Let's turn the table. Suppose your goal is to deliberately create buggy programs in C and C++ with serious security vulnerabilities that can be "easily" exploited. Then you need to know about things like stack smashing, shellcode, arc injection, return-oriented programming. You also need to know about annoying protection mechanisms such as address space layout randomization, stack canaries, data execution prevention, and more. These slides will teach you the basics of how to deliberately write insecure programs in C and C++.
A PDF version of the slides can be downloaded from my homepage: http://olvemaudal.com/talks
Here is a video recording of me presenting these slides at NDC 2014: http://vimeo.com/channels/ndc2014/97505677