A review of IoT-based smart waste level monitoring system for smart cities

Smart cities are covering the population that are seeking the best lifestyle and fulfilling their needs. Through smart cities, necessary modern facilities using ICT emerging technologies such as the internet of things (IoT) had been installed to ensure the sustainability of the city. In the perspective of waste management, several different IoT-based solutions also had been proposed as an alternative to monitor and to ensure the health of communities. This paper reviews existing IoT-based solutions in smart cites’ waste level management system to bring together the state-of-the-art. We performed reviews on 16 research articles from the past 5 years in the literature to provide a comprehensive review of different works on IoT-based solutions related to the smart waste level monitoring system, possible solutions and technologies used. The results obtained shows that existing solutions were similar in the platform used to integrate with the IoT technologies but had some differences in term of the used of sensors and communication technologies. The study also shows that many of the prior studies used Arduino Uno. Results from this study will assist the researcher, focusing on expanding further the used of different technologies or improved the existing system.

Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
Vol. 21, No. 1, January 2021, pp. 450~456
ISSN: 2502-4752, DOI: 10.11591/ijeecs.v21.i1.pp450-456  450
Journal homepage: http://ijeecs.iaescore.com
A review of IoT-based smart waste level monitoring system for
smart cities
A.A.I. Shah1
, S.S.M. Fauzi2
, R.A.J.M. Gining3
, T.R.Razak4
, M.N.F.Jamaluddin5
, R. Maskat6
1,2,3,4,5
Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Perlis, Malaysia
6
Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor, Malaysia
Article Info ABSTRACT
Article history:
Received Apr 9, 2020
Revised Jul 8, 2020
Accepted Jul 26, 2020
Smart cities are covering the population that are seeking the best lifestyle and
fulfilling their needs. Through smart cities, necessary modern facilities using
ICT emerging technologies such as the internet of things (IoT) had been
installed to ensure the sustainability of the city. In the perspective of waste
management, several different IoT-based solutions also had been proposed as
an alternative to monitor and to ensure the health of communities. This paper
reviews existing IoT-based solutions in smart cites’ waste level management
system to bring together the state-of-the-art. We performed reviews on 16
research articles from the past 5 years in the literature to provide a
comprehensive review of different works on IoT-based solutions related to
the smart waste level monitoring system, possible solutions and technologies
used. The results obtained shows that existing solutions were similar in the
platform used to integrate with the IoT technologies but had some differences
in term of the used of sensors and communication technologies. The study
also shows that many of the prior studies used Arduino Uno. Results from
this study will assist the researcher, focusing on expanding further the used
of different technologies or improved the existing system.
Keywords:
Internet of things
IoT
Smart city
Smart waste monitoring system
Waste management
This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA license.
Corresponding Author:
S.S.M. Fauzi
Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences
Universiti Teknologi MARA
Perlis Branch, 02600, Arau, Perlis, Malaysia
Email: shukorsanim@uitm.edu.my
1. INTRODUCTION
A smart city is a concept that has been widely used to make cities more efficient in describing new
trends and goals [1-5]. These goals are different, and it depends on areas such as making greener cities by
improving people's quality of life or saving energy [6]. Regardless of the application area or goals, one of the
keys to this development is digital data and ICT infrastructure. With regard to the topic of this study, IoT-
based tools are highlighted in order to play an essential role in supporting the effectiveness and sustainability
of the city.
IoT is the extension to physical devices such as sensor and everyday objects through internet
connectivity which these devices can communicate and interact with others over the internet [7-9]. They can
be monitored and controlled remotely [10-14]. These data collected by devices can be sent to remote servers
where it is stored, processed and used for tracking, monitoring, and ultimately making intelligent
infrastructure or service management decisions [15-21].
In this regard, waste management is one of the core concerns in the smart city [22-25]. As nations
around the world are developing, their concerns and accountability for a healthier and sustainable
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A review of IoT-based smart waste level monitoring system for smart cities (A.A.I. Shah)
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environment are also increasing [26-28]. While developed countries are inventing and implementing smart
solutions for waste management and bringing about substantial positive impacts, waste management seems to
be a play out of the league for the underdeveloped or developing countries [29-32]. The overload of waste
container is leading to an unhealthy and inhabitable environment that costs the government a tremendous
amount of money with not at all positive impact [33, 34]. Therefore, wastes need to be packed, dumped,
collected, transported, manipulated and appropriately recycled in such ways that waste becomes a precious
wealth of the country. Those issues have become the major causes of building innovative systems.
Therefore, the main intention of this study includes, firstly, to synthesize and brings together the
state-of-the-art of the different IoT-based solutions related to the smart waste level monitoring system,
possible solutions and technologies used with a focus on the technique, the main sensor used, communication
technologies and microcontroller in the design and implementation of IoT-based smart waste level
monitoring system for smart cities. We performed an extensive review of existing research articles in the
literature from the past five years. Secondly, by considering the findings in (1), this study intends to propose
an IoT-based smart waste level monitoring system for smart cities. The next section outlines the
methodology. Next, the results of the study are discussed in Section 3. The proposed architecture is explained
in Section 4. Section 5 describes the discussion of the study. The final section concludes the study.
2. METHODOLOGY
This study employs a necessary systematic mapping study (SMS) steps [35]. An SMS is intended to
encompass an exhaustive search. It aims to provide a thorough and repeatable analysis of all relevant
literature. The five main steps in the method are: definition of research questions, searching for relevant
papers, screening papers, keywording of abstracts, and data extraction and mapping.
2.1. Definition of research questions
With the objective of developing an understanding of the state-of-the-art research in IoT-based
smart waste level monitoring system in smart cities, the following research questions drive this study:
RQ1: What IoT-based smart waste level monitoring system exists in the literature?
RQ2: What platform used to integrate with the IoT technologies
RQ3: What technologies proposed by the existing literature?
2.2. Searching for research papers
We performed an extensive search of the following electronic databases by using the keywords such
as the internet of things, smart waste level monitoring system, and smart city. The keywords were combined
using Boolean AND expression and OR expression. The databases searched were:
a) IEEE Xplore (http://ieeexplore.ieee.org)
b) ACM Digital Library (http://www.portal.acm.org/dl.cfm)
c) Elsevier ScienceDirect (http://www.sciencedirect.com)
d) Google Scholar (http://scholar.google.com)
2.3. Screening papers
The papers were examined based on the relevance to the research questions. First, we analysed
the title, abstracts and keywords. The papers were classified into two categories based on the following
inclusion (I) and exclusion (E) criteria:
I1: Paper should directly relate to IoT-based smart waste level monitoring system and smart cities
E1: Posters, panels, abstracts, presentations and article summaries
3. RESULTS
3.1. Overview of the study
The study reviewed 16 papers on the topic of IoT-based smart waste level monitoring system for
smart cities. Table 1 shows the list of the reviewed papers (by year, source and number of citations). From
Table 1, it suggests that studies on IoT-based smart waste management system for smart cities were very
conducted in 2017 (44%) and 2016 (31%). Table 2 illustrates the list of papers by type of publication. Results
from Table 2 suggests that 61% of the study related to IoT-based smart waste level monitoring system was
published in a wide range of journals, whereas 31% was published in the conference proceedings.
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Table 1. List of reviewed papers (by year and source)
Table 2. List of reviewed papers (by type of publication)
Type of Publication Percentage Paper ID
Journal 69% P1; P2; P3; P5; P8; P9; P11; P13; P14; P15; P16
Proceeding 31% P4; P6; P7; P10; P12
3.2. What IoT-based smart waste level monitoring system exists in the literature?
Table 3 illustrates the focus of the paper reviewed. Based on previous studies, it is found that the
most commonly used approach to address the problem is to prevent from the overloaded waste container. In
order to achieve this, the container are designed to be equipped with waste level detection and this is done by
implementing ultrasonic sensor [1, 39-51]. This shows that there is a consensus between researchers that the
ultrasonic sensor is the most suitable sensor to achieve the level of waste in the container. However, some
researchers have proposed a new approach to address the issue. The addition is to equip the waste container
with a load cell which can measure the weight of the container [36-38] PIR sensor to detect a motion of
object and humidity sensor to measure moisture and air temperature.
Table 3. Focus of the study
Paper ID The focus of the study
P1 Real-time monitoring of the level of garbage in garbage bins and optimized route
for garbage collecting vans
P2 Provide an efficient and cost-effective waste collection management
P3 Monitor status of dust bins remotely over the webserver
P4 Notify the corporations to empty the bin on time when garbage reach max level
P5 Monitor the amount of waste filling in it by sending information about filing status
P6 Measuring the garbage level by type of garbage in real-time
P7 Giving the municipal web server an alert signal for instant dustbin cleaning with
proper verification based on the level of garbage filling
P8 The level of garbage in the dustbins is detected with the help of sensor systems, and
communicated to the authorized control room through the GSM system
P9 Monitoring waste management
P10 Improve on waste monitoring and collection in public trash bins
P11 Makes a normal dustbin smart using ultrasonic sensors for garbage level detection,
display and sending a message to the concern department person updating the
status of the bin using GSM modem
P12 Accurate fill-level estimation with a tiny data-load fingerprint, regarding the
specific use case on waste-bins
P13 To avoid garbage are overloaded and prevent from creates unhygienic environment
P14 Monitor the garbage bins and provide information on the level of garbage collected
in the garbage bins via a web page
P15 It can alert the municipality to collect the waste in a bin on time and help clean up
the environment
P16 monitor fill level of solid waste in each of the containers using ultrasonic sensors
Paper
ID
Year References Source
Number of
citations
P1 2017 [36] International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science 10
P2 2018 [37] International Journal of Engineering & Technology 6
P3 2017 [38] International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Control Systems 18
P4 2017 [39] IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 9
P5 2018 [40] International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology 7
P6 2017 [41] MATEC Web of Conferences 10
P7 2016 [42] IEEE Region 10 Annual International Conference 83
P8 2016 [43] International Journal of Pharmacy and Technology NA
P9 2019 [44] International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering NA
P10 2017 [45] Proceedings of the 50th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences NA
P11 2017 [1] International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development NA
P12 2016 [46] IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory
Automation
NA
P13 2016 [47] International Journal of Advanced Research in Electronics and Communication
Engineering
NA
P14 2017 [48] International Journal of Innovative Research in Electrical, Electronics,
Instrumention and Control Engineering
NA
P15 2016 [49] International Journal of Computer Applications NA
P16 2019 [50] International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology NA
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A review of IoT-based smart waste level monitoring system for smart cities (A.A.I. Shah)
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3.3. What platform used to integrate with the IoT technologies
Moreover, the analysis performed shows that there are two different solutions to the waste level
monitoring system using IoT. For instance, 75% of the study developed a waste level monitoring system using IoT
devices which operates by sensing the level of waste in the container and send notification or alerts to the
appropriate authorities when the bin is full through the web application. The communication of this information
was achieved using SMS text messages. The rest of the papers or 19% of it have proposed an approach to monitor
the container through a mobile application. This may suggest that the mobile application is not compatible with
this waste management field. 6% of the study used both web and mobile application as a platform. Platform used
to integrate with IoT as shown in Table 4.
Table 4. Platform used to integrate with IoT
Paper ID Integrated platform used
P1, P3, P5, P6, P8, P9,
P10, P12 – P16
Web application
P2 Web and mobile application
P4, P7, P11 Mobile application
3.4. What technologies proposed by the existing literature?
Table 5 illustrates the comparison of the paper reviewed, in particular, the tools or component used
to send container status to the receiver side is short-ranged and required installation tools that make them not
to be practical in a city application. Most of the papers do not have location tool that alerts the receiver of the
location of the overloaded container [1, 36-40]. Only a few papers have done a location provided which
through Wi-Fi or GSM module [1, 36, 42-44]. Moreover, it identified the relevance of choosing appropriate
technology when designing IoT-enabled waste collection. That is, technology has fewer limitations and can
work excellently in many or different scenarios. Thus, the communication tools used from the bin to the
receiver side is of importance when implementing such a solution. The technology should have extensive
coverage. The location tool used to send the container status should be able to state the location and unique
ID of the container so that it can differentiate between those containers [37].
Table 5. Sensors used in the study
Paper ID Main Sensor Location Functionality
Ultra sensor Others No
P1 X Load cell, Humidity
Sensor
Yes
P2 X Load cell, Humidity
Sensor
No
P3 X Load cell No
P4 X - No
P5 X - No
P6 X - No
P7 X Radiofrequency
identification
(RFID)
Yes
P8 - Infrared Sensor Yes
P9 X - Yes
P10 X - No
P11 X Liquid Crystal
Display
Yes
P12 X - No
P13 X - No
P14 X - No
P15 X - No
P16 X - No
Based on the paper reviewed, much prior literature proposed a prototype that is using Arduino as the
microcontroller to operate their system software. Some of them are using Raspberry pi-3 [36, 46], other than
that are using a different microcontroller such as PIC16F877A [38], mbed LPC1768 [41], Long Rage Wide
Area Network (LoRaWAN) [45] and ARM LPC2148 controller & IR wireless [47]. Results in Table 6 also
suggests some of the paper reviewed need an external communication technology which allows to retrieved and
transmitted data thought internet connection. Therefore, without communication technology, the prototype
cannot receive or transmit any data or information. This will be one of the disadvantages when using a
microcontroller that did not provide any communication with the internet. Besides, their basic microcontroller.
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Table 6. Communication technologies and microcontroller used
Paper ID Communication technologies Microcontroller
P1 ESP8266 (Wi-Fi) Raspberry pi-3
P2 ESP8266 (Wi-Fi) Arduino Mega
P3 RF transmitter PIC16F877A
P4 ESP8266 (Wi-Fi) Arduino Uno
P5 GSM modem Arduino Uno
P6 ESP8266 (Wi-Fi) mbed LPC1768
P7 GRPS, ESP8266 (Wi-Fi) Arduino Uno R3
P8 GSM modem Arduino Uno R3
P9 Wifi module, GPS Arduino Uno
P10 GSM module Long Rage Wide Area Network
(LoRaWAN)
P11 GSM modem Arduino Mega 2560
P12 RFID Raspberry Pi
P13 Wifi module ARM LPC2148 controller and IR
wireless
P14 RFID Arduino Uno
P15 Zigbee, GSM Arduino Uno
P16 ESP8266 (Wi-Fi) Arduino Uno
4. DISCUSSION
Therefore, based on the results obtained from the paper reviewed, improvement and innovation must
be geared to the management of waste in our cities to ensure a healthy environment and prevent from diseases
and infections. In order to achieve that, integrating different sensors and making them communicate with each
other is vital; this is due to the container must be able to automate detect in their essential operation. Besides
their basic operation, the waste container needs to be able to send the location to identify the container from
which the location is located. Additionally, to enhance the efficiency of a smart waste level monitoring system,
a monitoring system should be made available as well so that it can benefit analysts greatly as they will have the
amount of data available to be analysed that will lead to better decision making in the future.
5. PROPOSED ARCHITECTURE OF IoT-BASED SMART WASTE LEVEL MONITORING
SYSTEM
In order to address the problems caused by overload waste in a container, this study is proposing an
improvement to the current IoT-based Smart Waste Level Monitoring System with the used of IoT and cloud
computing technologies. Waste containers are strategically situated within the communities, and the fill level
of waste in each of the containers is detected using ultrasonic sensors. The sensor data is transmitted to an
IoT cloud platform, via a Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) communication link. At different fill levels, the system is
designed to different graphic to represent the current waste level in the system using different colour and to alert
relevant authorities in real-time for necessary action. Figure 1 illustrates the proposed architecture of the system.
Figure 1. System architecture of the proposed system
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6. CONCLUSION
This study contributes to research on smart waste level monitoring system by synthesising the
literature on the current state-of-the-art. This study is crucial as it provides a clear overview of the state-of-
the-art of the development and implementation of the smart waste level monitoring system. An in-depth
review suggests that the existing solutions were similar in the platform used to integrate with the IoT
technologies but have some differences in term of the used of sensors and communication technologies. The
study also shows that many of the prior studies used Arduino Uno. In future research, we intend to identify
the requirement of the proposed system.
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A review of IoT-based smart waste level monitoring system for smart cities

  • 1. Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Vol. 21, No. 1, January 2021, pp. 450~456 ISSN: 2502-4752, DOI: 10.11591/ijeecs.v21.i1.pp450-456  450 Journal homepage: http://ijeecs.iaescore.com A review of IoT-based smart waste level monitoring system for smart cities A.A.I. Shah1 , S.S.M. Fauzi2 , R.A.J.M. Gining3 , T.R.Razak4 , M.N.F.Jamaluddin5 , R. Maskat6 1,2,3,4,5 Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Perlis, Malaysia 6 Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor, Malaysia Article Info ABSTRACT Article history: Received Apr 9, 2020 Revised Jul 8, 2020 Accepted Jul 26, 2020 Smart cities are covering the population that are seeking the best lifestyle and fulfilling their needs. Through smart cities, necessary modern facilities using ICT emerging technologies such as the internet of things (IoT) had been installed to ensure the sustainability of the city. In the perspective of waste management, several different IoT-based solutions also had been proposed as an alternative to monitor and to ensure the health of communities. This paper reviews existing IoT-based solutions in smart cites’ waste level management system to bring together the state-of-the-art. We performed reviews on 16 research articles from the past 5 years in the literature to provide a comprehensive review of different works on IoT-based solutions related to the smart waste level monitoring system, possible solutions and technologies used. The results obtained shows that existing solutions were similar in the platform used to integrate with the IoT technologies but had some differences in term of the used of sensors and communication technologies. The study also shows that many of the prior studies used Arduino Uno. Results from this study will assist the researcher, focusing on expanding further the used of different technologies or improved the existing system. Keywords: Internet of things IoT Smart city Smart waste monitoring system Waste management This is an open access article under the CC BY-SA license. Corresponding Author: S.S.M. Fauzi Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences Universiti Teknologi MARA Perlis Branch, 02600, Arau, Perlis, Malaysia Email: shukorsanim@uitm.edu.my 1. INTRODUCTION A smart city is a concept that has been widely used to make cities more efficient in describing new trends and goals [1-5]. These goals are different, and it depends on areas such as making greener cities by improving people's quality of life or saving energy [6]. Regardless of the application area or goals, one of the keys to this development is digital data and ICT infrastructure. With regard to the topic of this study, IoT- based tools are highlighted in order to play an essential role in supporting the effectiveness and sustainability of the city. IoT is the extension to physical devices such as sensor and everyday objects through internet connectivity which these devices can communicate and interact with others over the internet [7-9]. They can be monitored and controlled remotely [10-14]. These data collected by devices can be sent to remote servers where it is stored, processed and used for tracking, monitoring, and ultimately making intelligent infrastructure or service management decisions [15-21]. In this regard, waste management is one of the core concerns in the smart city [22-25]. As nations around the world are developing, their concerns and accountability for a healthier and sustainable
  • 2. Indonesian J Elec Eng & Comp Sci ISSN: 2502-4752  A review of IoT-based smart waste level monitoring system for smart cities (A.A.I. Shah) 451 environment are also increasing [26-28]. While developed countries are inventing and implementing smart solutions for waste management and bringing about substantial positive impacts, waste management seems to be a play out of the league for the underdeveloped or developing countries [29-32]. The overload of waste container is leading to an unhealthy and inhabitable environment that costs the government a tremendous amount of money with not at all positive impact [33, 34]. Therefore, wastes need to be packed, dumped, collected, transported, manipulated and appropriately recycled in such ways that waste becomes a precious wealth of the country. Those issues have become the major causes of building innovative systems. Therefore, the main intention of this study includes, firstly, to synthesize and brings together the state-of-the-art of the different IoT-based solutions related to the smart waste level monitoring system, possible solutions and technologies used with a focus on the technique, the main sensor used, communication technologies and microcontroller in the design and implementation of IoT-based smart waste level monitoring system for smart cities. We performed an extensive review of existing research articles in the literature from the past five years. Secondly, by considering the findings in (1), this study intends to propose an IoT-based smart waste level monitoring system for smart cities. The next section outlines the methodology. Next, the results of the study are discussed in Section 3. The proposed architecture is explained in Section 4. Section 5 describes the discussion of the study. The final section concludes the study. 2. METHODOLOGY This study employs a necessary systematic mapping study (SMS) steps [35]. An SMS is intended to encompass an exhaustive search. It aims to provide a thorough and repeatable analysis of all relevant literature. The five main steps in the method are: definition of research questions, searching for relevant papers, screening papers, keywording of abstracts, and data extraction and mapping. 2.1. Definition of research questions With the objective of developing an understanding of the state-of-the-art research in IoT-based smart waste level monitoring system in smart cities, the following research questions drive this study: RQ1: What IoT-based smart waste level monitoring system exists in the literature? RQ2: What platform used to integrate with the IoT technologies RQ3: What technologies proposed by the existing literature? 2.2. Searching for research papers We performed an extensive search of the following electronic databases by using the keywords such as the internet of things, smart waste level monitoring system, and smart city. The keywords were combined using Boolean AND expression and OR expression. The databases searched were: a) IEEE Xplore (http://ieeexplore.ieee.org) b) ACM Digital Library (http://www.portal.acm.org/dl.cfm) c) Elsevier ScienceDirect (http://www.sciencedirect.com) d) Google Scholar (http://scholar.google.com) 2.3. Screening papers The papers were examined based on the relevance to the research questions. First, we analysed the title, abstracts and keywords. The papers were classified into two categories based on the following inclusion (I) and exclusion (E) criteria: I1: Paper should directly relate to IoT-based smart waste level monitoring system and smart cities E1: Posters, panels, abstracts, presentations and article summaries 3. RESULTS 3.1. Overview of the study The study reviewed 16 papers on the topic of IoT-based smart waste level monitoring system for smart cities. Table 1 shows the list of the reviewed papers (by year, source and number of citations). From Table 1, it suggests that studies on IoT-based smart waste management system for smart cities were very conducted in 2017 (44%) and 2016 (31%). Table 2 illustrates the list of papers by type of publication. Results from Table 2 suggests that 61% of the study related to IoT-based smart waste level monitoring system was published in a wide range of journals, whereas 31% was published in the conference proceedings.
  • 3.  ISSN: 2502-4752 Indonesian J Elec Eng & Comp Sci, Vol. 21, No. 1, January 2021 : 450 - 456 452 Table 1. List of reviewed papers (by year and source) Table 2. List of reviewed papers (by type of publication) Type of Publication Percentage Paper ID Journal 69% P1; P2; P3; P5; P8; P9; P11; P13; P14; P15; P16 Proceeding 31% P4; P6; P7; P10; P12 3.2. What IoT-based smart waste level monitoring system exists in the literature? Table 3 illustrates the focus of the paper reviewed. Based on previous studies, it is found that the most commonly used approach to address the problem is to prevent from the overloaded waste container. In order to achieve this, the container are designed to be equipped with waste level detection and this is done by implementing ultrasonic sensor [1, 39-51]. This shows that there is a consensus between researchers that the ultrasonic sensor is the most suitable sensor to achieve the level of waste in the container. However, some researchers have proposed a new approach to address the issue. The addition is to equip the waste container with a load cell which can measure the weight of the container [36-38] PIR sensor to detect a motion of object and humidity sensor to measure moisture and air temperature. Table 3. Focus of the study Paper ID The focus of the study P1 Real-time monitoring of the level of garbage in garbage bins and optimized route for garbage collecting vans P2 Provide an efficient and cost-effective waste collection management P3 Monitor status of dust bins remotely over the webserver P4 Notify the corporations to empty the bin on time when garbage reach max level P5 Monitor the amount of waste filling in it by sending information about filing status P6 Measuring the garbage level by type of garbage in real-time P7 Giving the municipal web server an alert signal for instant dustbin cleaning with proper verification based on the level of garbage filling P8 The level of garbage in the dustbins is detected with the help of sensor systems, and communicated to the authorized control room through the GSM system P9 Monitoring waste management P10 Improve on waste monitoring and collection in public trash bins P11 Makes a normal dustbin smart using ultrasonic sensors for garbage level detection, display and sending a message to the concern department person updating the status of the bin using GSM modem P12 Accurate fill-level estimation with a tiny data-load fingerprint, regarding the specific use case on waste-bins P13 To avoid garbage are overloaded and prevent from creates unhygienic environment P14 Monitor the garbage bins and provide information on the level of garbage collected in the garbage bins via a web page P15 It can alert the municipality to collect the waste in a bin on time and help clean up the environment P16 monitor fill level of solid waste in each of the containers using ultrasonic sensors Paper ID Year References Source Number of citations P1 2017 [36] International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science 10 P2 2018 [37] International Journal of Engineering & Technology 6 P3 2017 [38] International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Control Systems 18 P4 2017 [39] IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 9 P5 2018 [40] International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology 7 P6 2017 [41] MATEC Web of Conferences 10 P7 2016 [42] IEEE Region 10 Annual International Conference 83 P8 2016 [43] International Journal of Pharmacy and Technology NA P9 2019 [44] International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering NA P10 2017 [45] Proceedings of the 50th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences NA P11 2017 [1] International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development NA P12 2016 [46] IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation NA P13 2016 [47] International Journal of Advanced Research in Electronics and Communication Engineering NA P14 2017 [48] International Journal of Innovative Research in Electrical, Electronics, Instrumention and Control Engineering NA P15 2016 [49] International Journal of Computer Applications NA P16 2019 [50] International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology NA
  • 4. Indonesian J Elec Eng & Comp Sci ISSN: 2502-4752  A review of IoT-based smart waste level monitoring system for smart cities (A.A.I. Shah) 453 3.3. What platform used to integrate with the IoT technologies Moreover, the analysis performed shows that there are two different solutions to the waste level monitoring system using IoT. For instance, 75% of the study developed a waste level monitoring system using IoT devices which operates by sensing the level of waste in the container and send notification or alerts to the appropriate authorities when the bin is full through the web application. The communication of this information was achieved using SMS text messages. The rest of the papers or 19% of it have proposed an approach to monitor the container through a mobile application. This may suggest that the mobile application is not compatible with this waste management field. 6% of the study used both web and mobile application as a platform. Platform used to integrate with IoT as shown in Table 4. Table 4. Platform used to integrate with IoT Paper ID Integrated platform used P1, P3, P5, P6, P8, P9, P10, P12 – P16 Web application P2 Web and mobile application P4, P7, P11 Mobile application 3.4. What technologies proposed by the existing literature? Table 5 illustrates the comparison of the paper reviewed, in particular, the tools or component used to send container status to the receiver side is short-ranged and required installation tools that make them not to be practical in a city application. Most of the papers do not have location tool that alerts the receiver of the location of the overloaded container [1, 36-40]. Only a few papers have done a location provided which through Wi-Fi or GSM module [1, 36, 42-44]. Moreover, it identified the relevance of choosing appropriate technology when designing IoT-enabled waste collection. That is, technology has fewer limitations and can work excellently in many or different scenarios. Thus, the communication tools used from the bin to the receiver side is of importance when implementing such a solution. The technology should have extensive coverage. The location tool used to send the container status should be able to state the location and unique ID of the container so that it can differentiate between those containers [37]. Table 5. Sensors used in the study Paper ID Main Sensor Location Functionality Ultra sensor Others No P1 X Load cell, Humidity Sensor Yes P2 X Load cell, Humidity Sensor No P3 X Load cell No P4 X - No P5 X - No P6 X - No P7 X Radiofrequency identification (RFID) Yes P8 - Infrared Sensor Yes P9 X - Yes P10 X - No P11 X Liquid Crystal Display Yes P12 X - No P13 X - No P14 X - No P15 X - No P16 X - No Based on the paper reviewed, much prior literature proposed a prototype that is using Arduino as the microcontroller to operate their system software. Some of them are using Raspberry pi-3 [36, 46], other than that are using a different microcontroller such as PIC16F877A [38], mbed LPC1768 [41], Long Rage Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN) [45] and ARM LPC2148 controller & IR wireless [47]. Results in Table 6 also suggests some of the paper reviewed need an external communication technology which allows to retrieved and transmitted data thought internet connection. Therefore, without communication technology, the prototype cannot receive or transmit any data or information. This will be one of the disadvantages when using a microcontroller that did not provide any communication with the internet. Besides, their basic microcontroller.
  • 5.  ISSN: 2502-4752 Indonesian J Elec Eng & Comp Sci, Vol. 21, No. 1, January 2021 : 450 - 456 454 Table 6. Communication technologies and microcontroller used Paper ID Communication technologies Microcontroller P1 ESP8266 (Wi-Fi) Raspberry pi-3 P2 ESP8266 (Wi-Fi) Arduino Mega P3 RF transmitter PIC16F877A P4 ESP8266 (Wi-Fi) Arduino Uno P5 GSM modem Arduino Uno P6 ESP8266 (Wi-Fi) mbed LPC1768 P7 GRPS, ESP8266 (Wi-Fi) Arduino Uno R3 P8 GSM modem Arduino Uno R3 P9 Wifi module, GPS Arduino Uno P10 GSM module Long Rage Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN) P11 GSM modem Arduino Mega 2560 P12 RFID Raspberry Pi P13 Wifi module ARM LPC2148 controller and IR wireless P14 RFID Arduino Uno P15 Zigbee, GSM Arduino Uno P16 ESP8266 (Wi-Fi) Arduino Uno 4. DISCUSSION Therefore, based on the results obtained from the paper reviewed, improvement and innovation must be geared to the management of waste in our cities to ensure a healthy environment and prevent from diseases and infections. In order to achieve that, integrating different sensors and making them communicate with each other is vital; this is due to the container must be able to automate detect in their essential operation. Besides their basic operation, the waste container needs to be able to send the location to identify the container from which the location is located. Additionally, to enhance the efficiency of a smart waste level monitoring system, a monitoring system should be made available as well so that it can benefit analysts greatly as they will have the amount of data available to be analysed that will lead to better decision making in the future. 5. PROPOSED ARCHITECTURE OF IoT-BASED SMART WASTE LEVEL MONITORING SYSTEM In order to address the problems caused by overload waste in a container, this study is proposing an improvement to the current IoT-based Smart Waste Level Monitoring System with the used of IoT and cloud computing technologies. Waste containers are strategically situated within the communities, and the fill level of waste in each of the containers is detected using ultrasonic sensors. The sensor data is transmitted to an IoT cloud platform, via a Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) communication link. At different fill levels, the system is designed to different graphic to represent the current waste level in the system using different colour and to alert relevant authorities in real-time for necessary action. Figure 1 illustrates the proposed architecture of the system. Figure 1. System architecture of the proposed system
  • 6. Indonesian J Elec Eng & Comp Sci ISSN: 2502-4752  A review of IoT-based smart waste level monitoring system for smart cities (A.A.I. Shah) 455 6. CONCLUSION This study contributes to research on smart waste level monitoring system by synthesising the literature on the current state-of-the-art. This study is crucial as it provides a clear overview of the state-of- the-art of the development and implementation of the smart waste level monitoring system. An in-depth review suggests that the existing solutions were similar in the platform used to integrate with the IoT technologies but have some differences in term of the used of sensors and communication technologies. The study also shows that many of the prior studies used Arduino Uno. In future research, we intend to identify the requirement of the proposed system. REFERENCES [1] Rao, P. R., Kumar, S. S., & Prasad, C. 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