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What We Say Matters - Coaching & Communication

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What we say matters
Coaching & Communication
Nick Winkelman, PhD

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Performance

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Performance
temporary changes in motor behavior or
knowledge that can be observed & measured
during or immediately after P...

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What We Say Matters - Coaching & Communication

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This presentation was delivered at the 2017 NBSCA Conference in conjunction with the NBA Combine. The topic focused on the impact of coaching and communication on skill learning.

This presentation was delivered at the 2017 NBSCA Conference in conjunction with the NBA Combine. The topic focused on the impact of coaching and communication on skill learning.

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What We Say Matters - Coaching & Communication

  1. 1. What we say matters Coaching & Communication Nick Winkelman, PhD
  2. 2. Performance
  3. 3. Performance temporary changes in motor behavior or knowledge that can be observed & measured during or immediately after Practice SoderstroM & Bjork, 2015 = Practice
  4. 4. Learning
  5. 5. Learning relatively permanent changes in Motor behavior or knowledge that supports long- term retention and transfer to competition SoderstroM & Bjork, 2015 = Competition
  6. 6. Optimizing what we say
  7. 7. Attentional Focus The conscious effort of an individual to focus their attention through explicit thoughts and feelings in an effort to execute a task with superior performance = Cueing
  8. 8. Internal Focus Primary focus on the body (e.g., muscle) and associated movement process (e.g., hip extension) = Body Focus
  9. 9. External Focus Primary focus on movement outcome (e.g., jump high) and associated affect on the environment (e.g., push the ground away) = Outcome Focus
  10. 10. “Focus on rapidly extending your knees as fast as you can” “Focus on rapidly pushing the ground as fast as you can”
  11. 11. “Focus on pushing off of the inside edge of your foot” “Focus on pushing off the inside edge of your shoe”
  12. 12. Attentional focus research
  13. 13. Balance - Dr. Gabriele Wulf, 1998 Ski Simulator _ Experiment 1 _ INT Focus | “Outer Foot” _ EXT Focus | “Outer Wheels” _ CON | No Instruction Results _ EXT > INT = CON _ Practice & Retention Stabilometer (Balance) _ Experiment 2 _ INT Focus | “Keep Feet Same Height” _ EXT Focus | “Keep Markers Same Height” Results _ EXT > INT _ Retention
  14. 14. Biceps Curl _ INT: “focus on your arm and muscles” _ EXT: “focus on the crank hand bar” _ Velocity: EXT > INT _ Force: EXT > INT _ EMG: EXT < INT Force Production - Vance et al., 2004
  15. 15. Isometric Mid-Thigh Pull _ CON: “go as hard & fast as you can” _ INT: “contract your leg muscles as hard & fast as you can” _ EXT: “push the ground as hard & fast as you can” _ Force: EXT (9i% | 3c%) > CON (5i%) > INT Force Production - Halperin et al., 2016
  16. 16. Endurance – Marchant et al., 2011 Bench Press and Back Squat _ INT: “Focus on moving and exerting force with your arms/legs” _ EXT: “Focus on moving and exerting force through and against the barbell” _ Repetitions: EXT > INT = CON
  17. 17. Vertical & Horizontal Jumping _ INT: “concentrate on the tips of your fingers, reaching as high as possible” _ EXT: “concentrate on the rungs of the Vertec, reaching as high as possible” _ Jump Height: EXT > INT = CON Jumping - Wulf et al., 2007 & Porter et al., 2010
  18. 18. 10-Meter Sprint _ CON: “perform to the best of your ability” _ INT: “focus on driving your legs back as explosively as you can” _ EXT: “focus on driving the ground back as explosively as you can” _ Sprint Time: EXT = CON > INT Sprinting - Winkelman et al., (2017)
  19. 19. L-Drill Agility Test _ INT: “I want you to focus on moving your legs as rapidly as possible and I want you to focus on planting your foot as firmly as possible” _ EXT: “I want you to focus on running toward the cone as rapidly as possible and I want you to focus on pushing off the ground as forcefully as possible” _ L-Drill Time: EXT > INT = CON Agility - Porter et al., 2010
  20. 20. Sport Skills
  21. 21. Mediating Factors
  22. 22. Mediators – Movement Type Implement Discrete Non-Implement Discrete Non-Implement Continuous
  23. 23. Mediators – Experience Level Novice Expert
  24. 24. Mediators – Key Findings Implement Based (Discrete) Non-Implement Based (Discrete) Non-Implement Based (Continuous) Focus Type INT Focus EXT Focus (Close) EXT Focus (Far) NORM Focus INT Focus EXT Focus (Close) EXT Focus (Far) NORM Focus INT Focus EXT Focus (Close) EXT Focus (Far) NORM Focus Novice No Yes* No No No Yes Yes* No No Yes* Un- known No Expert No Yes Yes* Yes No Yes Yes* No No Yes* Un- known Yes* Winkelman, 2016 (Dissertation)
  25. 25. Mediators – Emerging Questions 1. What is the impact of cue preference & familiarity? _ Data | Preference mediates acute effectiveness 2. What is the impact of combing internal & external? _ No data | Practical experiences suggests a benefit 3. Should internal cues be used in a rehabilitation setting? _ Data | External cues benefit coordination & performance
  26. 26. 4. Should internal cues be used to correct engrained error? _ No data | Some researchers speculate that this would facilitate a necessary disruption in coordination to encourage a new pattern 5. Is self-awareness and feel the same as an internal cue? _ While an internal cue requires self-awareness, not all forms of self-awareness manifest as internal cues Mediators – Emerging Questions
  27. 27. Cueing Anatomy
  28. 28. Cue Anatomy Distance Proximal (Close) Distal (Far) Direction Toward/ Away Up/ Down Description Action Word (Verb) Analogy (Metaphor) Winkelman, 2016 (Dissertation)
  29. 29. Cue Anatomy “Drive the bar towards the ceiling as explosively as you can” Description Direction Distance Description
  30. 30. Distance - Close & Far “Focus on snapping the kettlebell up and forward” “Focus on snapping the kettlebell at the wall”
  31. 31. Direction - “Focus on sprinting away from the blocks” Toward & Away “Focus on sprinting Toward the Finish Line”
  32. 32. Description - Action Verb & Analogy “…Just like you were trying to snap a towel” “Focus on snapping the bar toward the ceiling”
  33. 33. Cueing Framework
  34. 34. Take Home
  35. 35. 1. Say the most with the least 2. Use language that is memorable for the athlete 3. Use language that is prioritized based on errors 4. Use external cues rather than internal cues 1. Distance 2. Direction 3. Description Take Home Message
  36. 36. Thank You @NickWinkelman

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