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Designing MOOCs to Support Use of
Different Types of Knowledge Resources
in Learning Anytime, Anywhere
OE	Global	Conferenc...
1. Research	Context	
2. Theoretical	Framework
3. Case	Study
§ Research	design
§ Data	analysis
§ Data	findings	
4. Discussi...
Explore	MOOC	to	support	learning	anytime,	anywhere	
Harness	affordances	of	MOOCs	&	mobile	technologies	to
connect	remote	l...
1. Outdoor	Learning	as	Environmental	Interaction	
&	Situated	Learning	
§ Technological	affordances	redefines	learning	spac...
2. Knowledge	Resources	for	Situated	Learning
Theoretical Framework
Prior
knowledge
New
Conceptual
Knowledge
Contextual
kno...
Participants	(Future	School	@	Singapore	Project)
§ School	of	Science	&	Technology	
§ 2	classes	of	secondary	two	students	
...
Process-oriented	design	to	frame	learners’	discourse	and
interaction	with	the	environment	and	with	peers
1. Learning	objec...
1. Learning	objectives:
§ Inquiry-based	Learning:	BIG	Question
(BIG:	Beyond	Information	Given)
§ Collaborative	Knowledge	B...
BIG	Question:	Why	does	civilisation	begin	at	the	mouth	
of	a	river?
Research	Design
Figure	2:	Singapore	River	Mystery	Trail
2. Task	Type:
§ Task	structuredness:	
well-structured	to	ill-structured	task
Research	Design
Task	type Description	of	task...
3. Level	of	pre-structuring
§ Position	the	learning	trail	as	part	of	formal	
curriculum	with	pre	&	post-trail	phase
§ Prov...
4. Technology	mediation	
§ Web-based	platform	hosting	trail	activities
§ Virtual	facilitation:	broadcast	alert	&	feedback	...
1a.	What	types	of	knowledge	resources	
do	learners	use	in	the	meaning-making
process	in	a	situated	learning	context?
1b.	H...
Data	Source
§ Audio	footage:	verbatim	transcription
§ Video	footage
§ Field	notes
Data	Analysis
§ Content	analysis:	use	of...
Data	Findings
Figure	4:	Frequency	of	Knowledge	Resources	Types	Used	in	Group	Discourse
Note: CR= Contextual Resources, NCR...
§ Both	groups	showed	high	usage	of	CR	as	compared	to	
other	knowledge	resource	types
§ Both	groups	generated	higher	number...
1. Learning	Anytime,	Anywhere	(Situated	Learning)
§ Involves	(environmental)	interaction	with	a	specific	context
§ Involve...
§ Fischer,	F.	&	Mandl,	H.	(2005).	Knowledge	Convergence	in	
Computer-Supported	Collaborative	Learning:	the	Role	of	
Extern...
§ Orion,	N.,	&	Hofstein,	A.	(1994).	Factoring	that	influence	learning
during	a	scientific	field	trip	in	a	natural	environm...
Asst.	Prof. Dr. Esther	Tan
Esther.Tan@ou.nl
Assoc.	Prof. Dr. Christian	M.	Stracke
Christian.Stracke@ou.nl
Contact Informat...
Thank	you...
Questions	&	Discussion
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Designing MOOCs to Support Use of Different Types of Knowledge Resources in Learning Anytime, Anywhere

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Designing MOOCs to Support Use of Different Types of Knowledge Resources in Learning Anytime, Anywhere

  1. 1. Designing MOOCs to Support Use of Different Types of Knowledge Resources in Learning Anytime, Anywhere OE Global Conference 2016 Krakow, Poland Esther Tan & Christian M. Stracke
  2. 2. 1. Research Context 2. Theoretical Framework 3. Case Study § Research design § Data analysis § Data findings 4. Discussion & Conclusion Presentation Outline
  3. 3. Explore MOOC to support learning anytime, anywhere Harness affordances of MOOCs & mobile technologies to connect remote learners & learners on location to contextualize and concretize the learning experience. (Sharples, Kloos, Dimitriadis, Garlatti & Specht, 2015) Research Context
  4. 4. 1. Outdoor Learning as Environmental Interaction & Situated Learning § Technological affordances redefines learning spaces: “…learning anytime, anywhere” (Milrad & Spikol, 2007) § The situatedness of the learning experience in Outdoor learning (Kerawalla et al., 2012) & Mobile learning (Sharples, Taylor & Vavoula, 2007) § “knowing as activity by specific people in specific circumstances” (Lave & Wenger, p. 52) ***The criticality of understanding learners’ interaction with the specific learning context to create and construct knowledge in the meaning-making process. Theoretical Framework
  5. 5. 2. Knowledge Resources for Situated Learning Theoretical Framework Prior knowledge New Conceptual Knowledge Contextual knowledge Figure 1: Knowledge resources in collaborative meaning-making process (Fischer & Mandl, 2005) Learning materials & information on a given topic Existing knowledge learners possess on a given topic New theoretical concepts owing to interaction with the situated learning context
  6. 6. Participants (Future School @ Singapore Project) § School of Science & Technology § 2 classes of secondary two students § High ability (Group A) & mixed ability (Group B) Case Study
  7. 7. Process-oriented design to frame learners’ discourse and interaction with the environment and with peers 1. Learning objectives 2. Task Type 3. Level of pre-structuring 4. Technology mediation Research Design
  8. 8. 1. Learning objectives: § Inquiry-based Learning: BIG Question (BIG: Beyond Information Given) § Collaborative Knowledge Building § Integrated conceptual understanding (History, Geography & Biology) Research Design
  9. 9. BIG Question: Why does civilisation begin at the mouth of a river? Research Design Figure 2: Singapore River Mystery Trail
  10. 10. 2. Task Type: § Task structuredness: well-structured to ill-structured task Research Design Task type Description of tasks Performative 1. Measure the river water conditions Knowledge Generative 2. Describe the ideal water conditions Knowledge Synthesis 3. Discuss the importance of water quality
  11. 11. 3. Level of pre-structuring § Position the learning trail as part of formal curriculum with pre & post-trail phase § Provide an unstructured activity for small groups to pursue their own research inquiries after the completion of all trail activities Research Design Pre-Trial Tune-in Activity In-Trail Activities Post-Trial Summary of learning
  12. 12. 4. Technology mediation § Web-based platform hosting trail activities § Virtual facilitation: broadcast alert & feedback § Data-loggers & iPad with embedded apps Research Design Figure 3: Students measure water conditions and enter responses in the web-based platform
  13. 13. 1a. What types of knowledge resources do learners use in the meaning-making process in a situated learning context? 1b. How can we design MOOCs to support the meaning-making process and to enhance the quality of the learning experiences of ‘anytime, anywhere’? Research Questions
  14. 14. Data Source § Audio footage: verbatim transcription § Video footage § Field notes Data Analysis § Content analysis: use of semantic boundaries, i.e., discussion threads, ideas and turn of talks to define an unit of analysis (Chi, 1997) § Coding scheme on content dimension (Fischer & Mandl, 2005) to investigate the use of different knowledge resource types Data Source & Analysis
  15. 15. Data Findings Figure 4: Frequency of Knowledge Resources Types Used in Group Discourse Note: CR= Contextual Resources, NCR= New Conceptual Resources, CR & NCR = Relations between Contextual Resources and New Conceptual Resources, PKR = Prior Knowledge Resources, CR & PKR = Relations between Contextual Resources & Prior Knowledge Resources.
  16. 16. § Both groups showed high usage of CR as compared to other knowledge resource types § Both groups generated higher number of CR & NCR statements than CR & PKR statements § Both groups showed that CR & interaction with the physical environment play a significant role in learners’ ability to develop NCR § Development of NCR is contingent on the interaction with the rich physical affordances Data Findings
  17. 17. 1. Learning Anytime, Anywhere (Situated Learning) § Involves (environmental) interaction with a specific context § Involves re-contextualisation & concretising the different types of knowledge resources in that specific context 2. Design MOOCs to support situated learning context, i.e., to connect MOOCs learners & learners on site § Includes provision of a baseline contextual resources § Includes supporting development of new contextual resources § Includes scaffolding development of new conceptual resources to facilitate the co-construction of new knowledge and/ or advancing knowledge Discussion & Conclusion
  18. 18. § Fischer, F. & Mandl, H. (2005). Knowledge Convergence in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning: the Role of External Representation Tools. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 14 (3), 405-441. § Lave, J. & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. § Milrad, M., & Spikol, D. (2007). Anytime, anywhere learning supported by smart phones: Experiences and results from the MUSIS project. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 10(4), 62-70. Reference
  19. 19. § Orion, N., & Hofstein, A. (1994). Factoring that influence learning during a scientific field trip in a natural environment. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 31(10), 1097-1119. § Sharples, M., Taylor, J., & Vavoula, G. (2007). A Theory of Learning for the Mobile Age. In R. Andrews and C. Haythornthwaite (Eds.), The Sage Handbook of Elearning Research (pp. 221-247). London: Sage, § Sharples, M., Kloos, C. D., Dimitriadis, Y., Garlatti, S., & Specht, M. (2015). Mobile and Accessible Learning for MOOCs. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2015 (1). Reference
  20. 20. Asst. Prof. Dr. Esther Tan Esther.Tan@ou.nl Assoc. Prof. Dr. Christian M. Stracke Christian.Stracke@ou.nl Contact Information
  21. 21. Thank you... Questions & Discussion

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