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New Business
Practicum
Food Labeling
Practicum Associates: Olivia Chu, Melanie Ramey, Chetan Gupta

Supervised by Professor William Kell
Food Labeling
The goal of food labeling is to provide consumers with
information that is factual and relevant about the
products they consume. Certain label information, such
as the responsible firm's name and address and
ingredient declaration, is required. Other label
information, such as health claims and nutrient content
claims, is voluntary.
Label Panel
• A food package usually has at least two distinct areas: the Principal
Display Panel and the Information Panel.
• All required information on the label must be presented in a legible
manner. It cannot be concealed in any manner such that it is unlikely
that the consumer will read it.The size of the lettering, unless stated,
must be at least 1/16 inch in height. Labels must be made of
materials that do not contaminate the food. If there is likelihood
that the paper, ink or adhesive of a label will touch the product or
penetrate the packaging, these materials must be safe for food use.
Information on Label Panels
Principal
Display Panel
Information
Panel
Product Name
Net Quantity of Contents
“Perishable Keep Refrigerated”(if applicable)
Principal Display Panel
Information Panel
Nutrition Facts
Ingredients List
Name and Address of the responsible firm
Food Name
• All foods must be named.This name, which is often called the
"Statement of Identity," can be either the "common name" or a
"fanciful name" of the food. If a fanciful name is used, it must be
accompanied by a descriptive phrase at least 1⁄2 the type size of
the product name.The name has to be truthful and must be
presented in bold type on the Principal Display Panel.
• If it is a "flavored" product, it must state so (e.g., "cherry flavored"
pie). If the flavor is not derived from a natural source, then it
must indicate so (e.g., "artificial cherry flavored" pie).
Responsible Firm
There must be a firm (manufacturer, packer or distributor)
identified on the label as a responsible party. Unless the name
given is the actual manufacturer, it must be accompanied by a
qualifying phrase which states the firm’s relation to the product
(e.g.,“manufactured for” or “distributed by”).The firm's name, city,
state and zip code must be declared. If the firm is not listed
in the current telephone guide for that city, the street address
must also be listed.
Net Quantity
You should choose a print style that is prominent,
conspicuous and easy to read.The letters must not be
more than three times as high as they are wide, and
lettering must contrast sufficiently with the background to
be easy to read. Also, you should not crowd the net
quantity statement with artwork or other labeling
(minimum separation requirements are specified in the
regulation).
Requirement
What’s Included?
Only the quantity of food in the container or package is
stated in the net quantity statement. Do not include the
weight of the container, or wrappers and packing materials.
Net Wt. 8 oz.
(227 g).
More Information: https://goo.gl/VodjhJ
Ingredient List
• All packaged foods composed of two or more ingredients are required to include an
ingredient list.
• The ingredient statement must be legible and be correctly listed in descending order
of predominance by weight. Ingredients must be listed by their common or usual
names (e.g., sugar instead of sucrose).
• Certain ingredients require special declaration.The sub-ingredients of a food that is an
ingredient in another food may be declared following the name of the ingredient. For
example: enriched flour (wheat flour, niacin, reduced iron, riboflavin and folic acid).
• Foods with two or more discrete components (e.g., cherry pie that has filling and pie
crust) may have a separate ingredient list for each of the components, or list all of
them together under one list.
• For foods that are sold in bulk, a list of ingredients must be stated on a sign or on the
food's original container.
Food Allergen Labeling
The Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act (FALCPA) is an
amendment to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and requires that
the label of a food that contains an ingredient that is or contains protein from
a "major food allergen " declare the presence of the allergen in the manner
described by the law. FALCPA applies to both domestically manufactured and
imported packaged foods that are subject to FDA regulation.
"Major Food Allergen" refers to an ingredient that is one of the following eight
foods or food groups or an ingredient that contains protein derived from one
of them: (1) Milk (2) Eggs (3) Fish (e.g., bass, flounder, cod) (4) Crustacean
shellfish (e.g. crab, lobster, shrimp) (5) Tree nuts (e.g., almonds, walnuts, pecans)
(6) Peanuts (7) Wheat (8) Soybeans
Food Allergens Labeling
Food
manufacturers
are required to
label food
products that are
made with an
ingredient that is
a major food
allergen in one
of the two ways
Product Date and Lot Coding
Product dating is optional for most food products.There are two types of dating
on food packaging:



When manufacturers produce a product, they do so in batches. Each batch is
assigned a unique series of numbers that makes it possible for manufacturers to
track exactly when a problem occurred and which products need to be recalled.




These are numbers represented in a date format that are used to provide a
guideline for consumers so they will know when a food product is either no
longer safe to eat or might not taste as good as it did when originally produced.
Lot Coding
Expiration Dates
Product Date & Lot Code
Product Date Lot Code
Nutrition Facts
• Most processed and packaged foods (except exempt foods) must
declare information about the foods' nutritional content using the
correct typeface, font size, and formats approved by FDA for the
"Nutrition Facts" panel.
• A simplified format is allowed when the food contains insignificant
amounts of eight or more of the mandatory nutrients (Calories, total fat,
saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrate, dietary
fiber, sugar, protein, vitamin A, vitamin, calcium, and iron)
• The five core nutrients (Calories, total fat, sodium, total carbohydrate,
and protein) must appear on all “Nutrition Facts” panels regardless of
the amount present in the food or the format used.
Nutrition Facts: New Style
Nutrition Facts: Trans Fat
Trans Fat
The amount of trans fat in a serving must be
listed on a separate line under saturated fat on
the “Nutrition Facts” panel as shown on the
example on this page. However, trans fat does
not have to be listed if the total fat in a food is
less than 0.5 gram (or 1/2 gram) per serving
and no claims are made about fat, fatty acid or
cholesterol content. If trans fat is not listed, a
footnote must be added stating that the food
is "Not a significant source of trans fat."
Nutrient Content Claims
A “Nutrient Content Claim” is a word or phrase on a food package that makes a
comment about the nutritional value of the food. Eleven (11) basic terms have been
defined for several nutrients, and FDA has set conditions for the use of these terms.
• free
• low
• reduced
• fewer
• high
• less
• more
• lean
• extra lean
• good source
• light
Health Claims
A “Health Claim” is a food label message that describes the
relationship between a food component, such as fat, calcium, or
fiber, and a disease or health-related condition.
*Nutrient Content Claim indicates the nutritional value of the food.
*Health Claim describes the relationship between a food
component and a disease or health-related condition.
Gluten-Free Regulations
The regulations define the term “gluten-containing grain” to mean any one of the
following grains (e.g., wheat, rye, barley) or their crossbred hybrids (e.g. triticale,
which is a cross between wheat and rye). Under the regulation, a “gluten- free” label
claim means:
A) That the food bearing the “gluten free” claim does not contain any of the following:
• An ingredient that is a gluten- containing grain (e.g. spelt wheat)
• An ingredient derived from a gluten-containing grain and that has not been
processed to remove gluten (e.g. wheat flour)
• An ingredient that is derived from a gluten-containing grain and that has been
processed to remove gluten (e.g. wheat starch), if the use of that ingredient results
in the presence of 20 parts per million or more gluten in the food
B) The product inherently does not contain gluten; and any unavoidable presence of
gluten in the food bearing the claim in its labeling is below 20 parts per million gluten
Refrigerated Foods
California law requires that all Potentially Hazardous Foods* have
the statement "Perishable Keep Refrigerated" on the label in a
conspicuous location, normally on the Principal Display Panel.
The statement "Perishable Keep Frozen" is also acceptable on the
label of foods that are kept frozen.
*Food that is capable of supporting growth of infectious or
toxigenic microorganisms when held at temperatures above 45°°F.
Organic Foods
Foods represented as “organic” must meet the requirements of
the USDA National Organic Program (NOP) Regulations and the
California Organic Products Act of 2003.
Products may be
• 100% Organic: 100% certified organic ingredients
• Organic: 95% certified organic ingredients
• Made with Organic: 70% and 95% certified organic ingredients
Safe Handling Statements
Raw meat and poultry products (e.g., fresh and frozen) including
shell eggs must display safe handling instructions, as shown below,
on their labels.The handling instructions should address safe
storage of raw product, prevention of cross contamination,
cooking of raw product, and/or handling of leftovers.
Safe Handling Statements
The statement must appear
on the label prominently and
in a font size no smaller than
1/16th of an inch.The
statement must appear in a
hairline box and the words
"safe handling instructions"
appear in bold capital letters.
Warning Notice
Federal and state labeling regulations require certain foods and packages to
declare warning notices. Examples of such products required by the federal
regulation (21 CFR § 101.17) include:
• Protein product that derives more than 50 percent of total caloric value
from either whole protein, protein hydrolysates, and/or amino acid mixtures,
and that is represented for use in reducing weight;
• Dietary supplements containing iron or iron salts;
• Foods containing psyllium husk;
• Self-pressured containers or self-pressured containers with halocarbon or
hydrocarbon propellants;
• Products containing substances that have stimulant laxative effects
Warning Notice
Small Business Nutrition
Labeling Exemption
The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act requires packaged foods and
dietary supplements to bear nutrition labeling unless they qualify for an
exemption. One exemption, for low-volume products, applies if the person
claiming the exemption employs fewer than an average of 100 full-time
equivalent employees and fewer than 100,000 units of that product are
sold in the United States in a 12-month period.To qualify for this
exemption the person must file a notice annually with FDA. Note that low
volume products that bear nutrition claims do not qualify for an
exemption of this type. Firms that wish to submit an exemption notice
using the Internet can go to https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/NLE/
client/login.cfm
Question & Further Guidance
fdbinfo@cdph.ca.gov

1500 Capitol Ave., MS-7602, P.O. Box 997435, Sacramento, CA 95899-7435
(916) 650-6500
For questions about labeling laws and regulations, please contact FDB.

Please note that FDB does not approve labels. It is the responsibility of the firm identified
on the label to make sure that the information on its label is accurate, truthful, and in
compliance with pertinent laws and regulations.
FDB
USDA-FSIS Meat and Poultry Hot Line
http://askkaren.gov
For questions regarding the labeling of foods containing more than 3 percent meat or
poultry products, please contact USDA-FSIS Meat and Poultry Hot Line.
New Business Practicum- Further Guidance
wkell@berkeley.edu (William A. Kell)
Questions?
Thank You.

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Food Labeling For Food Business

  • 1. New Business Practicum Food Labeling Practicum Associates: Olivia Chu, Melanie Ramey, Chetan Gupta
 Supervised by Professor William Kell
  • 2. Food Labeling The goal of food labeling is to provide consumers with information that is factual and relevant about the products they consume. Certain label information, such as the responsible firm's name and address and ingredient declaration, is required. Other label information, such as health claims and nutrient content claims, is voluntary.
  • 3. Label Panel • A food package usually has at least two distinct areas: the Principal Display Panel and the Information Panel. • All required information on the label must be presented in a legible manner. It cannot be concealed in any manner such that it is unlikely that the consumer will read it.The size of the lettering, unless stated, must be at least 1/16 inch in height. Labels must be made of materials that do not contaminate the food. If there is likelihood that the paper, ink or adhesive of a label will touch the product or penetrate the packaging, these materials must be safe for food use.
  • 4. Information on Label Panels Principal Display Panel Information Panel Product Name Net Quantity of Contents “Perishable Keep Refrigerated”(if applicable) Principal Display Panel Information Panel Nutrition Facts Ingredients List Name and Address of the responsible firm
  • 5. Food Name • All foods must be named.This name, which is often called the "Statement of Identity," can be either the "common name" or a "fanciful name" of the food. If a fanciful name is used, it must be accompanied by a descriptive phrase at least 1⁄2 the type size of the product name.The name has to be truthful and must be presented in bold type on the Principal Display Panel. • If it is a "flavored" product, it must state so (e.g., "cherry flavored" pie). If the flavor is not derived from a natural source, then it must indicate so (e.g., "artificial cherry flavored" pie).
  • 6. Responsible Firm There must be a firm (manufacturer, packer or distributor) identified on the label as a responsible party. Unless the name given is the actual manufacturer, it must be accompanied by a qualifying phrase which states the firm’s relation to the product (e.g.,“manufactured for” or “distributed by”).The firm's name, city, state and zip code must be declared. If the firm is not listed in the current telephone guide for that city, the street address must also be listed.
  • 7. Net Quantity You should choose a print style that is prominent, conspicuous and easy to read.The letters must not be more than three times as high as they are wide, and lettering must contrast sufficiently with the background to be easy to read. Also, you should not crowd the net quantity statement with artwork or other labeling (minimum separation requirements are specified in the regulation). Requirement What’s Included? Only the quantity of food in the container or package is stated in the net quantity statement. Do not include the weight of the container, or wrappers and packing materials. Net Wt. 8 oz. (227 g). More Information: https://goo.gl/VodjhJ
  • 8. Ingredient List • All packaged foods composed of two or more ingredients are required to include an ingredient list. • The ingredient statement must be legible and be correctly listed in descending order of predominance by weight. Ingredients must be listed by their common or usual names (e.g., sugar instead of sucrose). • Certain ingredients require special declaration.The sub-ingredients of a food that is an ingredient in another food may be declared following the name of the ingredient. For example: enriched flour (wheat flour, niacin, reduced iron, riboflavin and folic acid). • Foods with two or more discrete components (e.g., cherry pie that has filling and pie crust) may have a separate ingredient list for each of the components, or list all of them together under one list. • For foods that are sold in bulk, a list of ingredients must be stated on a sign or on the food's original container.
  • 9. Food Allergen Labeling The Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act (FALCPA) is an amendment to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and requires that the label of a food that contains an ingredient that is or contains protein from a "major food allergen " declare the presence of the allergen in the manner described by the law. FALCPA applies to both domestically manufactured and imported packaged foods that are subject to FDA regulation. "Major Food Allergen" refers to an ingredient that is one of the following eight foods or food groups or an ingredient that contains protein derived from one of them: (1) Milk (2) Eggs (3) Fish (e.g., bass, flounder, cod) (4) Crustacean shellfish (e.g. crab, lobster, shrimp) (5) Tree nuts (e.g., almonds, walnuts, pecans) (6) Peanuts (7) Wheat (8) Soybeans
  • 10. Food Allergens Labeling Food manufacturers are required to label food products that are made with an ingredient that is a major food allergen in one of the two ways
  • 11. Product Date and Lot Coding Product dating is optional for most food products.There are two types of dating on food packaging:
 
 When manufacturers produce a product, they do so in batches. Each batch is assigned a unique series of numbers that makes it possible for manufacturers to track exactly when a problem occurred and which products need to be recalled. 
 
 These are numbers represented in a date format that are used to provide a guideline for consumers so they will know when a food product is either no longer safe to eat or might not taste as good as it did when originally produced. Lot Coding Expiration Dates
  • 12. Product Date & Lot Code Product Date Lot Code
  • 13. Nutrition Facts • Most processed and packaged foods (except exempt foods) must declare information about the foods' nutritional content using the correct typeface, font size, and formats approved by FDA for the "Nutrition Facts" panel. • A simplified format is allowed when the food contains insignificant amounts of eight or more of the mandatory nutrients (Calories, total fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrate, dietary fiber, sugar, protein, vitamin A, vitamin, calcium, and iron) • The five core nutrients (Calories, total fat, sodium, total carbohydrate, and protein) must appear on all “Nutrition Facts” panels regardless of the amount present in the food or the format used.
  • 15. Nutrition Facts: Trans Fat Trans Fat The amount of trans fat in a serving must be listed on a separate line under saturated fat on the “Nutrition Facts” panel as shown on the example on this page. However, trans fat does not have to be listed if the total fat in a food is less than 0.5 gram (or 1/2 gram) per serving and no claims are made about fat, fatty acid or cholesterol content. If trans fat is not listed, a footnote must be added stating that the food is "Not a significant source of trans fat."
  • 16. Nutrient Content Claims A “Nutrient Content Claim” is a word or phrase on a food package that makes a comment about the nutritional value of the food. Eleven (11) basic terms have been defined for several nutrients, and FDA has set conditions for the use of these terms. • free • low • reduced • fewer • high • less • more • lean • extra lean • good source • light
  • 17. Health Claims A “Health Claim” is a food label message that describes the relationship between a food component, such as fat, calcium, or fiber, and a disease or health-related condition. *Nutrient Content Claim indicates the nutritional value of the food. *Health Claim describes the relationship between a food component and a disease or health-related condition.
  • 18. Gluten-Free Regulations The regulations define the term “gluten-containing grain” to mean any one of the following grains (e.g., wheat, rye, barley) or their crossbred hybrids (e.g. triticale, which is a cross between wheat and rye). Under the regulation, a “gluten- free” label claim means: A) That the food bearing the “gluten free” claim does not contain any of the following: • An ingredient that is a gluten- containing grain (e.g. spelt wheat) • An ingredient derived from a gluten-containing grain and that has not been processed to remove gluten (e.g. wheat flour) • An ingredient that is derived from a gluten-containing grain and that has been processed to remove gluten (e.g. wheat starch), if the use of that ingredient results in the presence of 20 parts per million or more gluten in the food B) The product inherently does not contain gluten; and any unavoidable presence of gluten in the food bearing the claim in its labeling is below 20 parts per million gluten
  • 19. Refrigerated Foods California law requires that all Potentially Hazardous Foods* have the statement "Perishable Keep Refrigerated" on the label in a conspicuous location, normally on the Principal Display Panel. The statement "Perishable Keep Frozen" is also acceptable on the label of foods that are kept frozen. *Food that is capable of supporting growth of infectious or toxigenic microorganisms when held at temperatures above 45°°F.
  • 20. Organic Foods Foods represented as “organic” must meet the requirements of the USDA National Organic Program (NOP) Regulations and the California Organic Products Act of 2003. Products may be • 100% Organic: 100% certified organic ingredients • Organic: 95% certified organic ingredients • Made with Organic: 70% and 95% certified organic ingredients
  • 21. Safe Handling Statements Raw meat and poultry products (e.g., fresh and frozen) including shell eggs must display safe handling instructions, as shown below, on their labels.The handling instructions should address safe storage of raw product, prevention of cross contamination, cooking of raw product, and/or handling of leftovers.
  • 22. Safe Handling Statements The statement must appear on the label prominently and in a font size no smaller than 1/16th of an inch.The statement must appear in a hairline box and the words "safe handling instructions" appear in bold capital letters.
  • 23. Warning Notice Federal and state labeling regulations require certain foods and packages to declare warning notices. Examples of such products required by the federal regulation (21 CFR § 101.17) include: • Protein product that derives more than 50 percent of total caloric value from either whole protein, protein hydrolysates, and/or amino acid mixtures, and that is represented for use in reducing weight; • Dietary supplements containing iron or iron salts; • Foods containing psyllium husk; • Self-pressured containers or self-pressured containers with halocarbon or hydrocarbon propellants; • Products containing substances that have stimulant laxative effects
  • 25. Small Business Nutrition Labeling Exemption The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act requires packaged foods and dietary supplements to bear nutrition labeling unless they qualify for an exemption. One exemption, for low-volume products, applies if the person claiming the exemption employs fewer than an average of 100 full-time equivalent employees and fewer than 100,000 units of that product are sold in the United States in a 12-month period.To qualify for this exemption the person must file a notice annually with FDA. Note that low volume products that bear nutrition claims do not qualify for an exemption of this type. Firms that wish to submit an exemption notice using the Internet can go to https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/NLE/ client/login.cfm
  • 26. Question & Further Guidance fdbinfo@cdph.ca.gov
 1500 Capitol Ave., MS-7602, P.O. Box 997435, Sacramento, CA 95899-7435 (916) 650-6500 For questions about labeling laws and regulations, please contact FDB.
 Please note that FDB does not approve labels. It is the responsibility of the firm identified on the label to make sure that the information on its label is accurate, truthful, and in compliance with pertinent laws and regulations. FDB USDA-FSIS Meat and Poultry Hot Line http://askkaren.gov For questions regarding the labeling of foods containing more than 3 percent meat or poultry products, please contact USDA-FSIS Meat and Poultry Hot Line. New Business Practicum- Further Guidance wkell@berkeley.edu (William A. Kell)