans should not be poor, if they acquire and use judiciously their rightfid share of oil wealth, tbork conscienfitiously and ensure productive and distributive justice and equity. Enhanced production and equitable distribution is imperative because anywhew an urtprodwciive kisurely class lives in lwury while the productive w o k force The swat of many staketaoiders went in t ihe preparaaion of BY-SEEDS plan. o The Xlinasq of Budget and Gconomic Pdanning, charged with the rapmibiiity of pialm~ng.conunencd s o & on Bayelsa State Roiling Plan ( 2 0 4 - 2006) before h e idea oPSEEDS uas n a o o d in 2004.
  6. 6. In conjunction with UNICEF project team and desk officers, the Ministry which coordinates UNICEF activities visited many communities and Local Government Areas in Bayelsa State to determine their real developmental needs and requirements and to profile available resources. Most of the data used in the preparation of the BY-SEEDS document was collected by the Department of Planning, Research and Statistics of the Ministry. Toward the end of the preparation and production of BY-SEEDS document, the Regional Master Plan was presented by NDDC to the State Governor and his executives. Consequently, important aspects of this Master Plan as they relate to the State were isolated and incorporated into the SEEDS document. Following the inauguration of a twelve-member BY-SEEDS Committee, the State House of Assembly, the Executive Council, Special Advisers, Permanent Secretaries and top government functionaries, academicians, Local Government Chairmen, traditional rulers, labour unions, women leaders, student unions, NGOs and other opinion leaders were invited to a seminar on BY-SEEDS to brainstorm on the way forward for the State. Usehl, insigkfirl and far reaching contributions and suggestions were made at the seminar. As a follow up to this seminar, letters were sent to carefully selected intellectuals, industrialists, politicians, traditional rulers, opinion leaders and all Local Government Chairmen questing inputs for the preparation of BY-SEEDS. The suggestions received and contribution of several consultants who produced well- researched papers in specialized areas e ~ c h e d SEEDS document. Also, all the government Ministries, Parastatals, and agencies in the State were requested to prepare their respective SEEDS documents and all produced written plans or proposals for the consideration for the BY-SEEDS committee. On completion, the draft plan was sent to the Ministries and Parasiatals for any amendments. The SEEDS Cmm~itlee was split into four Subcommimea namely: Economic, Social. Environmental and General AdministdonJPubiic Service Reforms to guarantee a bolisric, systematic and comprehensive approach. All the Sub- conualiatoes wrked asidwusiy. resfarched and consulted relevant sakehoiders t o in iiae Appesadix deserve special anunei~dation.The drafiing and coconsultation process w s ccoodiia;atpd by Professor Gesiye 5. Angaye, the Honourable Coinmwitner for Budget aid h n o n l i c Planning and Chairman of the BY- SEEDS Conzm~ttee.
  7. 7. Special thanks go to His Excellency, Chief DSP Alamieyesigha, the Executive Governor of Bayelsa State, whose financial, material, intellectual, and moral support made the work of the Committee much easier and faster. We appreciate His Excellency, Dr. Goodluck Jonathan, the Deputy Governor of Bayelsa State, Rt. Hon. Boyelayefa Debekeme, the Speaker of the State House of Assembly, Members of the House of Assembly and the State Executive Council, NDDC, UNDP, several consultants, government functionaries, traditional rulers and opinion leaders, who made valuable contributions to the growth and development of BY-SEEDS. May the Almighty God meet the needs of all who sowed the SEEDS to meet the basic needs of Bayelsans.
  8. 8. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Despite the concerted efforts in the past five years to improve the standards of living, the development challenges facing Bayelsa State are still daunting. These include food insecurity, mass unemployment and poverty, inequality, high illiteracy and superstition, inadequate infrastructure, relatively weak private and public sectors, inclement climate, social exclusion and injustice, sense of deprivation, despondency and powerlessness to determine their own destiny or achieve self-determination. Hence Bavelsa State Economic Em~owermentand Development Strategy (BY-SEEDS) seeks an all round poli&al, economic, physical, mental, psychological, moral and spiritual development of Bayelsans The fundamental challenges at this stage of our development is to govern effectively in the public interest and provide electricity, water, roads, transportation, communication, science and technology, education, health care, food and shelter, and raise self-respect, self-reliance and the ability to determine their own destiny; and reduce poverty on a sustainable basis. 7Ite vision of BY-SEEDS is To build a prosperous, peaceful, jusf, heul~hyand sey-reliant State with equal rights, dufies and briglrt opportw~ities fire present and future generations for ~lrroughlife eradicatior~o poverty; hunger, disease, ignorance, illireracy and f superstition resui~ii~g a iriglriy educated, science and tecimology-oriented in citize~rg we// equippd with approp~iufe mnchinery, skiils and entrepreneursl~~j~.
  9. 9. projects and programmes. A key target of BY-SEEDS is to reduce government expenditure by at least 20 per cent by the year 2007. A three year medium term expenditure framework aimed at a balanced budget stabilization strategy to foster greater fiscal discipline will be adopted. Arbitrariness in the area of project selection for inclusion in the budget would be avoided by anchoring the content of the annual budget on the programmes, projects and policies as contained in the BY-SEEDS. Regular quarterly reports on the budget will be prepared for all stakeholders. Improved Public-Private Partnership is imperative for poverty reduction, wealth creation and the generation of employment opportunities. Therefore, a strong public-private partnership will be encouraged to foster a strong private sector- driven economy with the government as an enabler, facilitator and regulator, Government will invest heavily on inhtructure such as electricity, transport, and water. BY-SEEDS is comprehensive in the sectors it has considered and for which strategies have been formulated in furtherance of the Social Charter. People will be empowered through improved education, health care, housing and employment generation. Specific sectoral strategies have been formulated in the areas of Agriculture and Rural Developmmt, Small and Medium Scale Industries, oil and gas. On the basis of comparative advantage, capacity to generate employment opportunities and the potential to grow the state's economy and other strategic considerations, the folloming industries would be promoted: Petroleum Refinery Petro-Chemical industries Gas uiiliza~ion industries inorganic f e d i z e r pducrion Glass indusuy Fsh-canning indusuy Animal imds hadusuy * Gasri ProcesIng industry Palm oil processii~g iradustq Pi m hemel oii processing indusw am * Soap ansl~ufacluring a d w q i S gar procebing utdusuy P J J iniumy ~
  10. 10. Concerted efforts will be made to enable small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to overcome their financial, technological, managerial and marketing problems. The expectation is that with focused, single minded and selfless attitude to the implementation of the programmes, projects and policies of BY-SEEDS, the State would witness an unprecedented era of rapid growth and development. PART 1 BACKGROUND AND MACRO-ECONOMIC FRAMEWORK 1.1 PLANNING IN NIGERIA AND BAYELSA Development planning in Nigeria started during the colonial era with the Ten-year Plan of Development and Welfare for Nigeria, 1945 - 1955. Nigerians did not participate in its formulation. The plan was revised in 1951 to cover the five-year period 1951-56 primarily to take cognizance of the constitutional development - Nigeria becoming a federation in 1954, and take account of rising costs. The 1955 - 60 Economic Development Plan which comprised five separate development plans (Federal, Northern. Eastern and Western Regions and the then Southern Cameroons) was revised in 1958 and extended to 1962. Pos-independence development planning in Xigeria began with the F i t Iiational Development Plan (1962 - 1970) which was followed by the Second National Development Plan 1970 - 1974 ( h e r extended to 1975). Then came the Third National Deselopment Plan (1975 - 1981) which was an exa~emelyambitious one programmed to launch Nigeria into industrial ~&c-ofYaad suminable development This was an era of profligacy, waste nn a d comp~ion because it was the beginning of the oil boom and doom.
  11. 11. between annual budgets, rolling plans and the perspective plan the thereby minimize plan distortions. However, plan distortions persisted and the rolling plans and the associated annual budgets became mere ceremonial documents as the various governments operated as though these plans did not exist. The first attempt at developing planning by Bayelsa State government was the three-year rolling plan 1997 - 1999 which merely listed some projects to be executed during the plan period. The plan was reviewed at the end of December, 1997 and quot;rolled overquot; to the following Rolling Plan period 1998 - 2000. The State was preparing the Rolling Plan 2004 - 2006 before the introduction of the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS). 1.1.2 NATIONAL EOCNOMIC EMPOWERMENT AND DEVELOPlMENT STRATEGY (NEEDS) The Federal Government of Nigeria produced and launched its medium-tern development strategy or plan titled National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) in May, 2004. The goals or aims of NEEDS are wealth creation, employment generation, poverty reduction and value re- orienlation. The four key strategies to achieve the goals are: reforming the way government and its institutions work, development of the private sector, implementing a social charter for the people and re-orientation of the people with an enduring new value system. The aim of reforming government is to right size, re-structure, re-professionalize and strengthen govemnent and public institutions, eliminate waste, inefficiency and corruption, and ensure greater transparency, accountability and efficiency in the delivery of services to the people. Gobemne~al needs to provide the enabling environment for the rapid growth of a resilient bibrant ad competitive private ssctor that could become the engine of grm731and deelop~nent The key-elements of this strategy include infra&ctural ineeiopment rsgecaa11> c l e c ~ c i t ywaterOrranspon and comnunication; promotion , of q-~cdaure, sml3 ad medium d e enterprises; medium and large conunercial fanas. piamuons. and indusinal congiomerates; oil ard gas, and such services as iuurism. ax, ~UIIUTC, and i s ~ f o n n a ~ i d c m m m i c a t itechnolog. m
  12. 12. moral rectitude, respect for elders and good traditional values and culture; equity and care for the weak, destitute and vulnerable. The Social Charter refers to the contract between the people and the government which recognizes their rights, duties and responsibilities and promises to deliver to them basic needs of life. These needs include improved supply of electricity, potable water, food, housing, basic education, primary health care, women and youth empowerment, participation in decision-making, child protection and strengthening, peace and security of life and property. In addition to the four strategies highlighted above States and Local Governments are to design and implement their respective State Economic Empowerment and Development Stratem (SEEDS) and Local Government Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (LEEDS) consistent with the broad policy thrust of the NEEDS Agenda. States and Local Governments receive about half of the federation account, so changes at these levels are equally important for the achievement of the reform agenda. Besides, there is much overlap in the responsibilities between Federal, State and Local Governments so policies and programmes are more likely to be effective if they izr complementary and co-ordimated. Therefore, Bayelsa SEEDS will be anchored on the broad federal policy guidelines, goals and strategies but will take cognizance of the peculiar problems, needs, resource and endowment, baseline conditions and the vision of the State.
  13. 13. 1.2 BAYELSA STATE DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES Bayelsa State, created out of the old Rivers State on October 1, 1996 by General Sani Abacha is one of the thirty-six States in Nigeria. The name Ba-yel-sa is derived &om the three acronyms BALGA for Brass Local Government Area. The three local Governments formed a Senatorial District for the Federal Senate at t 1979 national elections. Since then, Brass Local Government Area k has been subdivided into Ogbia LGA, Nembe LGA, and Brass LGA. Yenagoa LGA of 1979 has become Southern Ijaw LGA, Kolokunla IOpokuma LGA, and Yenagoa LGA. Thus the State has eight Local Government Areas namely: Brass, Ekeremor, Kolokuma~Opokuma, Nembe, Ogbia Sagbama, Southern ijaw and Yenagoa Local Government Areas with Yenagoa Town as the State Capital. The hventy four (24) newly created LGAs in the year 2000 have been converted into development areas or centers. Bayelsa State comprises mainly people of Ijaw ethnic nationality who are found also in Rivers, Delta, Ondo, Aha-Ibom and Edo States. There are also Ogbia, Epie-Atisa, Isoko, Urhobo and zarama-Engenni speaking communities in Bayelsa Stzte. Bayelsa State, located in the heart of the Niger Delta is dissected centrally by longitude 6 degrees East, and Latitude 4 degrees 30 minutes North. It is bounded on h e East by Rivers State, on the North and West by Cdta State and on the South by the Atlantic Ocean. Bayelsa State covers a total land area of 9,656 square kilometers of which 8,453 square kilometers is riverine, full of lakes, creeks, skainps and marshy land. Although Bayelsa Slate is a main producer of petroleum in hiigeria, agriculture is the mainstay of h e State Economy. Agriculture provides food, employment and inmme for the increasing population and taw materials for indusuies. The main occupatzons of h e people ae fanning, fishing, raphia palm tapping and local gin distrliery, lumbering, cawe-cming, huntins weaving and gathering of 03 palm i~uits.snails, e k The w n - f m n secondary occupations inciude trading, d e s rs- md.:::g, carpeniry. rnasoiuy. W i n g , gold smilhing, food vending bicycle and aulo repam. ha> h)??eisalas also cmnpio~ed teaches, civillpblic servants and workers m as In ~n&&~a? m:nmcsciai esiabkshments. It is w o w aiad note that most of the mpk~?Ly% ~ndustr~itlw r k s are engag& in P o Haurowt i d other paits 01 i ~ 2 ~ g e ~due 10 i d of iadustT;1esi the State. ia n
  14. 14. Bayelsa State is rich in natural resources which include mineral deposits - crude oil, gas, gravels, sand, ceramic clay; forest resources - mangrove timber, iroko, mahogany, and Abura; cashltree crops - oil palms, mangoes (ogbono), rubber, coco-nut; food crops - cassava, rice, yams, coco-yams, plantains, bananas, sugar- cane, vegetables and fruits; marine and freshwater fisheries resources, extensive brackish water lagoons, creeks, rivers and lakes. Therefore, the greatest potential for future industries in Bayelsa State lies in the fields of agriculture, fish processing and petro-chemicals. In addition to the natural resources, Bayelsa State is blessed with abundant human resources that can be mobilized for the development of the state. By the 1991 census, the total population of Bayelsa State was 1,121,693 comprising 584, 117 (52.i%) males and 537, 576 (41,7%) females. The distribution of the population among the eight local government areas is as shown in the Appendix. With an assumed population growth rate of 2.83 per cent the projected population of the state in 2004 is about 2.2 million. Due to the high population growth rate, Bayelsa is faced with the problems of high youth dependency ration which include the burden of child care and the provision of education, health care, housing and employment opportunites. The State has a short supply of skilled manpower but surplus unskilled labour which requires a comprehensive programme of human resources development and utilization to reduce mass unemployment, poverty and illiteracy. The State BY-SEEDS will be greatly influenced by the above-mentioned human and n a r d resources, the development challenges and opportunities facing the slate- 1.3 THE ULTIMATE OBJECTiVES AND PRIORlTlES OF BY-SEEDS The overriding goal of BY-SEEDS is the i~nprovementin the standard of h i n g oh &e people and place Bayelsa among the developed States of Nigeria and the uorld. The specific objectives woven around h e major goal are 3 s foliows:
  15. 15. Achieve higher levels of self-sufficiency in food production and other agro- based raw materials. 0 Relevant Education and appropriate skilled manpower development, especially in science, engineering and technology. 0 Improved health care delivery service. 0 Improved supply of infrastructure (roads, electricity, water, transportation, telecommunications etc.) Promotion of the private sector to create income and employment opportunities. Greater self-reliance and increased participation of Bayelsans in the ownership and management of productive enterprises. Promote gender equality. 0 Equitable distribution of income and weaiih. 0 Laying a solid foundation for a self-reliant, industrial development and promotion of Small and Medium-Scale Enterprises (SMEs) for economic diversification to minimize the dependence on oil. 0 Rural transformation and development. 0 Effective and efficient good government. 0 The attainment of self-determination. 0 High moral and spiritual development. Improved agricultural productivity and production is necessary for food security, employment and income generation, and provision of raw meriais. Relevant education and appropriate skill acquisition will aid individual and Stale development, curb unemployment and underemployment. Adequate provision of economic and physical infmtructuru: such as electricity, water, roads, transportation, telecommunications, etc will improve the performance in almost all sectors of rhe economy. Xlmdacturing, especially small and ~nedium enterprises ( S W ) will be accorded hi& pricari@ in order to diversitjl the economy and minimize Ihe dependence on oil. H a l & and homing which are h i c necessities of life will also receive aypropriaie naphasis
  16. 16. BY-SEEDS has not left out the ways to seek and see the Kingdom of God so that all other things, include good health, prosperity and happiness can be attained by Bayelsans. Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God and enjoy the healthy, happy and heavenly life here and hereafter. 1.4 THE VISION. VALUES AND MISSION In the Year 2000 Bayelsa State Foundation Budget, His Excellency Chief D.S.P Alamieyeseigha Ph.D. (JP) stated thus: Z envisioned a State that will experience substantial development having been opened-up by a network of roads in the State Capital and the rest of the state. I dreamt of a State wirere the people's standard of living would be raised through the provision ofpotable water, electricity, housing, heal ti^ care deiivery, improved educational infrastructureand increased niunber of schools as well as deveioptnent of a virileprivate sector, all of which are non-erkteni now. Chief DSP Alamieyeseigha's vision in the year 2000 entails the development of a socio-economic system in which the basic needs of all Bayelsans are satisfied through he actions and activities of all Bayelsans. Development is about the efforts of the people to improve their lives so the development of Bayelsa State is a noble task that must be done by Bayelsans. The goal is sustainable development which implies, among other things, sustainabilily in production and consumption relating to all economic activities in order to optimize ecologically sound use of resources and minimize waste. Realizing the long-term eHects of present actions, the challenge of sustainable development is to meet the needs of current generations and improve the quality of heir b e s wihout compro~nising ability of future generations to meet heir the o - m needs. 1.1.1 THE VISION AND MISSION prrsml dnd jwrw-e generations &rough ldPe d c a i j o n of poveQ, hunger, ulacrx>, ~ginmxe.superstilion and b a s e radiing in a highly e d u c d
  17. 17. science and technology-oriented citizenry, well equipped with appropriate machinery, skills and entrepreneurship. The main mission of BY-SEEDS is to lay a solid foundation for the attainment of the above vision and make Bayelsa State economically prosperous, politically peaceful, socially stable, ecologically regenerative and physically/spiritually healthy and happy. The desire to make quick money without working is a common disease in the country and it should be cured through value re-orientation. It is the restoration of the dignity of labour, hard work, equity, transparency, accountability, and eradication of corruption that will ensure peace, progress and prosperity for all Bayelsans. 1.4.2 THE CORE VALUES Therefore, the core values of BY-SEEDS include truthfidness (as IzonlIjaw means truth), professionalism, dignity, of labour, honest, hard work, efficiency, excellence, discipline, patriotism, probity, accountability, self confidence self respect, self-reliance, equity, social justice; care for the weak, destitute, vulnerable, youth and women; respect for constituted authority, elders and good traditional values and culture; religious tolerance, moral rectitude, holiness and righteousness. When the righteous rule, the people prosper, rejoice and enjoy. Improved public-private partnership is imperative for poverty reduction and the creation of wealth and employment opportunities. But the private sector is very weak in Bayelsa State because of poor intkstructure (electricity, water, roads and communication), low access to and the high cost of finance; poorly defined property rights and ineffective enforcement of contracts; lack of skills and enrrepreneursllip; policy inconsistencies, corruption, poverty and decades of deprivation and neglecL Therefore, government has to provide the enabling enviromnent for the private sector to thhive and prosper. 1.43 DlVh'E LEADERSHIP 1 ioel er. go enmeat i e l f is dependent mainly on s ~ t u t o q revenue dlocations tram d ~ federa1 goernnlent for sun i d When manna, the monthly revenue s m e h nas not descended Croa11 ,lal?ja, Bayelsm, like 1Re ismelites, cry to God for f d &ad od~erbasic a~eeds.Ironically, &e bulk of the natiodizsd oil revenue being shared is d e n d from Ba3elsa State. Thus, B a y e l m survive under oppressive Pharaohs b3 111~ grace of God. Wihout ( 4 divine force guiding h e 3 the of J T J ~ or Ifat Pmer above rlii i%r;r+x% ;Jme iessw external and internal p w m .
  18. 18. would have driven the brave Bayelsans guarding their oil wealth to drown in their oil wells or in the Atlantic Ocean and taken over their oil-rich lands and seas. Therefore, Bayelsans, will imbibe the core values of BY-SEEDS and also put God first before government and the private sector in their development agenda. Bayelsa State Economic Empowerment and Development Train will be led by God, fuelled by Government and the public sector and driven by the private sector. GOD BLESS BAYELSANS TO BUILD BETTER BAYELSA AND GIVE GOD THE GLORY OF ALL LANDS In the hands of God Almighty And by tke creeks and rivers of Bayelsa, Bayelsans can't be captured as captives, On the shoulders of God, And on top of the sky-high oil rigs, Bayelsa shall climb and rise To capture her God-given rights. Pollution of our air, water and land -- - we oecry and cry when we remember The good golden days of our dear fatherland Abound with food, fresh fsh and clean water When hunger and uneii~ployment were unknown in Bayelsa Bayelsans have suffered and sacrifice much To keep rjigeria one and the rest of Nigeria rich We have sown enough SEEDS We can no longer collect crumbs from i n t a d colonialists It is time to reap ihe ripe hits from m e federalism 'To regain her pride. p c e and prosperity And give God 'The Gloy O Ail Lands. f
  19. 19. MORAL AND SPIRITUAL DEVELOPMENT The role of religion and morality must be examined in a development strategy that will be led by God. Religious and moral beliefs and practices could help or harm individual and State development. Max Weber claimed that Protestant ethic in America which emphasized the pursuit of individual salvation through hard work, saving and investment led to capitalism and economic growth, while orthodox Hinduism which stresses contemplation restraints rather than stimulates business activity. Political instability and poverty in Nigeria have also been attributed partly to religious beliefs, bigotry, intolerance, other worldliness, unproductive religious practices and l o x morality, resulting in religious riots, destruction of life and property, increased crime, gender disparity and corruption. Thus improved moral and religious standards could help promote peace and progress. Central to Bayelsa traditional religion is the widespread belief in a Supreme Being called Tetne arau (She who creates), zibo arau (She who gives birth) and IVoyengi or Wanyingi (Our Mother). Thus God is conceptualized as a female who created the universe. To Ihe Epie-Atissa, God is Iziba (Lord) and among the Ogbia and Nembe, God is called AY'ba (the protector who creates man and also takes away life at will) and Ayiba respectively. God is regarded as a spirit and there are no images or visible representations of God. She is powerful, just, loving, beneficent, omniscient, omnipotent and omnipresent who rewards the righteous and punishes wrong doers. Traditlond religionists *orship different clan, town, compound and individual diwni~ies, deities, gods, goddesses, ancestral or guardian spirits who are alleged to rmard those die uphold Ihe moral code and punish hose who vioiate i t The punrsllsnent may take the form of poverty, misfomme, sickness and death, while &e reuards include prosperity. good head& and long life- h is claimed that God nard? inrenrnes in the day to day affairs of men on earth so the ancestors m v e 3s fuardlans ofuad~tjond ralorality. Llaa> Bayisms are raon Chistiaras and the spread of Christianity and w a r n edu~alaonhave diiwid dw power of traditional religious belie& and pradces. hewhclzss, wane so-caiied Chn&ns practice reiigious p l d s m by mnsulmg oracles during m e r e sichess or dlmess, wide traditiold religiomsts a h indulge 19
  20. 20. in religious promiscuity by seek;& a w o r in prayer houses and church gathering in periods of serious crises. This lack of strong faith, belief and principles is partly responsible for the decline in morality because people are not spiritual steadfast. While Christianity seems to have minimized the fear and alleged power of the gods and ancestors to punish evil doers, only a few Christians have imbibed the good moral teachings of Christianity and other faiths to shun evil, do good and love God and humanity. 1.5.1 RELIGIOUS POLICY AND STRATEGY The Nigeria Constitution allows fkeedom of worship and there should be no state religion since Nigeria is a secular state. Religion should remain mainly a private affair between the individual and hisher Creator. 0 However, individuals and religious groups could be given equal assistance by Government, where necessary, to attain their spiritual and moral aspirations which are in consonance with the State development goals. 0 The core moral values and principles of SEEDS such as hard work, honesty, discipline, patriotism, accountability, self-reliance, social justice, religious tolerance and righteousness should be taught in all religious and cultural organizations and schools. Religious intolerance, bigotry and rioters should be severely and promptly dealt with. Bayeisans inus1 turn away from idolatry and superstitious beliefs that attribute poverty, sickness, death, barrenness, business and even election faiiures to witchcraft, juju and the anger of the gods. Such beliefs and thoughts a de&imenlal to hard work, productivity and progress because as man t h i so he is a d he reaps rrhat he sows in the mind or on the land Positive thinking, right lia ing, m e Lnowledge and belief in ihe Power greater than dl Powers cast away all superstition a d fear and pave the way to p r o p s .
  21. 21. The love of money and power appears to be the root of most evils. Nations and individuals that climb through crude and cruel means to the pinnacle of power and wealth are hardly happy and secure, and could incur the wrath of God any time and tumble down from grace to grass. Wealth, power, blessedness and happiness are only combined when the riches and power are rightly acquired and used properly to promote public good. Happiness is the reward we receive for rendering selfless service to others, that is, the Almighty and humanity. We have to recognize the Greatest Power above all powers and render selfless service to all creatures and the Creator because prosperity, good health and happiness are the result of a harmonious adjustment of the outer and inner being of a man with his total spiritual, psychological and physical environment or surrounding. To enjoy good health, prosperity and happiness, all Bayelsans should therefore shun all negative and corrupt practices, do good, love God and humanity and turn to the worship of the true Teme arm, Zibo arau, Iziba, Aziba, Ayiba, Wanyingi and Woyengi, the Almighty God and Power to lead them to win the war on hunger, illiteracy, disease, oppression, marginalization, underdevelopment, unemployment, inequality and poverty. 1.6 UNEMPLOYMENT, INEQUALITY AND POVERTY REDUCTION Unemployment, inequality and poverty reduction are the big challenges facing ~ a ~ e b a nDespite decades of d&lopment efforts, both the gap between the poor s. and the rich countries and the ineaualities within states or nations have widened. Poverty simply means inadequacy of income to meet such basic needs as food, shelter, clothing, edu&on, health-cate, etc. Poverty leads to mainutrition, sickness, illiteracy, unemployment, low status of omen, i~umoraiity,crime, exposure to environmental risks, limited access to assets, social services, and political po~er.Unemployment and poverty lead t o ps>choiogical disorders. depression, despondency, suicides and divorces. W l e rria~?iep e i t > causes emy, jealousy and selfdepreciation, mass unemployment and pers~stentpooeq could lead to socio-poiidcal unrest and revolution. Thus, w ~ r m p i o ~ m e ninquality and poverty have econoniic, social and political ~, mplizal~m. II is a pardox tl,ai pas) pre~aikw a ~ o i a n rich Bayelsa Siate and, indeed, i a ille Sgcr tlelm Kegom. Accordmg to b e WorM Bank Report (19951, per capita
  22. 22. income in the Niger Delta region was below the country's average of US$280. Similarly, health indicators are low, lagging far behind the national average. Fatality rates from water-borne diseases, malnutrition, and poor sanitation are also high. The quality and quantity of housing and infrastructure are deficient in much of the region. Only about 20 to 24 per cent of the rural communities and less than 60 per cent of urban communities have access to safe drinking water. Transportation is often difficult and expensive and less than 20 per cent of the region is accessible by good roads, even in the dry season. Severe socio-economic deprivation has stood in sharp contrast to the huge oil wealth of the area, creating a paradox of poverty in the midst of plenty. Bayelsa State is the least developed in the Niger Delta Region so its development indices are even lower than the Regional averages. 1.6.1 CAUSES OF POVERTY AND INEQUALITY Some of the main causes of poverty in Bayelsa State include, inter alia: The deprivation of the traditional means of livelihood that is, fishing and farming by oil explomtion and environmental degradation. Inadequate infrastructure (electricity, water, roads, etc) low savings and limited investment in industrial and economic growth have constrained labour absorption in the nonagricultural sector. 0 Inadequate, irrelevant or inappropriate education and training and lack of skills and capacity have exacerbated unemployment and poverty. 0 Maladministration, cormption and mismanagement of resources have made many to wallow in abject poverty while a few lead luxurious lives Natural and man-made disasters such as communal conflicts, oil pollution of fishing grounds and farm lands, crop failures, flood and erosion tend to increase poverty. Unproductive attitudes, beliefs and habits of pluposelessness, wastefulness and excessive procreation, and superstitiom beliefs that attribute poveity, sickness. ole& lack of promotion, barrenness, business and even election iaiiures to i itchcmfi and the anger of the gods are deariinentai t hard work, o productivity. and progress, and t a d to peIpetuate poverty- * Disnimixition, do~nina&n, oppression and wpak politid power have depriied tfae state of aiurble peiroiwm revenue hat codd have beem d to diet latie ptedy-
  23. 23. aud determine the extent and distribution of poverty among the population. Therefore, poverty will prevail until effective pressure from below is brought to restructure the distribution of political and economic power in favour of the poor masses. Bayelsa State will not wait for pressure from below to redistribute power and wealth. SEEDS insists that every Bayelsan has the right to adequate food, potable water, shelter, clothing, basic education, health-care, security of life and property and sustainable livelihood and jobs. The most general strategy to alleviate poverty is the achievement of a rapidly expanding and prosperous economy. While economic growth makes income redistribution easier and possible without mush adverse distributive effects, high rates of economic growth and income per capita do not necessarily improve the standard of living of the poor because the rich receive a disproportionately large share of the increased income and product. Therefore, Bayelsa State Government will optimize the use of its resources to effect real rapid economic growth and development coupled with radical redistribution of income, wealth and power, adequate provision of basic necessities of life, equal functional educational and employment opportunities; and create the enabling environmental and iniixtructure for the private sector to become the engine of growth. 1-63 DSP ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT SCHEME in addition to the adequate provision of electricity, wvaler, education, health, transporntion, communication facilities that will improve the lot of the poor, an initial one hundred million Naira ( 0 , 0 , 0 . 0 .DSP Economic Empowerment 1000000) Scheme will be launched to give interest t k e revolving loans, ranging h rn M , 1 0 0 to i 3 0 0 0 0 to the poor with viable profitable small scale 00f.0 i0.0.0 enterprises. The an~ount lorus to be given in cash or in kind and paid back within two y m of ill be delemaned by rhe e s ~ n ~ a l ecost and itipluie of the business. Laan d brneharies niil be properly screened to exclude the rich and people without aable rntures and established businesses will lae well monitosed and given my adz n e c e s s a ~ ace.
  24. 24. The DSP Scheme will also give matching grants to individuals and communities that embark on real self or community development projects such as communal conveniences, halls, roads, electricity, water, education and health facilities. The detail strategies to achieve these goals are discussed in subsequent sections. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AGENDAfEMPOWERING PEOPLE INTRODUCTION BY-SEEDS is about the welfare of the citizens of the state. The education, health, hoaxing, water resources, employment, happiness, self-fulfillment and general well being are of immediate and urgent concern. The primary goal is not only to reform the state's economy in order to boost economic growth but also to empower people as a means of revitalizing the weakened social pillars which require placing people at the center of development planning. Therefore hose aspects of the economy that would impinge directly on the capacity of the individual to lead a hlfilling life would be the concern of his Chapter. EDUCATION Mucation is a key to individual, state and national development. It equips individuals wilh requisite skills, scientific and technological knowledge and altitudes to secure gainful employment and escape the poverty trap. Besides, the education industry is a multi-billion naira poverty alleviation enterprise, engaging dlousands of academic and non-academic staK school administrators and others who supply educational facilities such as school building, furniture, equipment and stationery. It also provides productive leaning, sporting and other extra-curriculm aciviaies for several energetic and restive students who would otherwise be idle &00kin h e devil's workshop. It is in ralzatron of Le facr daat the goals o employment generalion, wealth h f c r c m m , pot* reduction and value re-orientalion can be aaained and suslained uuough aele~an~, efficien~ lunciiond education system that successive Bayelsa and a t e Cioxenunents have accorded high priority to education
  25. 25. enrolment of 27,203 and 730 teachers; one Technical College with 84 students and 8 teachers; 4 craft centers and 3 schools for migrant fishermen. There was no tertiary education institution. But by 2004, Bayelsa State has 536 primary schools with 474,290 pupils; 148 post-primary schools with a total enrolment of 48,357 and 2,480 teachers; one College of arts and Science and one tertiary institution. Niger Delta University with a student population of 4,645 comprising 3,030 males and 1,6 15 females. In 2004, the State Government sent 150 students to Russia and 65 students to Belarus to pursue degree courses in Agriculture, Engineering and Medicine. With respect to educational administration, the Post-Primary Schools Board is responsible for the management and supervision of the daily administrative activities of secondary schools while the State Primary Education Board is in ckzrge sf primary schonls. The Niger Delta University and the College of Arts and Science are governed by their respective Governing Councils. All the schools Boards and the Governing Councils have powers to appoint, post, discipline, transfer and promote teaching and non-teaching staff but all are responsible to the State Ministry of Education. 2.1.2 PROBLEMS AND CONSTRAINTS In spite of the expansion in educa~ionalfacilities and increased enrolment, the education sector is beset with the following problems: Inadequate funding at all levels of education 0 Inadequate andlor dilapidated school buildings, classrooms, workshops, laboratories, libraries, furniture and equipment at all levels of education Dearth of mathematics, science and technoiogy teachers Inadequate facilities and the dislike for technical and special education 0 Lopsided distribution of teachers due to the harsh tenain and desire of teachers to live and teach in Yenagoa and its environs 0 Inadequate facilities for adult and N o n - f o d Education for people wbo have exceedad the age iiruit for fom~al educaaion but would like to enrich lhrir ~ I V Mb> hating soam education. 0 Lack of Audio-.osal Aids and Education Resourre Centres to wznpkment iia~room iemiing aciraities and promote innovaiions in teaching methods and cunjcuiuna deaelopment Lmphasis on theorotjcai howledge at h e expense of technical, vocatiod m d entxpreneuraal education
  26. 26. Ineffective school inspection and evaluative feedback due to poor transport and conlmunication facilities and the resultant managerial and administrative - inefficiency. 0 Low staff and student morale, lack of incentives and motivation, leading to high labour turnover, school dropout, failure and wastage rates. High studendteacher ratio and increased workload of teachers Incessant industrial disputes occasioned by non-payment of salaries and allowances Low moral and academic standards among students Examination malpractice and cultism Inadequate accommodation and social amenities for teachers especially in the rural areas The absence of fences which make the maintenance of security and discipline very difficult Non-avaiiability of official cars, buses and boats to facilitate school administration Inadequate land to accommodate inhtructural facilities, sports field and practical agriculture 0 Lack of information communication and management system between Yenagoa and the schools, and among schools 0 Almost total dependence on government for hnding higher education 0 Poor curriculum content delivery by teachers 0 H i h level of indiscipline among students, teachers and schoollinstitution administrators Double loyalty of teachersllecturers who engage in other jobs to the detriment of their teaching tasks Lack of basic administrative skills by school and educational administrators Overcrowded classrooms in the urban areas 0 Peremial interferences of economic activities into the programmes of the school qstem - many chiidren leave school to participate in lucrative economic activities in heir conmumities and neighbowhood at c& seasons in the >ear The reianiel> high cost of providing educational infrastructure and services.
  27. 27. reclaim and develop swampy building sites, and frequent repairs of building and equipment damaged by flood and erosion. 2.1.3 POLICY THRUST The policy thrust is to improve the quality, relevance and access to education and enhance its contribution to individual and state development. Under BY-SEEDS, government will improve the efficiency and productivity of academic and non- academic staff through training and provision of adequate incentives. Emphasis will be laid on staff through training and provision of adequate incentives. Emphasis will be laid on science, technological, vocational, and entrepreneurial and computer education. It will encourage active participation of the private sector, NGOs, individuals, communities and companies in educational development. The specific goals and objectives include: Eradication of illiteracy through the implementation of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Scheme and the Non-formal Adult Education Programmes 0 The provision of qualitative and fimctional education for self-reliance and self-employment Linking education and training to labour market requirements Upgrade Educational infrastructure to improve the productivity and efficiency of the educational system Emphasis on science, technology and computer literacy Reducing the educational gap in the state by quot;leveling upwardsquot;, not dowmwa& through the award of scholarships, bursaries and loaii to qualified and deserving students The involvement of the private sector, communities and non-govenunental organizations @GOs) and beneficiaries in the provision of educational facilities and services r Eliminate gender disparity in education 2.8.4 EDUCATIONAL TARGETS The specific large& are as follows:
  28. 28. Ensure that 80 per cent of educational institutions at all levels have conducive teaching and learning environments Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education by 2007 and at all levels of education by 2015 Curricula review at all levels to meet the demands of technology-driven economy Ensure that 50 per cent the number of cases of examination malpractice in educational institutions by 2007 Reduce the number of cases of cultism in educational institutions by 80 per cent. Increase the adult literacy rate from the current 57 per cent to 60 per cent by 2007. 2.1.5 IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES The strategies to achieve the educational goals and objectives are as foIlovs: Increase funding at all levels of educations 0 Renovate dilapidated school buildings, classrooms, workshops laboratories and libraries Provide adequate infrastructure facilities Recruit more trained teachers and re-training of existing teachers and staff of the School's Board. Survey all schools to protect school co~npounds from encroachment Encourage the training of Guidance Counsellors through in-service trainirlg and solicit the active support of Educational and career Guidance Counseilors in primary and post-primary schools Construct fences for security and disciplinary purposes Provide vehicles, buses and boats to ease transportation Construct staff quaiters for teachers in all schools Construct low-cost houses equipped with social ameaities around edwational institutions to ease the accommodation problem of both staff and s < d c u i i Culrjcuia rebiew at all levels for relevance and t m e the needs of the o et !zbur imrhet Pro lde approprnde lleext$osks and orher instnnclional maerials to reflect the cumcuh I;;nphasua training on ocalisnal, ~ h i c aand and~preneiKial l skilk a d caaapu1er i~teracy Press f i r h e ~ ~ a b l d a m e ~ a t Federal Uni~7mity of Scieaace and of ~ T i . i i m o h ~and a h l ~ a d m i to improve access to higher ealudon c 28
  29. 29. Establish a Technical College of Education Appoint only qualified and experienced educationists as Chairmen and members of Educational Boards and Governing Councils Establish three Technical Colleges Sensitize and mobilize for active participation of all educational stakeholders such as parents, local communities, private sector, Non-Governmental Organizations, and vocational organization. IntensifL educational campaign throughout the state to increase enrolment and completion rates in all educational institutions in the State Solicit the active support of Educational and Career Guidance Counsellors in our post-primary institutions Carry out effective monitoring and evaluation of all educational programmes at all levels. Intensilj campaigns against examination malpractice and cultism Incorporate Module on Environmental education into the Educational Curriculum Incorporate HIV/AIDS education into the school curricula at all levels. HEALTH Health is a state of mental, physical and social well-being of an individual and not just the absence of disease or infirnlity. It is a condition of being sound in body, mind and soul. A healthy population is a economic asset since the assured supply n of strong and healthy labour force is an essential factor in development. Poor health and nutrition and unhealthy environment lead to low life expectancy, low productivity3 low incomes, underdevelopment and poverty. Poverty, in tum, perpetuates ill-health because the poor ate unable to obiain adequate food, safe drinking $am, shelter and health me. To turn the vicious circle of poor health, poerty and underdevelopment into a virtllous circle of good hea!th, high income aad susuinable deceiopment, Bayelm State Govermnent has in7ested heavily in h e heal& sector.
  30. 30. four doctors who were on specialist training, the State Government recently sent twenty-two (22) Medical Doctors for Post Graduate Training in Teaching in Teaching Hospitals in Nigeria. In 2004, seventy-four (74) students were sent to Russia and Belarus to be trained as medical doctors. The College of Health Sciences was established in the Niger Delta University, Anlassoma to produce qualitative staff for the health system. The facilities at the General Hospital Okolobiri are being upgraded to provide specialist medical care and to serve as a training centre for intern doctors and pharmacists. Facilities are being upgraded at the State School of Nursing, Tombia to enhance teaching and learning. The State College of Health Technology, Ogbia-Town will soon commence activities. An ultra modem 500- bed General Hospital is under construction in the State capital, Yenagoa. The State established the Bayelsa Health Service Scheme (BHSS) and the Bayelsa Ambulance Service (BAS) to address the problems of financing and access to quality healthcare. Bayelsa Health Service Scheme is a health financial mechanism in which a subscriber pays N200.00 a month and receives medical attention freely at the point of delivery for the subscriber and four children under the age of 18. To check the menace of fake drugs the DSP series of drugs through contract manufacturing with reputable pharmaceutical colnpanies was introduced. All health facilities buy their drugs only f o the Central Medical Stores. The State rm has a Central Cold store for the Wional Programme on Lnmunization (NPI) The Ministry of Health has strengthened disease control programmes with respect to IiIVJAIDS, Malaria and TBnRprosy, and collaborates with donor agencies and dereiopmenl pamers in the health sector e.g. WO,The World Bank and LNCEF. -.-. 1 ? ? MAJOR PROBLEMS OF THE HEALTH SECTOR
  31. 31. Production and circulation of fake drugs Lack of accurate vital and other basic health statistics needed for effective work in the field of public health, medical care and health planning Inadequate residential and office accommodation especially in the rural areas Lack of basic utilities such as electricity and water t o w staff incentives and motivation Inadequate public expenditure on health Inadequate maintenance of existing health faci!ities Poor communication and transportation which impede effective health care delivery There is no effective health Information Management System between the Ministry, Board and among Hospitals 0 Lack of vehicles and boats for monitoring hospitals 0 Inadequate preventive and environmental health services and the resultant imbalance between curative and preventive health services 0 Maldistribution of health institutions, inadequate coverage and limited accessibility to health services 0 Inefficient utilization and poor management of health facilities 0 Inability of Local Government Councils to shoulder the responsibility for Primary Health Care 0 Limited access to health facilities and high cost of treatment Non-constitution of the Hospital Management Board Limited scope of the Bayelsa Health Service Scheme (BHSS) and relatively low fees paid to service providers Non-integration of traditional n d i d practitioners into modern medical practice Paironage of traditional health services, faith-based practitioners, patent medicine vendors and hawkers, resulting in low utilization of health facilities Head& i m d s arising from oil and gas production such as oil acne (a special skin eruption due to exposure to oil)* the incidence of decreased iedity, fever, ~ p i ~ tractoinfetion, abdominal pain and t ~ diarrhea
  32. 32. 2.2.2 SOME SOCIAL HEALTH INDICATORS IN BAYELSA STATE, 2004 Infant mortality rate 1 1511,000 Under 5 mortality rate 20211,000 Maternal mortality rate 11001100,000birth HIVIAIDS sero prevalence 4%; National average of 5% Routine Immunization Coveragz 14% Polio Immunization Coverage - PVI - 13% PV3 - 80% Under 5 stunting 37.7% Access to safe water sources in rural areas 20.3% b Access to sanity latrines in rural areas 20% Exclusive breastfeeding to 6 months 10% 2.2.3 POLICY THRUST The main policy objective is to strengthen the State public and private health systems to enable it deliver eiktive, eacient, qua!itative and affordable health services to improve the health status of Bayelsans in order to reduce poverty. The policy is intended to: Lower the disease burden attributable to priority diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis and HIVlAlDS Improve the availability and management of health resources Enhance financial and physical access to qualitative health services Improve community participation and consumer's awareness of their health rights and obligations Enhance collaboration and partnership with all health related sectors. 114 .. POLICY TARGETS The sec policy targels arc as follows: Reduce h e curaeni infant moodity rate (IMR) of 115!1,008, under-five rate U , ) of 202!1,@00 and m a t e d momiity rate 1 ~~aorl;lli~ ( S - - ( of 1 1Mr '1 Ca0,i.M a1 l a s t lo per GJX~by 2007 Reduce h e iccidmce and nioriality from uroinmlinid1e d s a e by at l a t iess es 20 per cmr b> 2W7 32
  33. 33. Provide primary health care facilities for 20 per cent under-served communities by 2007 Provision of accessibility to primary health care service to 30 per cent of the population by 2007 Increase the current routine immunization coverage of 14 per cent by at least 20 per cent by 2007 Completion and utilization of the Yenagoa General Hospital by 2007 To increase the number of referral hospitals from one to three to cater for each geo-political zone by 2007 Establishment of specialized health-care projects such as Eye, Orthopedic, Psychiatric and Dental Hospitals by 2010 225 .. IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES The State Government will adopt the following strategies to meet its goals: Increased budgetary allocation to health and the Hospital Management Board Undercake a comprehensive rehabilitation and rehrbishing of health instituticns and facilities and expand infrastructure including staff residential accommodation where necessary Phased provision of standardid basic and essential equipment and utilities (water, electricity) To upgrade and sustain the diagnostic capability of medical health facilities to serve as referral centers and save foreign exchange currently expended on people seeking medical treatment overseas Develop healthy human resources policy to guarantee constant optimal aaiiabiiity and deployment of skilled personnel Establish a Pharmaceutical Industr). to boost local manufactm of pharmaceutical and consunuble Conswuction of new building for the newly upgraded C o w e Hospitals Pnxisron of staff residential accommodation within and m a d Hospital premises The poisjon of incentives t motivate health staff serving in remote o hosptals such as increased rural posing allowance, s ~ f accommodation, f boa& rtc Fcnnmenn accomnaoiiaGon o r the Hospital Management Ehrd Hcsloquarters M a pros I5j013 for a m d a d workhop h Krasu of h e Uicl psiablishing h e Stake H o s p d s JUanagmertt B d I kdcjqiimers 1%J& pro?ision for a a - M M/o&&o~
  34. 34. Appraise and expand the Bayelsa Health Service Scheme to cover more areas and facilities w Provide appropriate resources for the operationalization of a State Blood Transfusion Programme w Establish a functional State Blood Transhsion Bank and programme w Integrate all tiers of health-care as well as traditional medical practitioners Adequate provision of antenatal, postnatal and family planning services w Enhance the capabilities of health facilities and institutions to offer emergency obstetric care 0 Provide adequate number of well-trained birth attendants 0 The introduction of programmes for HIVIAIDS prevention and control facility based best practices in HIVIAIDS control 0 Constitution of Bayelsa campaign by routine immunization and use of insecticide treated nets w Provide cold chains at strategic locations in the state Provided fredsubsidized treated mosquito nets Monitor the services provided in Private Clinics/Hospitals and PhannaceuticaVDNg Stores 2.2.6 MANAGEMENT OF HIVIAIDS HlVlAIDS is a major public health problem and an obstacle to development in Bayelsa State. According to the biennial National HIV/Syphilis Sero-prevalence Survey (NARNS) reports, the prevalence of HIV in the State increased from 4.3 per cent in 1999 to 7.2 perrent in 2001 and declined to a prevalence of 4 per cent in 2003. Although the prevalence of HIV may be stabilizing or even declining, the epidemic seems to be worsening as many erstwhile healthy carriers are beginning to manifest clinical features. AIDS has affected adversely the public service and agricuiturai work Pbrce. To prexent, control and manage HIWA!!3S, the Bayclsa State AIDS Control Prograinme domiciied in ihe a t e Ministly of Heallh;
  35. 35. 2.2.7 PROBLEMS AND CONSTRAINTS Bayelsa State still faces the following problems despite efforts already made in the fight against HIVIAIDS: Limited funds for HIVIAIDS prevention and control programmes. Poverty - The quot;sugar daddyquot; phenomenon is rampant, even though it is not necessarily condoned. Girls who have lost their parents, and who have the responsibility of caring for their siblings, are forced to exchange sex for money since they have few skills through which they can earn a reasonable living. Some girls become professional sex workers and go after the rich oil company workers in order to get money. They have intercourse with many sexual partners without using any form of protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or HIVIAIDS. 0 Gender: In general, women are dependent on men who take them as wives or girl friends. Because of gender inequalities, women have little say in what measures are taken to make sex safe. They have little control over where, when or even how to have sex. Lack of Awareness: Although nwch information has been disseminated; many people in the state still do not know or understand the fact. Failure to change: The pleasure of sex outweighs the risk to some people, thus exposing them to danger. Many people lack self-control. Inaccessibility to anti-retroviral drugs (SRVs) for PLWHA and PMTCT: Many HIV infected persons including pregnant women do not have access to anti-ri-retroviral drugs due to the high cost and limited availability. 2.2.8 THE SET TARGETS The folios ing targets are set to reduce the devaslating eff- of HIVjAIDS: 0 To reduce by 2007 HIV prevaienoe among young men and women aged 15 a 13 adults by 20 per cellit o Rcduc~e molher-no-child ~ a o m i s s i o n HIV by 30 per cent by 2007. of To reduce by 20 per cent tlPe proportion of infants i n f a d wih HIV by 2007 b j ensuing &a1 pregnant women have i d o n d o & and counsehg on HI' p r a en&xa 0 Increase ihe use of safer-sex bhaviow among the high risk a d g a d popu~atmn j 30 per a n t by 2007. b
  36. 36. Ensure full and easy access to anti-retroviral drugs by 2007. 2.2.9 IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES The State will adopt the following HIVIAIDS prevention, control and management strategies: Inaugurate the Bayelsa State Action Committee on AIDS. Provision of outboard engine boat, a four-wheel drive, public address systems, a television set and a video playerlrecorder. Improved h d i n g and timely release of funds. Increased staff strength of the division to ensure adequate awareness creation. HOUSING Housing is one of the most human needs and has a profound effect on the health, well-being and productivity of the individual. Investment in housing generates both employment and income, and enhances social status, personal security and emotional stability. However, housing is much more than shelter since it includes utilities such as electricity, water supply, access roads, sewage and refuse disposal facilities, nearness to education and health facilities and employment opportunities. Rapid population growth, the widening gap between rural and urban incomes, and the consequent rural-urban migration, the accelerated tempo of socio-economic development, perennial floods and erosion, and poverty have aggravated the shonage of shelter in Bayelsa State, resulting in overcrowding, high rent, slum and squatter settlement, especially at Yenagoa the Smte Capital and its environs. 2.3.1 HOUSING DEVELOPMENT 1 o ianprove the housing situadon. Government has h i l t the following estates and 1lOuSeS:
  37. 37. Commissioners and Judges Estate comprising 50 luxurious duplexes, (30No.) 3-bedroom bungalows and (l5No.) Service quarters. Market Housing Estate comprising 13 blocks of 2-bedroom and 3-bed room flats accommodating 52 families. 250 Housing Units on owner-occupier basis at Azikoro Road, Ekeki, Yenagoa. Government has also acquired: Bayelsa House in Abuja and 0 Secured five years lease of an estate in Abuja for Bayelsans with serious accommodation problems in Abuja. Other government efforts to provide shelter for Bayelsans include: r Perimeter survey of high, medium and low density residential layouts. Preparation and production of layout designs for high, medium and low density residential layout. Design of commercial layout known as Central Business District (CBD). Acquisition and payment of compensation for Iands acquired at Industrial Estate Gbararitoru and Television site Gbarantom Allocation of plots in high, medium and low density residential layouts for housing development. Development of sites and services at Ekeki Low Density Residential Layout with the provision of drainages. Survey of 1,000 plots in the high density residential layouts IB. Survey of 100 plots in the Central Business District (CBD) for physical allmiion to corporate bodies. Opening of road network in the high density residential layout to provide accessibility for plot alloltees. Sites and Services Scheme for the provision of 2,000 service plots at *lo. Pro isaon of i 20 plots for Top Govermnent Fmcrionarits in the state. Co~asmctrora Got emor's todge and D e p u ~ of governorquot; Lodge. Construclion o f a super lwury estate near Government House. Comlrucrion of 5,001) housing uwli for civil servants in the St&. The houses are hanced ad consmod by Ashdene Associates Limited. .2qurs1mn of an induslhjai layomt at Gba~afitosuo provide i n d h a i imd at t &rap rate and ensure job cfeahn for you& and thus reduce p v - as well as > u w ~ a s utlresl.
  38. 38. Provision, survey and layout preparation of land in Twon Brass for the construction of 5,000 housing units by IKI Construction Limited to accommodate people who will work in the Brass NLG. 232 ... HOUSING PROBLEMS While the above developments have brought succour to many, the State is still beset with the fcllowing problems: 0 Inadequacy of housing stock Shortage of housing finance Insufficient budgetary provision for estate development Lack of funding to acquire land for residential and commercial purposes especially in the high, medium and low density residential areas including the Central Business District The state cannot benefit from Federal Mortgage Bank Loan for construction of houses because Bayelsa is not a contributor in the national Housing Scheme High cost of building materials 0 Inadequate sxecutive capacity 0 Inadequate involvement of the private sector in housing development 0 Poor performance by stakeholders in the housing delivery system Lack of physical development or master plans and inadequate cadastral and topographical maps 0 Non-popularization of locally produced building materials 1-33 POLICY THRUST The policy ihrust is geared t w r s achieving the goal of access to decent housing oad accomn~odationfor all Bayelsans at afKordable cost. The role of government will be p d y promotional and partly direct construction of housing. Some of the major objpc~iaes h b e poiicy are to: o A a o p ~realdc budding designs and local building materials to provide houses a reasonable cosr; a lmprove the merall q w ~ i i t y quality of housing by increasing h e rate of and nem laousing cmns~luc~isn; Encourage public-priancate p a r t a ~ e ~ linphousing deiiveay; i Inrpro~e iinirasisuciural fadities and services in existing resideaid a r q 0 Pro?~ d adequate office acm~mmo&ion ~ C civilipublic servant% e P
  39. 39. 2.3.4 TARGETS AND STRATEGIES The following strategies will be adopted to achieve the above objectives: Establish appro?riate institutional framework to facilitate effective planning in housing develop~nent 2005. by Provision of 2,000 sites and service plots for housing development at Opolo by 2007. Completion of 5,000 housing units in Yenagoa 2007. Completion of 5,000 housing units at Twon Brass. Provision of 500 commercial plots 2006. Provision of industrial plots in the Industrial Layout at Gbarantoru Construction of road network and other facilities in major towns to encourage planned housing development. Restructure existing public institutions involved in housing delivery with a view to making *em more effective and responsive to the needs of Bayelsans. Mobilize private sector participation in housing delivery. Encourage research into and promote the use of locally produced building materials such as burnt bricks as a means of reducing housing cost. Improve the quality and quantity of the required skilled manpower in housing delivery. Strengthen the executive capacity of local governments to enable them contribute more effectively in housing klivery. Provide both land and building materials at reasonabie prices. 0 Prepare adequate number of hectares for direct allocation to civil servants. Grant soft loans to civil servants to enable them build their own houses WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION At its incepGon in 1996, Bayeisa State was inundated with several, uncoordinated, sca~ered amer schemes provided by ilfie hen Rivers State Government, OMPAUEC. Oil Conapanies, Niger Delta Basin Development Authority q?ZDBD:I), Perrolem Twit Fund d donor agencies Most of these svater s~hi.mesere eatlaer uncompleied or in a state of disrepair. Before May 1999, the Slate N . AB ~ d r e h a b j l a ~ d u some w a r schemes and provided a few mini- nc~ghb~>un~oodr xhesnes in & eight bed h v e m n e n l Area%. ude
  40. 40. By May 1999, the Board had rehabilitated the Yenagoa Waterworks and other schemes in the State capital. Water facilities in other urban and semi-urban towns covering the LGA Headquarters and some rural communities are awaiting urgent rehabilitation/construction. The Water Board was strengthened through financial and technical assistance by the National Water Rehabilitation Project which provided the Board's office, vehicles and other relevant materials. The project was supposed to have put the Board on the road to proper financial practices, billing and collection through proper customer enumeration, software development, mapping of towns, and training courses for technical staff. A Water Development Programme launched in 2000 which is on-going has over 70 water projects scattered all over the State. Within Yenagoa metropolis the functioning Ovom waterworks is being upgraded to increase its capacity. The medium-term plan partly izvolves the construction c?f mini waterworks at Kpansia, Swali, Etegwe, Igbogene, Biogbolo and Edepie. As along-term measure, the State Government is also constructing the Yenagoa Main watenvorks at OkakaEkeki, which will meet the water demand of the State capital up to 2015. 2.4.1 PROBLEMS AND CONSTRAINTS Bayelsa State is blessed with abundant water resources but potable water is grossly inadequate. Potable water is the water that contains the water parameters in their desirable level set by the World Health Organization and is safe for consumption. Potable water is difficult to kames due to the peculiar temin, location and geology of the state and lack of funds, inhtructure and skilled manpower. The many rivers and creeks do not suppoxt large regional water schemes due to the problems of distribution under rivers and seas. Spring water is not available due to the absence of hills and mountains. Atmospheric pollution and acid rains contarninak rainuatec?while surface water is polluted by oil spillage, fishermen's abuse of dangerous chemicals (eg. ganolin), sea transport deposits and unsanitary disposal of human and industrial waste. Iron is the most difficult contaminant, fcaliod b j s h b a i e r i n m i o n in h e ground. depeading on the LGA water. The III& iron conlent giws the chmcterislic reddish wlour m d offensive oolow.
  41. 41. The high iron content is caused by natural geological processes. * Indiscriminate installation of boreholes without assessing the sustainable yields of aquifers, and problems of salt water intrusion and lowering of water table. The boreholes are also potential sources of groundwater contamination. The problems of water supply are attributable to lack of funds, electricity, spare parts, fuel, skilled manpower, maintenance, communication facilities, and conununity participation. The transportation of materials by boat in the riverine areas is very cumbersome and expensive. Often new political office holders abandon on-going projects. Contractors are not paid promptly due to lack of funds. Water projects are carried out in an uncoordinated manner without consultation with the State Water Agency so two or three uncompleted water projects by different organizations may be concentrated in one community and none for the nearby community. Improper planning and construction of roads destroy utility pipes and also hamper water distribution system when there is no space between the roads and the buildings for utility pipes to pass. 2.4.2 POLICY THRUST AND TARGET The State Govenunent policy thrust is to provide safe and sustainable water supply for about 60 per cent of the populace by the year 2007. The goal is to provide potable water for all the Local Government Headquarters and some selected communities in the state by 2007 using objective criteria Govermnent is committed to the eradication of water-borne diseases and to improve water supply and management for o&er productive economic activities. It is to ensure integrated and sllsuinable baler resources management to meet the present and future water resources needs of the state. 2.4.3 LMPLEdMENTATIONSTRATEGIES me s:raaegies to ensure optinla1 devdopment of water resouma on an ere ircmnenaall> sound ad swainable h i s for food production, water suppfbr, 11) dsc~portergmemlion, aralspom~ion recrealiod uses an?: and lamc,isd funding of u a w schemes Promole rcsrarch a growad waer m c h g e and saline water hlrusion. n Rcslorc plauicd swface and p i a n d ww lnlcnsif> Qc reacliulion ad r&abll~wionof exisling warn pro&&
  42. 42. The completion of on-going water schemes in both the urban and rural areas Encourage public-private partnership such as Federal, State and Local Governments, NDDC, Oil Companies, other organizations and private individuals in the development and supply of water The designing of a proper plan for road construction and utility lines to ease water supply and distribution Provide potable water in all urban and rural areas Customer enumeration, bil!hg and collection of differentiated user charges, especially industrial establishments Encouraging rain harvesting in areas with adequate potable water supply Proper and site specific studies to be undertaken before the exploitation of groundwater resources Continuous operation and effective maintenance of water schemes Provision of adequate water treatment system 2.4.4 SANITATION Rapid economic, population and urban growth without adequate planning have accelerated waste management and sanitation problems. Inappropriate solid waste management cause traffic hazards, blockage of drainages leading to urban flooding and public health related problems. Industrial emuent discharges pollute surface water. Industrialists do not comply with relevant statutes due to lack of incentive, poor enforcement of regulations and ignorance of statutory requirements. The absence of sanitary landfills in the state makes effective solid waste management d i f i c u l ~ Ignorance is another main factor militating against effective waste management. Open rier, pit iauine and pier latrine are the widely used toilet systems, while uater closet and flush to sewer are the least used systems in the srate. Improper .mitar). practices could pollute gmundwater with an overall human health impiication. The unuholesome mimy practices are mainly due to ignorance aml pot erty. 2.4.5 GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
  43. 43. Introduction of safe sanitation technology Provision of pipes sewerage systems that are separate from storm water drainage in urban areas 2.4.6 IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES Strategies to improve sanitation include: Construction of sanitary landfill in the urban and semi-urban areas Reduction, recycling, collection and safe disposal of solid waste Encourage private sector participation in waste management practices and services Enforcement of existing waste water and solid waste regulation Provision of water treatment facilities Development and implementation of capacity building programmes through training and retraining Introduction of user charges for water sanitation and solid waste services Concerned individuals, NGOs, Local and State Governments should enlighten the public on the need and benefits of proper waste disposal Promote better health practices and sanitation with a focus on clean water and good hygiene and construction of sanitary facilities. 2.5 ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNlNG AND PROTECTION Environmental considerations a~ hardly integrated into development planning hence the increasing level of environmental degradation in Nigeria. Bayelsa state sufers from several primary and secondary environmental problems. The primary environmental difficulties due mainly to underdevelopment and the resultant poor living conditions include slum housing, lack of .+aler and electricity, inadequate arrmgement for sewage and refuse disposal, poor drainage system and oil, toxic baste materiais. The secondaq emvironinenrai problems are generated in ihe ptucess of accelerated dc3 elopment For example, industrialization and mining activities have leR behind a isaii of piru~lcanin i air, land, rivers, creeks and coastal waters which is k narnaiul to marine and human life. Rapid population growth, particulwiy h e u h p~p&&n. and h e grcmiag leei of manufxacuuing and mining operations have p o d senom em im~unenaalhazards. Inadoqua~eenvironmental @onsideration in t17e de~dogmrnt esplor~tion resouaces have desfroyed some irreplaceable and of rewurcrs and csealed esological iaubalances.
  44. 44. 2.5.1 ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS The environmental problems facing Bayelsa include: Costal and marine erosion and land subsidence River bank erosion and flooding in the low-lying mangrove and fresh water swamps and along the flood planes of River Nun, Focardos, etc. Urban flooding in the State Capital, Yenagoa where little or no provision has been made for surface drainage. The worsening of flood problems and destruction of wild life habitats and natural conununities when marshes and other wetlands are sand filled. Uncontrolled logging: the destruction of erosion control, cooling, shading and water-shed protection mechanism provided by tress when they are indiscriminately cut down. Intrusion of salt water in domestic water supplies due to excessive withdrawal of underground water in coastal areas. 0 Creation of burrow pit associated with bad mining practices and road construction. 0 Urban decay, squatter settlements, municipal waste disposal and sewage problems such as polythene bags, containers, tyres, crankcase oil, etc litter the streets. 0 The loss of aesthetic values of natural beaches due to unsightly oil slicks. 0 The menace of water hyacinth in most of the water ways. Oil pollution and gas flares, he1 pipes and smoke stacks pollute the air and conununities and industries discharge untreated wastes into water, with adverse impact on human health, vegetation, wildlife and property. Between 1996 and 2000, an estimated 99,809.80 Mmrn3 of gas was flared tlms contributing to the climate change phenomenon or global warming Lnsanitary environmental conditions and high levels of land, water and air poilurion caused mainly by oil exploration predispose Bayeisans to ds a e . ie s s 0 Being a pasiner in all oil activities ihrough NNPC and therefore a pa@ to oil ieiatd emironmenial problems. the Federal G o v e m e n t is fiams- in replaiing oil pollusion. To ~linproveafae entiramencad siluation, the State Government established ihe Einarol~l~~end Samaaiion Authority since the S u e was c d in 1996, and has reinsroduced ihe ~ M J I Msaniia~ion > day
  45. 45. infrastructural development. Yenagoa Master Plan was produced in 2003 to guide the orderly development of the State Capital. Government has increased the funding of various environmental activities including a standing monthly release of N12 million to the Ministry of Environment for sanitation activities. However, the environment condition is far from satisfactory and the constraints to implementation include: Inadequate enforcement of laws and regulations with respect to urban planning ar,d development, petroleum prospecting and exploitation, siting of buildings etc Inadequate h d s and /or mismanagement Inadequate inkzstructure m d trained manpower 0 Lack of popular participation in project design and implementation 0 Political interference and lack of political will to tackle environmental problems and oil pollution 2.5.2 POLICY THRUST / TARGETS A poor quality environment would make improvements in the quality of life and good health impossib!e. 'I?l~;iijre, the overall policy thrust is to ensure a healthy and safe environment that secures sustainable social and economic well-being for Bayelsans. The main objectives are to take full inventory of the natural resources of Bayelsa State, assess the level of environmental degradation and implement restoration measures aimed at stemming further environmental damage. To ensure a safe and heairhy environment, SEEDS sets the following targets: 0 To eiiminate the incidence of oil spillage and gas flaring 0 Swm environmental and waste pollution in the State Capital Yenagoa and other big touns 0 Control crwirome~a~al degradation and pollution processes 0 Enco~rdgc? h e participation of the private sector in environmental 11-lanagement,proteelion and conservation 0 Achieve m~lenmional statidards in the process of controlling and monitoring liae en iromnent 0 Compl3 u t h mmnational s * bed& a d environmental standards as f, he? reiate 10 pticular i31dllsuies, epeciaily the p e ~ ~ ~ l p u r n indusw
  46. 46. 2.5.3 IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES To achieve the above targets, the government will: 0 Formulate state environmental situation policy and guidelines 0 Establish quot;guidelines for oil companies operationsquot; Establish a hlly equipped hnctional pollution control laboratory and equipment for preservation of pollution evidence Acquisition of pollution and evidence preservation equipment 0 Establish integrated solid waste management system (ISWM) Adequate provision, upgrading and maintenance of necessary inhstructure for environmentally sound collection, transportation and disposal of municipal solid wastes Construct model dumpsites, sewage dumps and compost plants 0 Clear water hyacinth and other invasive weeds in the water ways through inventorisation, development of an infestation index map and integrated control options 0 Give supportlcollaborate with NGOs to promote initiative targeted at raising environmental awareness amongst the populace 0 Mainstream women in development pnxess so that they will be less dependent on land for their means of livelihood. T i will impact positively hs on reducing the rate of degradation of the environment and depletion of natural resources 0 Establish openigreen spaces within the master plan as air pockets and yentilation buffers in the major cities Protection of historical sites, sacred groves and natural habitats (e.g. fresh Haler swamp vegetations and riparian vegetation - 50m on both sides of a creek/stream w i ~ city seuings) for the conservation of native vegetation n and ~ i i d species for tourism life Pro ision of motor vehicles and boats to enhance mobility 0 Pro ide adequate legal framework to deal with eaivironmental defaulters Eialplojinent of qudified manpower to assist inp v e w alleviation Pro ide adequak k i n g and re1~aiiPing personnel for capacity building of Proiide rccrcaiion ceners, e.g. m, botanical gardens, etc within urban =fir ilgs.
  47. 47. INFORMATION, CULTURE AND TOURISM In a young state like Bayelsa, the need to modernize and organize properly the information processes and make them more effective and efficient has become imperative. This is necessary to facilitate among other things the production of excellent information materials such as printed newspapers, magazines, films, radio and television materials and other communication visual aids. Government information services publicize government activities, policies and programmes internally and externally and provide a feedback mechanism between the governed and government. Public information services are the mouthpiece and image make of government. They seek to foster State and national consciousness, national unity and cultural awareness in a multi-ethnic society. Another aim is the mobilization of public support for the national and state development effort through the dissemination of correct information on the benefits as well as the costs of social and economic devel~pment. Culture is the distinctive and total ways of life of a given society/community, which is created, learned and held in common and transmined from generation to generation by members of that given society. It refers to the totality of peoples' ways of life evolved by a people in the attempts to meet the challenges of living in their environment. It covers their behaviours, knowledge, skills, beliefs, customs, traditions, values, religion, music, art, dressing, food and any other capabilities. It is a coniplex whole which gives order and meaning to their social, political. economic, religious and aesthetic norms and modes of organisation, thus distinguishing them from their neighbour. Culture acts as veritable tools in promoting greater understmding iocally and eihancing diplomatic relalions internationally. The cherished cultwid heritage of the state will be jealously guarded to promote harmony and cohesion. Government will tl~ereforetap the state rich traditions, custons, art works, elc in order to presene its culture.
  48. 48. Bayelsa State Broadcasting Corporation (BSBC) popularly called the Glory FM (Radio Bayelsa) Bayelsa State Newspaper Corporation Bayelsa State Television (BSTV) Bayelsa State Council for Arts and Culture referred to as the Glory Cultural Centre Government Printers 2.6.1 PROBLEMS AND CONSTRAINTS The main problems militating against the dissemination of information and the promotion of culture and tourism include: Lack of modem equipment and gadgets Inadequate funding Lack of office accommodation and furniture 0 None installation of the already supplied printing equipment in the Bayelsa State Newspaper Corporation (BSNC) 0 Lack of cars, buses and boats 0 Inadequate indigenous technical know-how and human capacity Lack of local manufacture or maintenance of information and communication technology. 2.6.2 POLICY THRUST, GOALS AND A M The strategic policy lhrust is to inform, educate and entertain the general public; fosler state and national unity; improve cultural values; create employment and wealth and accelemte the development of the siate. The goals and aims include: Optional deelopment of information dissemination within and outside h e siate Educating the public through enlightenment programmes Enternin d~rougb pubiic variety shows, drama and music Publication though the pmt and e l ~ n i mediac Proanore h e rich cul~uralheiiuge of the slate Drliriop h e mur-ism pstm~als. 2.5.3 STRATEGIES TO ACHIEVE THE GOAL!3
  49. 49. Improved hnding and provision of essential infrastructural facilities Showcasing the abundant wealth of the state to the global community through the internet Promote grass root information of press clubs at the primary and secondary school levels Establishment of functional information centers Identification and classification of tourism siies and events and cscation of the enabling environment Active promotion of the cultural heritage of the state Encourage indigenous newspaper proprietors, film makers and musicians through capacity and financial building Give financial support to communities that embark on annual cultural festivals and tourism activities Installation of the equipment in the Newspaper corporation Enforcement of intellectual property rights and the promotion of entrepreneurship, training and partnerships. 2.6.4 POLICY TARGETS TOURISIMDEVELOPMENT The primary focus of BY-SEEDS in the tourism sector is to make Bayelsa the primary tourist destination in this country. The key targets in the short term are: Increase tourist anivals into the State by 20% a year, lmprove tourism facilities to attract targeted inflow of tourists. POLICY STATEGIES To achieve the foregoing targets ihe State will pursue the following strategies:
  50. 50. WOMEN. YOUTH AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Social development addresses issues and problems which enhance access to resources, the provision of basic needs, the equitable distribution of wealth, achievement of social justice, and improvement of the standard of living of the generality of the people. It identifies both the general and targeted groups for specific interventions and focuses on the most vulnerable groups such as women, youth, children, disabled, who may not otherwise have access to the benefits of economic development or contribute effectively to national development. Any element of discrimination negates the principle of social empowerment and justice. So there should be no discrimination on the basis of sex, age, class, social status, ethnicity, race, religion, and ideological belief. There is an increased concern, nationally and internationally, for youth and women issues, responsibilities and rights and also widespread consensus on the invaluable role of youths and women in the development process. Yet women and youth are invariably victims of exclusion &om governance, decision-making and development processes which impact negatively on their desires for self-reliance and self-realization. Bayelsa State has witnessed several decades of crude oil production, gas flaring and oil spillage and thus experienced severe environmental pollution and degradation. The combined effects of oil exploration, deprivation and neglect by successive governments and oil companies have greatly disrupted the traditional economic life of the people which is based on farming and fishing. Having lost their means of livelihood (fishing and f a l i n g ) the youths and women are generally poor, powerless, marginalized and lack suitable skills or training for gainful employment in the oil and gas induslries or self-employment.

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