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Green Infrastructure Workshop for Design Professionals

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On May 26, 2016, Michele Adams of Meliora Design and Tavis Dockwiller of Viridian Landscape Studio gave a presentation on green infrastructure during a workshop put together by New Jersey Future. The workshop was held for design professionals like engineers, landscape architects, and architects who design and/or review stormwater management systems in the Highlands of New Jersey.

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Green Infrastructure Workshop for Design Professionals

  1. 1. Highlands Regional Green Infrastructure Workshop For Engineers and Design Professionals May 26, 2016 Presented by New Jersey Future
  2. 2. Our Partners ANJEC Highlands Coalition Sustainable Jersey Highlands Council Rutgers Cooperative Extension
  3. 3. Workshop Participants Design engineers Landscape architects Architects Maintenance facility/ property managers Construction managers
  4. 4. Agenda Welcome and Introductions Green Infrastructure 101 Small Storm Volume Management Why Green Infrastructure? Policy, Highlands Stormwater, and the Market Case Studies: Lessons Learned, Triple Bottom Line and Myth Busting Stormwater “Credit for GI” Break to Get Lunch Lunch Discussion: Getting Past Barriers Groups Report Out Closing remarks
  5. 5. The Hydrologic Cycle
  6. 6. 15” 45 ” 22” 8” Natural Water Cycle Pennsylvania 50” 26” 12” 12”
  7. 7. It wants to be a forest – a tree is the best practice 99% of North America was covered by forest from the Atlantic shoreline to the prairies of the Great Plains. Today only fragments remain. Pre-European settlement Present http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov 14 October 2003
  8. 8. It wants to be a forest, but… 43,480 square miles of blacktop = 5.5 the size of New Jersey
  9. 9. 45”/YR 2” 43” Altered Water Cycle – Impervious Surfaces 50” 3” 0” 47”!
  10. 10. How compacted is this soil? Common Bulk Density Measurements David B. Friedman, District Director -- Ocean County Soil Conservation District Golf Courses, Parks, Athletic Fields 1.69 to 1.97g/cc Undisturbed Lands: Forests & Woodlands 1.03g/cc CONCRETE 2.2g/cc Residential Neighborhoods 1.69 to 1.97g/cc Bulk Density is defined as the weight of a unit volume of soil including its pore space (g/cc or grams/cubic centimeter). Water and air are important components of soil and we must frame our soil concepts so that factors affecting water and air dynamics are included. Thus, we are primarily interested in bulk density and pore space as they affect water and aeration status, and root penetration and development.
  11. 11. Despite decades of detention basins, we still have flooding from development.
  12. 12. • Stream channel erosion releases sediment • Pools and riffles are lost • Large storms cannot reach floodplains • Less recharge = less baseflow • Small streams can go dry • La
  13. 13. Two important observations: 96% of the annual rainfall volume is from storms 3 inches or less Frequency: Most of the time, it rains 1 inch or less Annual Percentages of Volume from Storms
  14. 14. Section 438 of the Energy Independence and Security Act (Dec 2009) Design, construct, and maintain stormwater management practices that mimic natural hydrology OR Retain the 95th percentile Rainfall (around 1.7”) EPA’s Direction for Federal Facilities We are seeing variations of this requirement in MS4 NPDES permits in different states. Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System
  15. 15. Creating a Built Environment That Looks Like a Forest 26 in. 12 in. 12 in. Evaporation Infiltration Runoff Annual Rainfall 50 in.
  16. 16. How we BUILD and how we PLAN Low Impact Development (LID) or Green Infrastructure (GI) “Allow natural infiltration to occur as close as possible to the original area of rainfall. By engineering terrain, vegetation, and soil features to perform this function, costly conveyance systems can be avoided and the landscape can retain more of its natural hydrologic function.” National Association of Home Builders
  17. 17. DuPont Barley Mills Office Complex 1986 • Preserve Woodlands • Reduce Site Disturbance
  18. 18. Morris Arboretum, Phila Morris Arboretum
  19. 19. Diagram of infiltration bed at Morris Arboretum
  20. 20. 22 ” 8” Tools for how we build: • Green roofs • Porous Pavements • Rain Gardens and Bioretention • Cisterns and Reuse
  21. 21. New Development: Residential • High Density Residential • 59 acres • 269 homes: • 146 Townhouses • 96 Quads • 17 Singles • Sinkholes and limestone Can Water be Managed within the landscape?127 small measures, no detention basins.
  22. 22. • Quad homes without basements have down spouts connected to infiltration beds beneath impervious driveways. • Paths made of pervious asphalt.
  23. 23. • Stormwater beds beneath driveways (standard asphalt). • Overflow to swales along streets
  24. 24. • Each home manages its own runoff in a Rain Garden and Stone Seepage Bed, located in the right-of-way.
  25. 25. New Development: Suburban Commercial Mixed-Use • Pervious asphalt, stormwater infiltration beds, vegetated swales, rain gardens. • Protect stream, wetlands, woodlands. • Reduce flooding by 33%.
  26. 26. Site Analysis – Existing features inventory • Existing Natural Features • Waterbodies • Floodplains • Riparian areas • Wetlands • Woodlands • Natural drainageways • Sinkholes • Steep slopes • Undisturbed area • Manmade Features / Historic Land Use • Former Land Use (ag, indust., etc.) • Abandoned utilities • Active utilities • Easements/Deed Restrictions
  27. 27. Existing Site
  28. 28. Existing Site
  29. 29. Mixed Use Development at Valley Square Town Center • Porous Pavement • Subsurface Infiltration Beds • Bioswales • Bioretention Systems • Reduced pre-development peak rates by 67.5% for 1-100 year storms •Distributed infiltration design, mostly under porous pavement – almost 10 acres (plus multiple rain gardens and vegetated infiltration beds) •Total infiltration area – 16 ac
  30. 30. Bio-retention Infiltration Bed below Standard Asphalt
  31. 31. Porous Paving Conventional Paving Porous Pavement
  32. 32. Valley Square Warrington, PA - Protected Areas Porous Pavement Bio-retention
  33. 33. Green Infrastructure Retrofits: Schools, Streets, and Parking
  34. 34. Greening Greenfield School
  35. 35. Green Infrastructure for Areas with Combined Sewers Greening Schoolyards for Education and the Environment
  36. 36. “Schools make up 2% of all impervious cover in the City, but because they are highly visible and associated with education, making them critical components in a green stormwater infrastructure program, they present a high priority target for greening. The goal is to retrofit up to half of all schools in the City in the coming 20 years. PWD plans to support the retrofitting of up to 5 school campuses per year, utilizing an array of stormwater measures such as rain gardens, green roofs, rain barrels and cisterns.” Section 10 • Recommended Plan Elements 10-23 City of Philadelphia Goal: Capture 1” Rainfall Volume
  37. 37. Location: Schuylkill River Combined Sewer
  38. 38. Aerial looking East
  39. 39. Site Photos
  40. 40. Water Assessment Practices: Drainage Area to Capture
  41. 41. Water Assessment Practices: Site Inventory Existing Hydrology 3’ dia. combined sewer Roof leaders
  42. 42. The Vision Stormwater Plan
  43. 43. Viridian Landscape Studio • SMP Architects • Meliora Environmental Design Design: Engage all users Address age preferences Society: Encourage collaboration and engage the public Develop Community Stewardship Education: Design to Inform the Public Teach Future Generations Effect Transformation of Future Generations
  44. 44. South Swale Experimentation Rain chain and gauge
  45. 45. West Play Yard: Cross Section at Infiltration Swale Evapotranspiration by plants Excess Runoff is Infiltrated
  46. 46. East Play Yard: Entry Feature
  47. 47. East Play Yard: Entry Feature
  48. 48. East Play Yard: Entry Feature
  49. 49. Materials: Salvaged Stone Granite from the Philadelphia Zoo Marble and granite from Independence Mall Sandstone Bridge Abutments from Schuylkill River Bridges
  50. 50. Planted in the style of the Wissahickon Forest Photo: Wissahickon Creek near Philadelphia c. 1865 from the National Gallery of Art by John Moran Painting: View on the Wissahickon by James Peale 1830 Observation
  51. 51. Materials Rubber Play Surface Recycled Percolates at 11”/HR Need proper base course design to accept stormwater
  52. 52. Planting Experts and Volunteers • TreeVitalize PA Dept of Conservation and Natural Resources and The Pennsylvania Horticultural Society • CSX Corporation Used Greenfield as a kick-off to their monumental initiative – the planting of one tree for every mile of the 21,000 miles of its commercial track. • ACT (Alliance for Community Trees • Greenfield Home and School Association • Parents/ Children • Teacher • Design Team • Contractors • Philadelphia Water Department Office of Water Sheds
  53. 53. Participation
  54. 54. Greening Lea Master Plan January 9, 2013 SMP Architects meliora environmental design viridian landscape studio
  55. 55. 2 3 1
  56. 56. 1 2 3
  57. 57.  Security: The smaller play lot is remote and not supervised, site is dark and 47th St. can be quite deserted and unsafe.  Only blacktop/ no shade on the playground  Vehicular access to dumpsters is bad  Basketball court orientation is a problem  Lack of age-range in equipment CONCERNS AND CHALLENGES NEEDS & DESIRES – BIG IDEAS  Replicate the feel of the “secret garden” within the school yard  Create a link between neighborhood garden center/ existing garden beds/ curriculum  Create a “vibrant community node”  Foster partnership with adjacent tennis facilities  Incorporate stormwater management projects that PWD would like to help realize
  58. 58. Street Runoff
  59. 59. Street Runoff into Schoolyard = $$ for Greening Schoolyards
  60. 60. Lea School – Captures 2 acres of school and street right-of-way
  61. 61. Waterview Recreation Center Philadelphia, PA 1. Underground infiltration beds with porous concrete surface 2. Porous concrete pavement 3. Trees in trenches 4. Flow-through planter boxes
  62. 62. Before Waterview Recreation Center New Sidewalk that captures street runoff
  63. 63. After
  64. 64. Bio-retention Water from the street enters through a trench drain Overflow water exits to an inlet
  65. 65. Passyunk and 63rd
  66. 66. Site Analysis Existing Conditions
  67. 67. Passyunk and 61st
  68. 68. Sunoco Refinery
  69. 69. Passyunk and 28th
  70. 70. Porous Paver Plaza
  71. 71. Erie Canal MuseumCity Hall Canal Water Street Syracuse NY
  72. 72. Stormwater PipingPorous Pavers Planter Cells Structural Soil Extents Stormwater Capture Enlargement
  73. 73. 6-8” S-1 Soil Layer: Planting Soil Surface layer. A layer consisting of material with a USDA Texture of sand to loamy sand (S2) amended with organic matter. (must be tested to meet specs after compost is approved and added) 24” S-3 Soil Layer: Planting Soil Drainage Layer consisting of a 6 layer of material with a USDA Texture of coarse sand Stormwater Section
  74. 74. 1st Comprehensive Green Street
  75. 75. Year Completed: 2011 Construction Cost: $837,000 Capture Area: 53,000 sf Square Foot Cost: $15.79/SF Runoff Reduction: 924,000 gal/yr Green Technology: Bioinfiltration Trenches, Porous Pavement, Native Plantings The Facts
  76. 76. Erie Canal MuseumCity Hall Canal Case Study: Water Street, Syracuse NY
  77. 77. Alternative Technologies
  78. 78. 1 Million gallons of runoff / year
  79. 79. 1ST Comprehensive Green Street
  80. 80. Year Completed: 2011 Construction Cost: $837,000 Capture Area: 53,000 sf Square Foot Cost: $15.79/SF Runoff Reduction: 924,000 gal/yr Green Technology: Bioinfiltration Trenches, Porous Pavement, Native Plantings The Facts
  81. 81. 1ST Comprehensive Green Street Erie Canal Museum City Hall Small Businesses
  82. 82. Stormwater Capture Enlargement Stormwater PipingPorous Pavers Planter Cells Structural Soil Extents
  83. 83. 6-8” S-1 Soil Layer: Planting Soil Surface layer. A layer consisting of material with a USDA Texture of sand to loamy sand (S2) amended with organic matter. (must be tested to meet specs after compost is approved and added) 24” S-3 Soil Layer: Planting Soil Drainage Layer consisting of a 6 layer of material with a USDA Texture of coarse sand Stormwater Section
  84. 84. A 4’ x 5’x 3’ tree pit (typical in urban settings) only provides 60 cubic feet of soil! A 10’ x 34’x3’ tree trench provides the 1000+cf necessary for successful tree canopy cover 120 cf 500 cf 1000 cf The success to street tree longevity is credited to the amount of soil volume available for tree growth. A large tree, with a desired lifespan beyond 15 years (average life of a downtown street tree is just 13 years) needs a minimum 500 – 1200 cubic feet of soil to reach a size that significantly contributes to a healthy community and ecosystem. 60cf With thanks to the work of Jim Urban, Edward Gilman and Tim Craul The Truth about Trees
  86. 86. Things Contractors Understand Stone Compaction Curbs Inlets
  87. 87. Utility vault uncovered during construction is located directly in proposed plant bed ADA ramp conflict with snow plows No option to reject based on root issues as nursery stock is already dug and covered without tree tagging Expect the Unexpected
  88. 88. MAINTENANCE: Hire the Contractor via a Separate Contract for at least 1 year RAIN GARDEN I. 1st Year Maintenance: Inspect 2x/year (Late May to early July, and/or late August/early September) II. Inspection: 1x/year minimum (Late May to early July, and/or late August/early September) III. Weeding: 3x/year minimum (Spring clean up, summer maintenance, fall put to bed) IV. Mulching: Minimum 1x/year (Spring) V. Pruning: 1x year (Spring) Stuff We Try to Require
  89. 89. Keep it Simple Stupid
  90. 90. How are the streets swept? Who cleans out inlets? Who repairs the road? Are their codes that must change? What are the tools for collaboration? Who is vested in the big picture? Were the Long-Term Caregivers vested in THE PLAN? You Asked for it !
  91. 91. Volunteers are not enough
  92. 92. Show Me the Money
  93. 93. A landscape architect’s fairy tale: our dream of happily every after Vincent Van Gogh: The Road Menders The Phillips Collection, Washington, DC. Acquired 1949
  94. 94. Case Study: East Liberty Ave Pittsburgh PA
  95. 95. Cathedral of Hope East Liberty Presbyterian Church
  96. 96. Site Plan Existing Walk RaingardenRaingarden LawnLawn Benches in Groundcover Large Canopy Allee Bus Stop
  97. 97. Stormwater Management Plan: Infrastructure Stormwater Storage bed Raingardens Downspouts & Infrastructure
  98. 98. Trench Configurations and Sizes: Soil Volume What happens underground / who maintains it? Soil & Stormwater Infiltration Bed/ Root Zone Planting Trench Standard or Porous Paving Soil Cells or Structural Soil Porous Hardscape or Groundcover
  99. 99. Management Plan: Public vs. Private
  100. 100. Maintenance Plan: Tree Ownership?
  101. 101. East Liberty Cathedral of Hope Pittsburgh PA
  102. 102. East Liberty Cathedral of Hope Pittsburgh PA “The prior landscaping. . .looked postcard-perfect from a distance, but it was functionally unwelcoming up close. Now we have broken that stone border with a series of benches and tables. As people wait for the bus or simply pause on their way up and down Penn Avenue, they can sit on benches . . . Our building now has a living, active link to the neighborhood, modeling a renewed and faithful spirit of hospitality.” East Liberty Presbyterian blog June 9, 2014
  103. 103. East Liberty Cathedral of Hope Pittsburgh PA
  104. 104. Haddon Township Van Sciver School Haddon Township, NJ Philadelphia
  105. 105. PROJECT SITE xxxx Photo Source: Google Maps Van Sciver School Saddlers Woods Project Site
  107. 107. Construction
  108. 108. 1 4 2 3 CONSTRUCTION
  109. 109. 5/31/2016 Retrofitting Suburban Basins: Hold 1”
  110. 110. Retrofitting Suburban Basins: Hold 1”
  111. 111. Questions?
  112. 112. Calculations How can we give credit for the volume management of Green Infrastucture when we calculate peak flow rates and flood mitigation?
  113. 113. 142 Maryland Environmental Site Design (ESD) Approach An approach to credit volume management in peak rate calculations
  114. 114. 143 Multiple Land Uses and Soil Types: • Weighted CN Runoff Depth 10 year, 24 hr Q = (P-0.2S)2 (P+0.8S) - 10 =S = 1000 CN = 78 Weighted CN and Runoff Depth B C Residential 36% imp Residential 36% imp 75 83 22.8 15.2 38 1,710 1,261 38 2,791 2,791 5.0 in 78 10 year 78 1000 78 -10 = 2.82 Q = (5.0 - 0.2 (2.82))2 (5 + 0.8(2.82)) in Initial Abstraction = 0.2S = 0.56 in Volume Runoff = Q x Drainage Area = 2.71 in x 38 acres = 373,817 ft2 = 2.71 in
  115. 115. 144 Time of Concentration (tc) is the time it takes for runoff to travel from the most hydraulically distant point in the watershed to the outlet. Time of Concentration (tc) affects the shape and peak of the hydrograph. Small tc changes can sometimes have big qp impacts SCS Dimensionless Unit Hydrograph
  116. 116. 145 • Curve Number determines Runoff Depth (inches) and Volume (ft3) • Hydrograph represents volume (flow over time) • Can we adjust CN to represent LID practices that reduce volume? • Q is adjusted Runoff Depth managed by infiltration or volume reduction practices Adjusted CN McKuen
  117. 117. 146 Site Data Total Drainage Area: 38 acres Soil Types: 60% B (22.8 acres) 40% C (15.2 ac) Land Use: Woods Good Condition (existing) Proposed Land Use: ½ acre lots, impervious 36% P = 10 year = 5.0 in Existing Proposed CN 61 78 Q runoff depth (in) 1.37 in 2.71 in Volume (area x Q) 188,978 ft3 373,817 ft3 Ia (in) 1.27 in 0.56 in Suppose we add SMPs that manage 93,800 ft3 of runoff? (that’s equivalent to about 1.89 in from 13.68 acres of impervious, or about 0.68 in over entire 38 acre site) Example – Residential Development Let’s Add Volume Management
  118. 118. 147 Site Data Total Drainage Area: 38 acres Soil Types: 60% B (22.8 acres) 40% C (15.2 ac) Land Use: Woods Good Condition (existing) Proposed Land Use: ½ acre lots, impervious 36% P = 10 year = 5.0 in Existing Proposed CN 61 78 Q runoff depth (in) 1.37 in 2.71 in Volume (area x Q) 188,978 ft3 373,817 ft3 Ia (in) 1.27 in 0.56 in 93,800 ft3 managed / (38 acres x 43,560 ft/ac) x 1ft/12in =0.68 in Q – QE = Q ADJ = 2.71 in – 0.68 in = 2.03 inches Example – Residential Development Adjusted Q (runoff depth)
  119. 119. 148 Existing Proposed CN 61 78 Q runoff depth (in) 1.37 in 2.71 in Volume (area x Q) 188,978 ft3 373,817 ft3 Ia(in) 1.27 in 0.56 in Q – QE = Q ADJ = 2.71 in – 0.68 in = 2.03 inches Our new CN of 70 can be used to calculate peak discharge rate. Example – Residential Development Calculate New CN
  120. 120. 149 • Infiltration or Volume Management distributed evenly over site • Each house has its own SMPs • Tc is not adjusted • Maryland’s goal is to replicate “woods in good condition” • Lookup Tables and Spreadsheet Tool Important Assumptions
  121. 121. Maximum Extent Practicable is defined as maintaining predevelopment site runoff to “woods in good condition.” The resulting ESD volume typically ranges between 1.7 and 2.6 inches, depending on soils and development intensity Maryland ESD
  122. 122. Agenda Break to get lunch
  123. 123. Agenda Lunch Discussion: Getting Past Barriers 1. Can GI benefit your clients, and what tools would help you? 2. What are the regulatory constraints to wider GI implementation? 3. What are the municipal constraints? Application Process? 4. Are there issues related to design standards and specifications? 5. are there issues related to property owner lack of demand/awareness? 6. Are design costs an issue? 7. Is permitting uncertainty an issue? 8. Are there construction considerations? 9. Are there maintenance concerns? 10. Is this a market opportunity for you?
  124. 124. Agenda Lunch Exercise: 1. On your Colored Sticky Notes write: Yellow: something that surprised you today Purple: something you learned today Blue: something you plan to do as a result of the workshop 2. Stick the notes on the flip chart