3. entails between distinct languages either
through written form or through direct social
contact between speakers.
4. THE EXAMPLE OF:
THROUGH WRITTEN FORM
* Latin and contemporary English
TROUGH DIRECT SOCIAL CONTACT
* Recruiting of foreign workers from Turkey by German
companies contact of German with Turkish in many
large cities in German
* The arrival of immigrants from Mexico and Cuba to the
United States contact between Spanish and America
5. Sometimes contact situations are established
in the history of a language but later exist to a
much lesser extent.
English was in very close contact with
French after the Norman invasion of England
in 1066, but today the contact between those
languages in England is much less intense.
7. It is often influenced by BORROWING
Borrowing is the adoption by one language of linguistic
elements from another language.
8. Loans or loanwords
the adoption of individual words into one language from
another. Example in American English include BALLET and
CHAISE from French, MACHO and TACO from Spanish and
PIZZA and SPAGHETTI from Italian
Loan translations or calques
the adoption of whole phrases and idiomatic expression.
Example include English IT GOES WITHOUT SAYING from
French IL VA SANS DIRE
9. Phonological Borrowing
when a language adopts a new sounds or phonological rules from a language with
which it is in contact.
word final [ž] has been introduced from French loanwords like rouge
the adoption of morphological features by one language under the influence of
suffixes –able/-ible from French readable, incredible
suffix –er from Latin reader, writer
ordering requirements of surface elements in one language may be borrowed into
another language, replacing the native word order.
Asia Minor Greek dialects have adopted SUBJECT – OBJECT – VERB word
under the influenced of Turkish.
11. It is determined by:
The Linguistic Contact
The Level of Interaction between the speakers
* a long-term contact + a high level of interactions an intense contact situation
* a short-term contact + limited social interaction a low-intensity contact
It affects on Linguistic system:
Lexical borrowing requires a low-intensity contact situation without a depth
knowledgeable of the grammar system of the donor language
Structural borrowing requires the existences of at least some speakers who
are knowledgeable in both languages Bilingualism (requires
a relatively intense degree of contact between the group in
order to develop)
12. The Adstratal Relationship
if the speakers in the contact situation consider themselves to be equally
Adstratal borrowing is bidirectional the borrowing takes places in both
directions as donor and recipient at the same time.
English and Norse in contact in Early England were adstratum
The Substratal/ Superstratal Relationship
If the speakers themselves to be unequal in term of prestige
The Substratal/Superstratal is undirectional the superstatum language is the
donor langauge and accepts only a few loanwords from the substratum language
Superstratum language: the language of the dominant group
Subtratum language : the language of the less dominant
for the example: English and Native American Language
English language is the superstratum language
Native American language is substratum language
13. Language Convergence
If the speakers of different languages enter into an extensive,
long term contact.
the development of an increasing mutual agreement of the
language systems in contact
Sprachbund (union of language): languages which enter into
such a linguistic alliance
BALKAN Sparchbund Albania
14. Language Shift
If there is extensive, long –term contact between languages
that have an unequal prestige relationship.
As the shift by a group of speakers toward another language,
while abandoning the native language.
If the shifting group is the only group speakers who used
their original language.
16. Arises in a setting where two or more people come
together for the purposes of trade.
If the traders do not share a common language for
communication, they might create a simplified, yet distinct
language, A PIDGIN, to help facilitate trading.
CHINOOK JARGON a pidgin spoken by Native
American, British, and
French traders in the Pacific
Northwest in the
17. Arises in situation where the speakers in contact are in
need of a common, primary means of communication.
For a wide range of communication purposes, not just
facilitation of trade.
plantation setting on the Caribbean Islands and in the
Southern United States.
a large number of Africans speaking a multitude of mutually
unintelligible native languages came together with a small
number of Africans. This situation created the need for a
common means of communication among the Africans as well
as between the African and Europeans
English-based Jamaican Creole
French-based Haitian Creole