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Skill Acquisition - Practical Recommendations for Coaches

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Skill Acquisition - Practical Recommendations for Coaches

  1. 1. Nick Winkelman, PhD | Head of Athletic Performance & Science, IRFU Skill AcquisitionPractical Considerations for Coaches
  2. 2. Performance
  3. 3. Performance temporary changes in motor behavior or knowledge that can be observed & measured during or immediately after Practice SoderstroM & Bjork, 2015 = Practice
  4. 4. Learning
  5. 5. Learning relatively permanent changes in Motor behavior or knowledge that supports long- term retention and transfer to competition SoderstroM & Bjork, 2015 = Competition
  6. 6. Pay Attention
  7. 7. “The mechanism by which our brain registers information is what we call attention” - Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi “You dispose of a limited budget of attention that you can allocate to activities, and if you try to go beyond your budget, you will fail” ~ Daniel Kahneman
  8. 8. Attention Applied to coaching Adapted from Magill, R. (2011) Motor Learning and Control – Concepts and Applications 9th edition
  9. 9. Making our Message memorable Personal Novel Less = More
  10. 10. Coach As an Instructor
  11. 11. Attentional Focus The conscious effort of an individual to focus their attention through explicit thoughts and feelings in an effort to execute a task with superior performance = Cueing
  12. 12. Internal Focus Primary focus on the body (e.g., muscle) and associated movement process (e.g., hip extension) = Body Focus
  13. 13. External Focus Primary focus on movement outcome (e.g., jump high) and associated affect on the environment (e.g., push the ground away) = Outcome Focus
  14. 14. External Focus Explode Off The Ground Internal Focus Explode Through Your Hips External Focus Catch Ball at Highest Point Internal Focus Extend your arms as high as you can Wulf, 2013
  15. 15. Internal cues constrain the motor system by asking the person to focus on a Simple part at the expense of the complex whole. . External cues Direct attention towards relevant movement features, allowing the body to self-organize a preferred movement solution. Wulf, 2013
  16. 16. DLPFC PMC SMC M1 Novice Expert 01: Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex (DLPFC) 02: Premotor Cortex (PMC) 03: Supplementary Motor Cortex (SMC) 04: Primary Motor Cortex (M1) “Focus On The Movement”Song, 2009 | Beilock, 2010
  17. 17. The Learning Brain of a Novice looks very similar to the Choking Brain of an Expert – the key – minimizing conscious focus on “movement steps” during skill execution Consider how shifting your players focus outward as opposed to inward could support learning & mental Robustness under pressure
  18. 18. External Focus cues have been shown to Protect Against choking & encourage an expert-like physiological state.
  19. 19. Coach As A Facilitator
  20. 20. 20© 2014 Athletes’ Performance, Inc. Facilitating | Session Level | Units
  21. 21. Skill1Skill2Skill3 S 1 S 1 S 1 S 1 S 2 S 2 S 2 S 2 S 3 S 3 S 3 S 3 BLOCKED Serial Random
  22. 22. A progressive increase in contextual interference from blocked to random has been shown to be superior to blocked or random only. Porter et al., 2010
  23. 23. Porter et al., 2010 The Performance your players are prepared to deliver lives in the Context of the practice they experience
  24. 24. 24 DLPFC PMC SMC M1 Blocked Random 01: Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex 02: Premotor Cortex 03: Medial Temporal Lobe 04: Primary Motor Cortex (M1) 05: Supplementary Motor Cortex 06: Basal Ganglia 07: Cerebellum Session Design and Skill Learning MTL Basal Ganglia Cerebellum Explicit (Knowing) Implicit (Doing) Lage et al., 2015
  25. 25. Skill Retrieval Drives learning. To strengthen retrieval we must first forget. Skill spacing & variability creates Desirable difficulty.
  26. 26. spacing out short & frequent bursts of practice is key When trying to learn or improve upon a given motor skill.
  27. 27. 27© 2014 Athletes’ Performance, Inc. Facilitating | Drill Level | Units
  28. 28. Self-Organization (Constraint-Based) Model Player Task/SkillEnvironment Perception Action Coordination Movement
  29. 29. 29 PLAYER (BODY) CONSTRAINTS Position Power Pattern Athletes ability to attain proper stability and mobility relative to the movements being performed Athletes ability to express the appropriate strength qualities relative to the movements being performed Athletes ability to coordinate the limbs of the body relative to task and environment constraints
  30. 30. 30 TASK (SKILL) CONSTRAINTS Spatial Temporal Rules/ Equipment Manipulate the amount of space the movement can be performed in (e.g. small sided games) Manipulate the amount of time the movement can be performed in (e.g. number of players or racing) Change the rules to constrain choices and/or introduce equipment to constrain the movement options
  31. 31. Take Home
  32. 32. 01 Say the most with the least 01 Use Language that is memorable and Interesting 01 Use external cues to optimize coordination & learning 02 The right level of session variability encourages deeper learning 02 Drills can be designed to constrain errors so a new pattern can emerge
  33. 33. THANK YOU Nick.winkelman@IRFU.ie | @NickWinkelman

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