2. DEFINITION OF DISASTER
„Disaster is a crisis situation that far exceeds
„Disaster‟ is defined as a crisis situation
causing wide spread damage which far
exceeds our ability to recover.
3. Types of Disaster
Disasters are mainly of 2 types,
1. Natural disasters. Example – earthquakes,
floods, landslides, etc.
2. Man made disasters. Example – war, bomb
blasts, chemical leaks, etc.
4. Disaster management includes:
“ the development of disaster recovery plans,(
for minimizing the risk of disasters and for
handling them when they do occur,) and the
implementation of such plans.”
Disaster management usually refers to the
management of natural catastrophes such as
fire, flooding, or earthquakes. Related
techniques include crisis management,
contingency management, and risk
6. Earthquake in Pakistan – 2005
Earthquake and tsunami in the Indian coast - 2004
Gujarat Earthquake - 2001
Floods in Mumbai, West Bengal
Cyclone: Rita, Wilma etc…..
And the list goes on and on……
7. Disasters occur in varied forms
Some are predictable in advance
Some are annual or seasonal
Some are sudden and unpredictable
Floods Days and weeks
8. Hazards such as flood, fire, outbreak of disease
and industrial accidents are part of life. Often
these events can cause major harm and damage,
loss of life and disruption to local communities
and the economy.
disaster management can address ways and
means to lessen or mitigate, if not prevent
10. 57% of the land area is prone to Earthquakes
12% to Floods
8% to Cyclones
70% of the cultivable land is prone to drought
85% of the land area is vulnerable to number
of natural hazards
22 states are prone to multi hazards.
Good prevention might include the construction of
flood levees, relocation of housing and essential
services away from floodways, use of better
building standards or hazardous waste regulations.
Through good preparation, the effects of disasters and
significant incidents can often be reduced. information
and education for the public about hazards. This will help
communities to take action to protect themselves, their
families and property from harm. Planning and
community involvement in the planning is most
important in preparing for disasters.
In major emergencies it is critical that an efficient and
effective disaster response can be mobilized. Response is
a collective responsibility. In a major emergency or
disaster, people need to know what to do, who will do it
and how it will be done. The ability to respond quickly
and effectively will depend on good preparation. If a
response plan has been developed thoughtfully, included
the community‟s views, been communicated clearly and
has been based on a realistic availability of resources, it
is likely to succeed.
Recovery from major disaster can be a long and costly
process. Essential services such as water and power may
need to be restored, additional medical services may be
required or temporary housing and family support may
be needed. Businesses and the economy could be badly
affected and need support to recover. Recovery from
disaster will also be most effective then it has been
thought about in advance. Generally, major disasters will
require assistance from outside the community.
Awareness of emergency relief funding programs and
strengthening the links with national disaster relief
organisations may assist the recovery effort.
17. 1.Disaster management is the responsibility of all spheres of government.
No single service or department in itself has the capability to achieve
comprehensive disaster management. Each affected service or
department must have a disaster management plan which is
coordinated through the Disaster Management Advisory Forum.
2.Disaster management should use resources that exist for a day-to-day
There are limited resources available specifically for disasters, and it
would be neither cost effective nor practical to have large holdings of
dedicated disaster resources. However, municipalities must ensure that
there is a minimum budget allocation to enable appropriate response
to incidents as they arise, and to prepare for and reduce the risk of
18. 3.Organisations should function as an extension of their core
Disaster management is about the use of resources in the most
effective manner. To achieve this during disasters, organisations
should be employed in a manner that reflects their day-to-day
role. But it should be done in a coordinated manner across all
relevant organisations, so that it is multidisciplinary and multi-
4.Individuals are responsible for their own safety.
Individuals need to be aware of the hazards that could affect
their community and the counter measures, which include the
Municipal Disaster Management Plan, that are in place to deal
19. 5.Disaster management planning should focus on large-scale
It is easier to scale down a response than it is to scale up if
arrangements have been based on incident scale events. If you
are well prepared for a major disaster you will be able to respond
very well to smaller incidents and emergencies, nevertheless,
good multi agency responses to incidents do help in the event of
a major disaster.
6.Disaster management planning should recognize the difference
between incidents and disasters.
Incidents - e.g. fires that occur in informal settlements, floods
that occur regularly, still require multi-agency and multi-
jurisdictional coordination. The scale of the disaster will indicate
when it is beyond the capacity of the municipality to respond, and
when it needs the involvement of other agencies.
20. 7.Disaster management operational arrangements are additional to
and do not replace incident management operational
Single service incident management operational arrangements
will need to continue, whenever practical, during disaster
8.Disaster management planning must take account of the type of
physical environment and the structure of the population.
The physical shape and size of the Municipality and the spread of
population must be considered when developing counter disaster
plans to ensure that appropriate prevention, preparation,
response and recovery mechanisms can be put in place in a
21. 9.Disaster management arrangements must recognize the
involvement and potential role of non-government agencies.
Significant skills and resources needed during disaster operations
are controlled by non-government agencies. These agencies must
be consulted and included in the planning process.
22. Disaster planning is about anticipating the types of
disasters that may occur and the effect on
communities. It is about drawing on the wisdom of
the community and experts to develop ways to
prevent, prepare for, respond to and recover from
those disasters. Disaster management planning is a
collective responsibility. Governments, communities
and private sector need to work together so that
knowledge, resources and effort are used to
minimize the effects of disaster on communities, the
economy and the environment.
23. The advantages of disaster planning are:
Involving the community in understanding and
responding to disasters
Reduced impact of disasters
Reduced recovery costs and economic disruption
Enabling the alignment of disaster management with
other development priorities
Demonstrating effective and responsible management
by the Municipality or Province
24. Co-ordination of disaster management with other
Meeting the requirements of National Legislation and
demonstrating due diligence
Allocating financial and human resources to develop
and manage the disaster management system
Raising public and media attention on the handling of
disasters in the past and future through community
Managing public expectations and the municipal
accountability for the proper management of disasters
in the future.