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Literature study on art gallery

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An art museum or art gallery is a building or space for the exhibition of art, usually visual art. Museums can be public or private, but what distinguishes a museum is the ownership of a collection. Paintings are the most commonly displayed art objects; however, sculptures, decorative arts, furniture, textiles, costumes, drawings, pastels, watercolors, collages, prints, artist's books, photographs, and installation art are also regularly shown

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Literature study on art gallery

  2. 2. ART GALLERY- a room or series of rooms where works of art are exhibited. An art gallery has a specific focus, and is managed by a curator who specializes in that type of art. Common focuses for art galleries are art from a particular region, art in a certain medium, art of a singular style, or art which has a specific focus, such as political art. Typically, all of the art in an art gallery is for sale, although the gallery may retain a special permanent collection, or sponsor a unique display of art. Commonly, art galleries will be dedicated to a particular medium such as furniture, oil painting, jewelry, photography, sculpture, textiles, or pottery. The medium may be specific to a region or time period, or it may be a more general collection of works in that medium. Usually the art on display is from a wide assortment of artists, allowing collectors of that medium to explore newcomers to the field and purchase a range of art. Another common type of art gallery is a gallery which has a specific cultural focus. That focus might be political, historical, or medium based. For example, a gallery might choose to only display contemporary comic art. Another gallery might offer work by twentieth century Jewish artists, or display political artwork from African refugees. These galleries are typically open to members of the public, to encourage cultural education and enrichment.
  3. 3. TYPES • Art gallery paintings • Modern art gallery • Contemporary art gallery • Sculpture art gallery • Photography art gallery • Abstract art gallery • Historical art gallery • Cultural art gallery • Pottery art gallery • Textiles art gallery
  5. 5. • EXHIBITION SPACES Ceiling and roofs Rooms with lateral lighting may have ordinary ceiling (flats , vaulted , smooth or with moulding) all that is required being a suitable refraction of diffused colorless light. Light falling directly from above through skylights/ windows which form a permanent feature of the room. Different methods of admitting natural light
  6. 6. Different ways of dividing up exhibition space
  7. 7. • COVERED EXHIBITION SPACE DESIGN PARAMETERS Covered Exhibition Spaces are buildings or enclosed structures containing exhibition areas or other spaces, including all overhanging upper floors or balconies. Participants may decide to build more than one level within the Covered part of the Exhibition Space, based on their individual needs. Height of Buildings • The height of the Covered part of Exhibition Space (or Building Height) must be less than 12 metres. • The height limit for any additional architectural elements (such as skylights, roof elements, vertical connections to the roof, sunscreens, signals, etc.) is 17 metres.
  8. 8. • OPEN-AIR EXHIBITION SPACE DESIGN PARAMETERS The landscape design shall be developed in keeping with the Theme and with the Participant’s approach to it. • Open spaces A minimum of 30% of each lot must be dedicated to open areas and greenery. Excluding lot setbacks the Open-air Exhibition Space represents around 50% of each lot, where it is possible to build: • structures used for plants ensuring soil permeability (e.g. trellises, pergolas, garden structures, planters). • landscaping structure (e.g. structures used to retain soil or other materials, pools, exhibition structures, art works).
  9. 9. • WINDOWS AND DOORS  Windows and doors should be of suitable size for lighting the rooms.  Strong and able to be securely closed.  Non conductive of heat and dust from outside.  There should be no doors inside the exhibition except where a part of the building requires to permanently cut-off for functional reasons. Floor plans for the location of doors in relation to the use of space .
  10. 10. • FLOORS  Generally floors should be darker then the walls with a reflecting capacity less than 30% .  Flooring should be durable and maintenance should be low. •Exhibition design is divided into two stages: concept design and blueprint design. The basic concepts and outlines of the design are provided in the stage of concept design, while details of the design and instructions for implementation are provided in the stage of blueprint design. The concept design shall be approved before the blueprint design may begin. The exhibition design shall include the following details and drawings: a. Name; b. Theme of exhibition; c. Description of exhibits; d. Internal structure, decoration and exhibition indoor and outdoor design.
  11. 11. • SPACE AND REQUIREMENTS The requirement depends largely on the nature of the exhibits . However following considerations are important :  The room size depends on picture or showcase size but guidelines can be useful.  Space for sculture or models – 6-10 sq.m. / ground surface .  Overhead lighting allows greater diversity of space / shape .  Lateral lighting gives rise to swallow rooms.  Monotony also results when a number of rooms follow one another in a straight line. Difficulty encountered in viewing details more than 0.9 m Below or 0.3 m Above one’s eye level.
  12. 12. • EXHIBITION ITEMS  Items in exhibitions must be visually accessible to people.  A male adult who uses a wheelchair has an average eye level of between 1090mm (1.09 m) and 1295mm (1.29 m) above the finished floor.  Objects placed above 1015mm (1.0 m) will be seen only from below by most seated and short viewers.
  13. 13.  If the case floor is low but the glass is high, viewing the interior of a bowl or the overall design of a textile is blocked for both visitors with visual and mobility impairments.  The standing visitor with low vision cannot get close enough to the object to see the details; the seated visitor cannot see the object's top or interior at all. Shallow cases better serve both types of visitors  Construct exhibition barriers (e.g. railings) at a maximum height of 915 mm (.91 m).  Create color contrast between the items and the background, particularly when the items are displayed in lower light levels.
  14. 14. The circulation route must be clearly defined, well lighted, and easy to follow.  Provide sufficient lighting on circulation routes.  Provide nonverbal way finding assistance along the circulation route.  Visually define the walls, floors, and pedestals.  Design areas so that floor surfaces at and around accessible seating areas are level, stable, firm, and slip-resistant.  Provide an accessible floor plan to aid visitors in way finding.  Provide more than one exit from an exhibition.
  15. 15. CIRCULATION ROUTE - The circulation route must be well lighted , clearly defined , and east to follow. • Create an accessible route with the following characteristics:  To be accessible to people using wheelchairs and other mobility-oriented assistive devices, the circulation route must be at least 915 mm (0.91 m) wide for one- way traffic .  For two-way routes, the minimum width is 1525 mm (1.5 m) .It is recommended that even one-way traffic routes be a minimum of 1525 mm (1.5 m) to allow wheelchair users to stop to look at cases without blocking the route.
  16. 16.  All entrances, gates, and doors must meet accessibility requirements (e.g. width, hardware, opening force, thresholds).  A wheelchair user's clear floor space is approximately 760 mm (0.7 m) by 1220 mm (1.21 m) (see Fig. 21). At least this amount of floor space is necessary on all viewing sides of exhibit cases and vitrines.  If a person in a wheelchair must make a turn around an obstruction, the minimum clear width of the accessible route shall be as shown in Fig. 24. Where the circulation route makes a U-turn around an object that is less than1220 mm (1.21 m) wide, the pathway width increases to at least 1065 mm (1.0 m) on the approach and 1220 mm (1.21 m) in the turn (see Fig. 24b)
  17. 17.  Objects on the floor that rise less than 305 mm (0.3 m), are tripping hazards. The problem worsens if the object's color does not contrast with the floor or if the lighting is poor.  The circulation route surface must be stable, firm, and slip-resistant.  The slope of the circulation route must be no more than 5%. If the slope exceeds 5%, then it becomes a ramp and must meet requirements for a ramp.  Any cross slope (a slope that is perpendicular to the path of travel) of the circulation route must be no more than 2%.  When circulation route levels change, the vertical difference must be less than 6.5 mm (0.006 m).  When there is a change in level of between 6.5 mm (0.006 m) and 13 mm (0.012 m), the edge must be bevelled with a slope of 1:2. Any change greater than 13 mm (0.012 m) must be ramped. (See Fig. 28.)
  18. 18. • GALLERY DESIGN Possible gallery arrangements .
  19. 19. • TYPE 1. ) Typical elements of gallery space  This category includes facilities for temporary exhibitions , and galleries with permanent collections which have temporary , as well as permanent exhibitions , and related storage , curatorial and education functions .  These may be collocated with other cultural facilities such as museums or art venues.
  20. 20. • Type 2: Typical elements of multi-use arts venues and theatres This category includes: • small multi-purpose performing arts venues suitable for small-scale performances (c. 250 seats) and exhibitions, workshops, talks, film screenings. Suitable for most locally based arts activities not requiring specialist equipment or fit out .
  21. 21. Public Programming Spaces  Provide seating areas that are accessible to people using wheelchairs.  Locate spaces for wheelchair users so that they adjoin, but do not block, an accessible route that also serves as a means of egress in an emergency.  Design areas so that floor surfaces at and around accessible seating areas are level, stable, firm, and slip-resistant.  If a person enters the wheelchair location from the side, the spaces must be at least 1525 mm (1.5 m) long. (See Fig. 33b.)  If a person using a wheelchair enters the space from the front or back, the spaces are at least 1220 mm (1.21 m) long. (See Fig. 33a.)  The width of a space for one wheelchair user is at least 760 mm (0.7 m). Space required for two wheelchair users together is at least 1675 mm (1.61 m) wide. (See Fig. 33.) One such pairing is desirable; however, there is no requirement that spaces for wheelchair users be paired.
  22. 22. EXHIBITION PLANNING • Avoid complex circulation route , where visitors would have to double back , increasing muscular fatigue and visual disorientation. • Primary circulation and escape routes should be 1500 mm(1.5 m) wide minimum. • The circulation around individual displays(not on primary route) can be a little as 900mm (0.9 m) if necessary.
  23. 23. • On circulation route , avoid finishes difficult to negotiate by wheelchair users or people with mobility problems. • Use color , tone and decoration to contrast wall , floor and ceiling planes , door surrounds , free – standing objects ,overhangs . • Avoid projections if possible , or provide visual and tactile warnings , plus a guard rail when the overhang exceeds 305mm (0.3 m) below a height of 685mm (0.6 m) , or 100mm (0.1 m) above the height(unless incompatible with use . Eg. Desk / computer)
  24. 24. COLOUR a) Gallery colors (floors , walls , furniture) must create an environment that is clearly articulated , comfortable and safe. - Choose colours so that floors are visually separated from the walls and furniture. - Select light gallery colours if object conservation requires low lighting. - Design well-lighted spaces with limited imagery and few objects in several places within an exhibition. a) The colors and patterns of exhibition floor surfaces must give accurate information about the depth , height , and condition of the floor surface. - Avoid patterned carpets and floor tiles on uneven surfaces and in low- lit areas. a) Colours within cases must provide clear visual access to objects inside. b) Colours for labels must have a high contrast between text and background.
  25. 25. • LIGHTING  The safety of visitors (particularly those with low vision and visual perceptual difficulties) must receive equal consideration with exhibit design and conservation issues.  Light and color must combine to produce a clearly delineated circulation route into , through , and out of every exhibition space. This is a particular requirement whenever there are changes in level or unexpected turns or obstacles in the route.  There must be sufficient light on objects to make them visible to all visitors unless the light level will do substantial damage to the objects.  There must be sufficient light on labels to make them readable by all visitors.  Sufficient light to accommodate speech reading and sign language conversation must be provided in locations throughtout the exhibition space.  Use non-reflecting glass or film on all interactives, cases, displays, paintings etc wherever reasonable, for ease of lighting. Ensure lights do not dazzle the viewer or that the viewer does not cast shadows on the objects. Check this from the height of a wheelchair user as well as at Standing height.
  26. 26. • EMERGENCY EGRESS a) There must be fully accessible emergency egress from the exhibition spaces. Provide as many accessible emergency exists from an exhibition. b) exists from the exhibition to either lead back to the accessible entry route or to lead directly to another accessible egress route. c) Notification about locations of accessible egress from the gallery must be available at key points in the gallery. d) Both visual and audible fire alarm systems must be provided. If the direction of escape cannot be clearly seen from any point, tactile arrows should be provided on cases, partitions and hand rails, indicating the direction of escape. They should be 5mm thick and at least 25mm (0.025 m)high, set on top of hand rails and at the same height throughout.
  27. 27. FOOD COURTS  To be able to eat comfortably , one person requires a table area of around .6m wide by .4m deep. This provides sufficient clearance between adjacent diners although an additional .2m of space in the centre for dishes and tureens is sometime desirable , an overall width of .8 – .85 m is suitable for a dining table .  Round table or table with six or eight side , with a diameter of .9 – 1.20 m are ideal for four people and can also take one or two more diners. space requirements for server & diner
  28. 28. • Basic Lab Module  Most laboratory modules are 3.15m wide, but they vary in depth from 6.09 m to 10 m, depending on the lab requirements and the cost-effectiveness of the structural system.  The 3.15m dimension is based on two rows of casework and equipment (each row 0.75m deep . The additional 1.2m for each module is an important issue.  All walls between labs should be .15m thick, whether they are built during initial construction or added later.  If the lab module is too wide, there will be too much circulation area and not enough space for casework and equipment. If the lab module is too narrow, then either the aisle will be too narrow, creating an unsafe research environment, or there will be room for casework on one wall only. If the laboratory building design is not based on a lab module, then the initial and long-term operational costs will be higher because of less efficient construction.