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UVA MDST 3703 Hypertext 2012-09-04

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UVA MDST 3703 Hypertext 2012-09-04

  1. 1. Lecture 3: Hypertext Prof. Alvarado MDST 3703/7703 4 September 2012
  2. 2. Business • The weekly blogging cycle – READ, COMMENT, DISCUSS, POST, REPEAT – Comment by Monday at 5 – Post after class on Thursday (by Friday at 5) • Grace period this week …
  3. 3. Review • Digital representation – Anything can be represented by numbers – Numbers are just characters that can be manipulated (sorted, counted, repeated, etc.) – Information is just a series of characters • Can we/you come up with a system to represent taste?
  4. 4. A CODE FOR TASTE? BITTER  B: 0..15 SOUR  S: 0..15 SALTY  T: 0..15 A Code for Taste SWEET  W: 0..15 UMAMI  U: 0..15 * Every taste can be represented by a five segment number: B.S.T.W.U * Yields a system that can (the tongue map is represent about a million actually a myth …) flavors (i.e. 165)
  5. 5. Taste “files” Imagine this potato “printed” by a 3D printer and composed of 3D “pixels” each with a taste value. The “ink” for this printer would be a mixture of chemicals that can “print” pure droplets of salty, savory, sweet, etc., that get combined in each pixel. Each element in the source file would be represented by an 8 segment number, 3 for the X,Y,Z position, and 5 for the B,S,T,W,U taste code
  6. 6. Hypertext
  7. 7. Liberation What does hypertext liberate us from? How?
  8. 8. “When reading these articles and watching the video, it immediately made think of Quentin Tarantino movies, The Six Degrees of Kevin Bacon, and the Choose Your Own Adventure books I checked out it bulk as a kid – all have this out-of-order connectedness, similar to how hypertext functions, that create a very satisfying (user) experience. People don’t naturally seem to think sequentially – it almost seems like more of an effort.”
  9. 9. “All of these authors see hypertext as a way to escape the many limitations of the analog, terrestrial world by making text multidimensional and placing it in a networked informational system, which breaks down the barriers of a linear world.”
  10. 10. Liberation from … • Hierarchy and linear thinking implied by how books and libraries are organized • Limits imposed by the material form of texts that prevent minds from making natural connections
  11. 11. Where does hierarchy come in? Where do you find it?
  12. 12. Hierarchy Organization of the library Organization of the book
  13. 13. Goes back to Aristotle …
  14. 14. So, what’s wrong with hierarchy?
  15. 15. Hierarchies fail because things belong in more than one place
  16. 16. [Tomato]
  17. 17. How does digital text overcome these problems? Let’s look at the history …
  18. 18. Prehistory Ritual  Writing  Computers Lithic Periods 4000 BC 1945 80,000 BC
  19. 19. Timeline 1945: Vannevar Bush conceives of the Memex 1965: Ted Nelson coins the word “hypertext” and proposes “Xanadu” 1967: Andy Van Dam develops first hypertext system at Brown 1975: ZOG/KMS developed at CMU 1987: Apple introduces HyperCard 1991: WorldWideWeb at CERN becomes first global hypertext
  20. 20. Vannevar Bush • American, 1899—1974 • Attended Harvard, MIT, Tufts • Engineer • Director of the Office of Scientific Research and Development in WWII • Inventor of memex concept, precursor to hypertext
  21. 21. What is the problem Bush addresses in As We May Think?
  22. 22. There is a growing mountain of research. AND A record if it is to be useful to science, must be continuously extended, it must be stored, and above all it must be consulted. BUT Publication has been extended far beyond our present ability to make real use of the record.
  23. 23. What makes it hard to find things? The problem of selection
  24. 24. When data are placed in storage, they are filed alphabetically or numerically, and information is found (when it is) by tracing it down from subclass to subclass. It can be in only one place, unless duplicates are used; one has to have rules as to which path will locate it, and the rules are cumbersome. Having found one item, moreover, one has to emerge from the system and re-enter on a new path. . . . The hman mind does not work that way. It operates by association.
  25. 25. How does the Memex solve the problem of selection?
  26. 26. It is exactly as though the physical items had been gathered together from widely separated sources and bound together to form a new book. It is more than this, for any item can be joined into numerous trails. READING AS WRITING
  27. 27. Key ideas • Associative indexing – “Any item may be caused at will to select immediately and automatically another” – “This is the essential feature of the memex” • Trails and Codes • The idea is to have media model how the mind (supposedly) works • Any analogs in contemporary technology?
  28. 28. Theodor Hom Nelson • American, b. 1937 • Attended Swarthmore College • Studied sociology at Harvard University • Invented term “hypertext” in 1965 • Conceived of Xanadu
  29. 29. “Hypertext is non-sequential writinng” From Literary Machines
  30. 30. Key Ideas • Computer “files” simply reproduce the metaphor of documents and catalogs (hierarchy) • Computers should be “literary machines” – From the beginning they have been used and imaging as machines for representing and manipulating text • Again, the dream is to have them model the way the mind works – Interactive and associative, not static and linear • Nothing is forgotten, nothing is lost (because linked)
  31. 31. Some definitions • Hypertext: Non-sequential writing • Lexia: a unit of text • Link: a segment of text that interrupts the reading of one lexia and moves you to another • Text: a collection of linked lexia • Hypermedia: A hypertext system involving other media, such as sounds, images, and videos. • Latent Hypertext: Hypertext implied in analog media
  32. 32. Types of Hypertext Axial Hypertext RHIZOMIC hypertext AXIAL hypertext
  33. 33. Sir Tim Berners-Lee • English, b. 1955 • Attended Oxford 1976 • Physicist • A fellow at CERN • Inventor of the World Wide Web per se • Unitarian • Made a Knight Commander, Order of the British Empire (KBE) by Queen Elizabeth
  34. 34. [Angels and Demons] Dan Brown, Angels & Demons, p. 19
  35. 35. “In March 1989, Tim Berners-Lee submitted a proposal for an information management system to his boss, Mike Sendall. ‘Vague, but exciting’, were the words that Sendall wrote on the proposal, allowing Berners-Lee to continue.” (http://info.cern.ch/Proposal.html) [CERN doc]
  36. 36. “CERN is a wonderful organisation. It involves several thousand people …. Although they are nominally organised into a hierarchical management structure, this does not constrain the way peoplesocial org] [BL quote are will communicate, and share information, equipment and software across groups. … The actual observed working structure of the organisation is a multiply connected "web" whose interconnections evolve with time.”
  37. 37. [Berners-Lee’s diagram]
  38. 38. Berners-Lee’s was the first system to link lexia across the network Hypertext not only linked lexia, but people – across the planet
  39. 39. <a href=“http://www.virginia.edu”>UVA</a> The link in HTML connects more than lexia
  40. 40. Nelson never liked the Web • The web remains bound to the metaphor of the file • Links point to files (for the most part), not to true lexia • Links are also “dumb” – they don’t go in both directions, and they are not named (as Bush would have wanted) • Google has changed this some …

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • Motive
  • Where is the computer in this?