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Beyond MARC: MARC, linked data, and Bibframe

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Beyond MARC: MARC, linked data, and Bibframe

  1. 1. Beyond MARCMARC, Linked Data, and Bibframe 17 April 2013 Thomas Meehan Head of Current Cataloguing t.meehan@ucl.ac.uk
  2. 2. Card Index Cataloguehttp://cardcat.ucl.ac.uk/cgi-bin/carddisplay.pl?card=887;drawer=13;max=931;ctype=C
  3. 3. AACR2Models for decision : a conference under theauspices of the United Kingdom AutomationCouncil organised by the British ComputerSociety and the Operational Research Society /edited by C.M. Berners-Lee. -- London : EnglishUniversities Press, 1965. x, 149 p. : ill. ; 23 cm. Includes bibliographical references.• Berners-Lee, C. M.
  4. 4. MARCMAchineReadableCataloguing
  5. 5. AACR2 in MARC21245 00 $a Models for decision : $b a conference under the auspices of the United Kingdom Automation Council organised by the British Computer Society and the Operational Research Society / $c edited by C.M. Berners-Lee.260 __ $a London : $b English Universities Press, $c 1965.300 __ $a x, 149 p. : $b ill. ; $c 23 cm.504 __ $a Includes bibliographical references.700 1_ $a Berners-Lee, C. M.
  6. 6. AARC2 in .mrc00788nam a2200181 a4500001002700000005001700027008004100044024001500085245021000100260004900310300003200359504004100391650003300432700002300465710003900488710003000527710004900557_UCL01000000000000000477125_20061112120300.0_850710s1965 enka b000 0 eng _8 _ax280050495_00_aModels for decision :_baconference under the auspices of the United Kingdom AutomationCouncil organised by the British Computer Society and the OperationalResearch Society /_cedited by C.M. Berners-Lee._ _aLondon:_bEnglish Universities Press,_c1965._ _ax, 149 p. :_bill. ;_c23 cm.__aIncludes bibliographical references._ 0_aDecisionmaking_vCongresses._1 _aBerners-Lee, C. M._2 _aUnited KingdomAutomation Council._2 _aBritish Computer Society._2 _aOperationalResearch Society (Great Britain)__
  7. 7. RDA in MARC21245 00 $a Models for decision : $b a conference under the auspices of the United Kingdom Automation Council organised by the British Computer Society and the Operational Research Society / $c edited by C.M. Berners-Lee.264 _1 $a London : $b The English Universities Press Limited, $c 1965.264 _4 $c ©1965300 __ $a x, 149 pages : $b illustrations ; $c 23 cm.336 __ $a text $2 rdacontent337 __ $a unmediated $2 rdamedia338 __ $a volume $2 rdacarrier504 __ $a Includes bibliographical references.700 1_ $a Berners-Lee, C. M., editor of compilation.
  8. 8. What is MARC for?
  9. 9. What is MARC for?• Storage• Exchange and distribution• Manipulation• Display• Input (http://www.aurochs.org/zz/marc_input/marc_input.html)• “Lingua franca of library cataloguing”
  10. 10. Finite Notation ProblemToo many subject schemes650 _0 for LCSH650 _1 for LC for Childrens650 _2 for MeSH…650 _7 Source specified in subfield $2Not enough indicators246 184 $aThe title on the spine
  11. 11. Data in More Than One PlaceLanguages008 (positions 35-37) eng041 __ $a eng240 10 $l English546 __ $a In English.
  12. 12. Double Encoding: ISBD and MARC Blanket : Constellation of Orion, 3.260 __ $a Blanket $b Constellation of Orion $c 3260 __ $a Blanket : $b Constellation of Orion, $c 3.
  13. 13. Data Mixed UpGMD245 10 $a Data on the web $h [electronic resource] : $b research and applications / $c Antonis Bikakis, Adrian Giurca (eds.).245 10 $a Data on the web $b research and applications / $c Antonis Bikakis, Adrian Giurca (eds.).Nothing allowed after 245$c245 10 $a Enduring resistance : $b cultural theory after Derrida / $c edited by Sjef Houppermans, Rico Sneller, Peter van Zilfhout. =La résistance persérvère : la théorie de la culture (d)aprés Derrida / edité par SjefHouppermans, Rico Sneller, Peter van Zilfhout.
  14. 14. Text, Not DataISBN Extent020 __ $a 9780285638976 (pbk.) 300 __ $a ix, 300 p.020 __ $a 012002618X (ebook) DimensionsTitle 300 __ $c 23 cm245 10 $a British goblins : 300 __ $c 9 mmPlace of publication260 __ $a KölnCopyright date260 __ $c c2005264 _4 $c ©2002260 _4 $c copyright 2005260 _4 $c ℗1983260 _4 $c phonogram 1993
  15. 15. Changing Text as Primary Key for Headings and AuthoritiesAuthor heading for deceased personNiemeyer, Oscar, 1907-Different preferences for writing nameMao, Tse-tung, 1893-1976 [Former heading]Mao, Zedong, 1893-1976毛泽东, 1893-1976Small differences could break matchMao, Zedong, 1893-1976.Mao, Zedong, 1893-1976
  16. 16. Expressing RelationshipsWhat does this mean?700 0_ $a Homer. $t Iliad.700 1_ $a Berners-Lee, Tim.
  17. 17. Record Not Data00788nam a2200181 a4500001002700000005001700027008004100044024001500085245021000100260004900310300003200359504004100391650003300432700002300465710003900488710003000527710004900557_UCL01000000000000000477125_20061112120300.0_850710s1965 enka b 000 0 eng _8 _ax280050495_00_aModels for decision :_baconference under the auspices of the United Kingdom Automation Council organisedby the British Computer Society and the Operational Research Society /_cedited byC.M. Berners-Lee._ _aLondon :_bEnglish Universities Press,_c1965._ _ax, 149 p.:_bill. ;_c23 cm._ _aIncludes bibliographical references._ 0_aDecisionmaking_vCongresses._1 _aBerners-Lee, C. M._2 _aUnited Kingdom AutomationCouncil._2 _aBritish Computer Society._2 _aOperational Research Society (GreatBritain)__LeaderDirectoryData245 field, final 710 field
  18. 18. Other Considerations• Only libraries use MARC – Libraries tied to library-specific software/processes – Outside agencies can’t take advantage of library data and standards (See Also: RDA not freely available)• Not even all of libraries use MARC – Archives – Repositories – Non-MARC LMSs• US RDA test demanded progress be made on a replacement before agreeing to adopt RDA
  19. 19. Linked Data: “the web of data”• Use URIs as names for things• Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names.• When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (RDF, SPARQL)• Include links to other URIs. so that they can discover more things. Tim Berners-Lee (2006)
  20. 20. English sentenceBrideshead Revisited was written by Evelyn Waugh.
  21. 21. ERM written outBrideshead revisited created by Evelyn Waugh
  22. 22. Adding URIs: Brideshead revisitedhttp://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/no97080492created by Evelyn Waugh
  23. 23. Adding URIs: Waughhttp://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/no97080492created byhttp://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n79049248
  24. 24. Adding URIs: creatorhttp://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/no97080492http://purl.org/dc/terms/creatorhttp://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n79049248
  25. 25. RDF Statement<http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/no97080492><http://purl.org/dc/terms/creator><http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n79049248> .
  26. 26. RDF (Turtle)@prefix lc_names: <http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/> .@prefix dc: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .lc_names:no97080492 dc:creator lc_names:n79049248 .
  27. 27. Brideshead Revisited@prefix lc_names: <http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/> .@prefix lc_languages: <http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/languages> .@prefix dc: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .lc_names:no97080492 dc:creator lc_names:n79049248 . dc:created "1945" . dc:extent "1 volume" . dc:language lc_languages:eng . dc:title "Brideshead revisited" . dc:type <http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/Text> .
  28. 28. Brideshead Revisited@prefix lc_names: <http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/> .@prefix lc_languages: <http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/languages/> .@prefix dc: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .lc_names:no97080492 dc:creator lc_names:n79049248 . dc:created "1945" . dc:extent "1 volume" . dc:language lc_languages:eng . dc:title "Brideshead revisited" . dc:type <http://purl.org/dc/dcmitype/Text> .
  29. 29. LC Name Authority for Waugh (excerpt)@prefix lc_names: <http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/> .@prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> .@prefix mads: <http://www.loc.gov/mads/rdf/v1#> .@prefix viaf: <http://viaf.org/viaf/sourceID/> .lc_names:n79049248 rdf:type mads:PersonalName . rdf:type mads:Authority . mads:authoritativeLabel "Waugh, Evelyn, 1903-1966"@en . mads:hasExactExternalAuthority viaf:68937142 .
  30. 30. Microdata, RDFa, Schema.orgOCLC Worldcat uses embedded Schema.org:http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/221944758
  31. 31. Worldcat Schema.org data for a book@prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> . _:1@prefix schema: <http://schema.org/> . rdf:type schema:Place; schema:name "London :" .@prefix worldcat: <http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/> . _:4@prefix library: <http://purl.org/library/> . rdf:type schema:Organization;@prefix viaf: <http://viaf.org/viaf/> . schema:name "English Universities Press" .@prefix lc_authorities: <http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/> . viaf:149407214@prefix mads: <http://www.loc.gov/mads/rdf/v1#> . rdf:type schema:Organization; madsrdf:isIdentifiedByAuthority lc_authorities:n79056431; schema:name "British Computer Society." .worldcat:221944758 viaf:130073090 rdf:type schema:Book; rdf:type schema:Organization; library:oclcnum "221944758"; madsrdf:isIdentifiedByAuthority lc_authorities:n85076053; schema:name "Models for decision : a conference under the schema:name "Operational Research Society." .auspices of the United Kingdom Automation Council organised by viaf:137135158the British Computer Society and the Operational Research rdf:type schema:Organization;Society"; madsrdf:isIdentifiedByAuthority lc_authorities:n79063901; schema:name "Institution of Electrical Engineers." . library:placeOfPublication _:1; viaf:36887201 schema:publisher _:4 . rdf:type schema:Person; schema:datePublished "[1965]"; schema:name "Berners-Lee, C. M." . schema:numberOfPages "149"; schema:contributor viaf:149407214; schema:contributor viaf:130073090; (http://www.aurochs.org/rdfv/rdfv.html : click Get Sample Data (OCLC)) schema:contributor viaf:137135158; schema:contributor viaf:36887201;
  32. 32. Author Information in Worldcat RDF (Turtle)@prefix worldcat: <http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/> .@prefix schema: <http://schema.org/> .@prefix viaf: <http://viaf.org/viaf/> .worldcat:221944758 schema:contributor viaf:36887201 .
  33. 33. Author Information in Worldcat RDF<http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/221944758><http://schema.org/contributor><http://viaf.org/viaf/36887201> .
  34. 34. Lots of Ways To Do It@prefix schema: <http://schema.org/> .@prefix dc: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .@prefix viaf: <http://viaf.org/viaf/> .@prefix rda_roles: <http://rdvocab.info/roles/> .@prefix cam: <http://data.lib.cam.ac.uk/id/entity/> .@prefix bnb_person: <http://bnb.data.bl.uk/id/person/> .example:book0001 dc:creator cam:cambrdgedb_eeacef63d900c2acffc3daa400f3d4e4 .example:book0001 dc:creator bnb_person:WaughEvelyn1903-1966 .example:book0001 schema:creator viaf:68937142 .example:book0001 rda_roles:creator viaf:68937142 .example:book0001 dc:creator lc_names:n79049248 .example:book0001 dc:creator "Waugh, Evelyn, 1903-1966" .[from CUL, BNB, OCLC Worldcat, RDA+VIAF, Dublic Core+LC Names, made-up]
  35. 35. Going from Wikipedia to a Catalogue Search1. “Francis Bacon” (Wikipedia)2. http://viaf.org/viaf/31992319 (VIAF)3. “Bacon, Francis, 1561-1626” (LC Authorities)4. UCL Explore search1. “Francis Bacon (artist)” (Wikipedia)2. http://viaf.org/viaf/14789843 (VIAF)3. “Bacon, Francis, 1909-1992” (LC Authorities)4. UCL Explore search
  36. 36. Linked Data: Is It Any Good?• Not-library specific – Detailed library data becomes part of the web – Libraries can benefit from wider software, community, and expertise; less tied to specific vendors – Non-librarians can use our data• Not catalogue-specific: e.g. if archives, repositories, and catalogues, and others can publish linked data and share identifiers (URIs) then it can be mixed and re-used in interesting ways• Can be linked with other schemes. E.g. authorities such as VIAF with Wikipedia, ORCID, and ISNI• Backbone of other big initiatives: – Schema.org used by major search engines (Google, Bing, Yahoo, Yandex) – UK government open data: data.gov.uk – Dbpedia – BBC websites, e.g. wildlife finder (takes data from Wikipedia) and World Cup sites.• Based on very basic and flexible Entity Relationship Model (ERM), the same structure as e.g. FRBR• Provenance of deconstructed data hard to determine• Can get complex very quickly• Linked data often synonymous with linked open data (a good thing for libraries)• No standard way of presenting bibliographic information as linked data, although…
  37. 37. BIBFRAMEBIBliographicFRAMEworkInitiative
  38. 38. BIBFRAME Model
  39. 39. BIBFRAME Model: ResourceA BIBFRAME Resource can be anything: a Work, Instance, Authority, orAnnotation bf:authorizedAccessPoint bf:description bf:identifier bf:label bf:subject bf:relatedResource
  40. 40. BIBFRAME Model: WorkWork: A resource reflecting a conceptual essence of the cataloging resource. (AFRBR Work/Expression) bf:creator bf:note bf:language bf:title bf:subject bf:relatedWork bf:hasInstance bf:hasExpression bf:expressionOf
  41. 41. BIBFRAME Model: InstanceInstance: A resource reflecting an individual, material embodiment of theWork. (A FRBR Manifestation) bf:title bf:contributor bf:placePub bf:provider bf:pubDate bf:extent bf:otherFeatures bf:dimensions bf:isbn bf:language bf:note bf:instanceOf
  42. 42. BIBFRAME Model: Authority (Person)Authority: A resource reflecting key authority concepts that have definedrelationships reflected in the Work and Instance. bf:resourceRole bf:isni bf:orcid bf:viaf
  43. 43. BIBFRAME Model: AnnotationAnnotation: A resource that decorates other BIBFRAME resources withadditional information, e.g. holdings, cover art, reviews. bf:annotates bf:annotationAssertedBy bf:annotationBody
  44. 44. BIBFRAME Examples http://kcoyle.net/bibframe/http://www.aurochs.org/rdfv/rdfv.html
  45. 45. BIBFRAME: Is It Any Good?• Still very much in draft• Uses own scheme and namespace – ensures security – but against spirit and usual practice of linked data• Reliant on successful conversion of MARC records (more so than move from AACR2 to RDA)• Not limited to encoding AACR2 or RDA or FRBR or Dublin Core or…• Basically under the control of the Library of Congress
  46. 46. More InformationMARC• MARC21 Standards http://www.loc.gov/marc/• MARC21 Bibliographic http://www.loc.gov/marc/bibliographic/ecbdhome.html• MARC21 Record Structure http://www.loc.gov/marc/specifications/specrecstruc.html• UKMARC Manual http://www.bl.uk/bibliographic/ukmarc.html• MARC Must Die / Roy Tennant. http://www.libraryjournal.com/article/CA250046.htmlLinked Data• Library of Congress Linked Data Service. http://id.loc.gov/ Includes LC Name Authorities, LCSH, geographic and language codes, and others.• Virtual International Authority File (VIAF). http://viaf.org/• The RDA (Resource Description and Access) Vocabularies at the Open Metadata Registry. http://rdvocab.info/• Schema.org for books. http://schema.org/Book• Dbpedia. http://dbpedia.org/About A linked data version of Wikipedia.• Linked Open BNB. http://bnb.data.bl.uk/search• data.lib.cam.ac.uk http://data.lib.cam.ac.uk• BBC Wildlife Finder, http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/wildlife. Compare e.g. http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/life/Desert_locust and http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/life/Desert_locust.rdf• Bookmarklet for searching catalogues from Wikipedia. http://www.aurochs.org/aurlog/2013/03/25/bookmarklet-for-searching- catalogues-from-wikipedia/Bibframe• LC Bibliographic Framework Transition Initiative. http://www.loc.gov/marc/transition/• BIBFRAME.org : New Bibliographic Framework. http://bibframe.org/• Bibframe examples / Karen Coyle. http://kcoyle.net/bibframe/ Converted from MARCXML. Mosly in JSON, but one in turtle.• NISO Bibliographic Roadmap Development Project. http://www.niso.org/topics/tl/BibliographicRoadmap/
  47. 47. Beyond MARC 24510$aBeyond MARC dc:title “Beyond MARC” bf:title “Beyond MARC” 17 April 2013 Thomas Meehan Head of Current Cataloguing t.meehan@ucl.ac.uk
  48. 48. Appendix: Look at your own BIBFRAME examples!How to get some BIBFRAME RDF/XML1. Go to http://bibframe.org/tools/compare/2. Enter an LC system ID into the box (e.g. 10342843) and click on Search.3. Click on BIBFRAME RDF/XML.How to convert RDF/XML to RDF/Turtle1. Select and copy some RDF/XML.2. Go to http://www.rdfabout.com/demo/validator/ and make sure Input Format is set to RDF/XML3. Paste the BIBFRAME data into the box, overwriting anything that’s already there.4. Click on Validate. You will get three versions of the RDF: as Notation 3 (of which Turtle is a subset); N-Triples; and RDF/XML.How to view the RDF/Turtle1. Select and copy some Turtle, Notation 3 or N-Triples. Notation 3 or Turtle are by far the easiest to read and look much the same.2. Go to http://www.aurochs.org/rdfv/rdfv.html3. Paste the RDF data into the box.4. Click on Submit.5. Click on the data itself to highlight various bits.