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Effective presentations skills_final

  1. 1. Effective Presentations Skills
  2. 2. Definitions Presentation “Something set forth to an audience for the attention of the mind “ Effective “…producing a desired result” Source: http://www.merriam-webster.com
  3. 3. Types of presentation Press conference: two chief executives tell journalists why their companies have merged. Briefing: a senior officer gives information to other officers about an operation Demonstration: the head of research and development tells non-technical colleagues about a now machine. Product launch: a car company announces a new model. Lecture: a university professor communicates information about economics to 300 students. Talk: a member of a stamp-collecting club tells other members about 19th century British stamps. Workshop: a yoga expert tells people how to improve their breathing techniques
  4. 4. “Great speakers aren’t born, they are trained.” Presenting is a Skill… Developed through experience and training.
  5. 5. The presenter Interpersonal impressions are based on:  Verbal messages (what is said) 7%  Vocal messages (how it is said) 38%  Nonverbal messages (face/gestures) 55%  First impressions 100%
  6. 6. Presentation strategy DON’T dive right into the content of your presentation! That’s like saying READY……… FIRE! Without taking AIM first!
  7. 7. You must first take AIM! • Analyze Your Audience • Clearly Identify the Intent of Your Presentation • Make your Message Stick Intent AIM Audience Message
  8. 8. Why Give A Presentation? Main Purposes 1. Inform 2. Persuade 3. Educate/ Entertain
  9. 9. Make Your Message Stick If we choose to present, remember … People only remember a small portion of what is said. AUDIENCE MEMORY CURVE High BEGINNING of Presentation END of Presentation
  10. 10. Make Your Message Stick Other tips for retention:  Limit it to 3 to 5 key points  Include a preview  Use transitions  Use repetition  Flag information “if you only remember one thing today….”  Throw in the unexpected (humor, audio/video)  Involve the audience
  11. 11. Problems with presentations Problems with groups when presenting:  Large group (lack of intimacy)  Small group (lack of formality)  Group may not be interested  Group may be very diverse  Group may be hostile  Group may not have basic knowledge How might you deal with these?
  12. 12. Effective Presentations Are when… Anxiety is under control Audience Centered Accomplishes Objective Fun For Audience Fun For You Conducted Within Time Frame
  13. 13. Organizing Your Presentation Organizational Patterns Topical Chronological Problem/Solution Cause/Effect
  14. 14. More Planning Organization  Determine Main Points (2-5)  Evidence  Transitions  Prepare Outline
  15. 15. Presentation Outline Keyword Reminders Conversational Flow Flexibility More Responsive to Audience
  16. 16. Ten Worst Fears
  17. 17. Some Fears 1. Speaking before a group 2. Heights 3. Insects/bugs 4. Financial problems 5. Deep water 6. Sickness 7. Death 8. Flying 9. Loneliness 10. Dogs
  18. 18. #1 Fear Feared More Than Death! THE FACTS: Shaky hands, blushing cheeks, memory loss, nausea, and knocking knees NORMAL!
  19. 19. Causes of the Anxiety Fear of the Unknown OR Loss of Control Fight or Flight Mode No Backup Plan No Enthusiasm For Subject Focus of Attention Proper preparation reduces this fear by about 75%. Proper breathing techniques reduce this fear by another 15%. Your mental state accounts for the remaining 10%.
  20. 20. Hiding Nervousness It is possible to hide nervousness! Don’t let the shaking show!  Make a fist; hold the lectern  Speak loudly  Take a deep breath Look at a friendly face
  21. 21. Planning Your Presentation
  22. 22. A.U.D.I.E.N.C.E. Analysis Assess Your Audience  “Success depends on your ability to reach your audience.”  Size  Demographics(age, gender, race, culture, political affiliation)  What is their familiarity with the jargon?  Knowledge Level  Motivation
  23. 23. Planning the Venue Plan Space  Number of Seats  Seating Arrangement  Audio/Visual Equipment  Distracters  Develop Plan B: be ready for disaster recovery What Day and Time?  Any Day!  Morning
  24. 24. The Presentation Sequence
  25. 25. Build Rapport… … relation marked by harmony or affinity  Audience members who trust you and feel that you care Start Before You Begin  Mingle; Learn Names  Opportunity to reinforce or correct audience assessment  Good First Impression People Listen To People They Like
  26. 26. Opening Your Presentation Introduce Yourself – Why Should They Listen Get Attention, Build More Rapport, Introduce Topic  Humor  Short Story  Starling Statistic  Make Audience Think  Invite Participation Get Audience Response
  27. 27. Completing the Opening Clearly Defining Topic If Informative…  Clear parameters for content within time If Persuasive…  What’s the problem  Who cares  What’s the solution Overview
  28. 28. Presenting Main Points Main Point-Transition Supporting Evidence Examples Feedback & Questions From Audience Attention to, and Focus on, Audience (Listening)
  29. 29. Key phrases: Introduction Introduce yourself and your subject. My name’s ……and I work for ….. My talk is Called……. Outline what you’re going to talk about: describe the different sections of your talk. There are three main skills areas I want to talk about today… Say whether people should ask questions during the talk, or at the end If you have any
  30. 30. Language Checklist ( Introduction) Greeting Good Morning… Hello Everyone…. Subject I’m going to speak about The theme of my presentation is… I’d like to give you an overview of…
  31. 31. Language Checklist ( Introduction) Structure My talk will be in three parts I am going to divide First, Second, Third, Finally. Timing My talk will last for about 15 minutes The presentation will last about 20 min
  32. 32. Key phrases: main part OK. To begin, let’s look at the first type Of course, related to … But I’m digressing: … that’s all we have time for ….. Let’s move on to the second area: interpersonal skills. As you can see on this transparency, there are two key areas … I think that covers everything on Time is moving on, so let’s turn to the third area:……
  33. 33. CONCLUSIONS ‘R Remembered Goal Inform audience that you’re about to close Summarize main points Something to remember or call-to-action Answer questions “Tell ’em What You Told ‘em.”
  34. 34. Language Checklist ( End ) Ending the main body of the presentation Right, That ends my talk… That’s all I want to say for now… Beginning the summary/ or conclusion I’d like to end by emphasizing the main .. Concluding There are two conclusions I think we have to….
  35. 35. Language Checklist ( End ) Inviting questions and/ or introducing discussion That concludes my talk. ( Thanks for listening).. Now I’d like to invite your comments Now we half half an hour for questions and discussions
  36. 36. Questions Paraphrase questions so that other people hear the question to check you understand the questions to stall while you think about an answer If you don’t know the answer, say so. Offer to find out. Ask the audience.
  37. 37. Useful phrases:Questions That’s confidential. I’m afraid I’m not at liberty to tell you…. That’s not really my field. But I can put you in touch with someone in my organization who is working….. Well, I think that goes beyond the scope of today’s presentation. Today I wanted to concentrate on…… I’m afraid we’ve run out of time. But if you’d like to come and discuss that with me now, I’ll try and give you and answer…. I think that’s a good place to stop. Thank you….
  38. 38. Presentation Style Voice
  39. 39. Presentation Style Vocal Techniques  Loudness  Pitch  Rate  Pause Deviations From the Norm for Emphasis
  40. 40. Assessing the personality of your voice  Were you rushing through the words?  Were you in a hurry to get it over with?  While speaking, were you breathing normally?  Because you were speaking formally, were you trying to sound professional?  Were you trying to imitate someone else's speaking style?  Were you pronouncing the vowels from the depths of your diaphragm?  Were you enunciating the consonants completely and carefully?
  41. 41. Vocal Warm Up Warm up your voice Good speech takes muscle Tips for keeping your voice clear….  Get a good night’s sleep & get up early  Take a hot shower  AVOID milk  Drink warm liquids (but avoid caffeine)  Hum  Breathe deeply  Drink tap water (not cold!)
  42. 42. Body Language
  43. 43. Key Elements of Body Language Eye Communication Facial Expressions Gestures Posture Movement Dress and Appearance
  44. 44. Eye Communication The most important tool for personal impact Look forward at audience (trust)  Don’t shift eyeballs; don’t look in corner.  Don’t look too much at computer screen or your notes. Look at people’s faces (not eyes)  3-6 seconds per person.  Shift randomly.  Nod, smile, use facial expression.
  45. 45. Visual Skills – Hands Gesture complements talk  Should come naturally, without thinking  Make sure they match! Need to exaggerate a little  Especially with large audience Don’t fidget or put in pocket Videotape whole talk & watch
  46. 46. Presentation Style ( Non- Verbal) Body Language  Eye Contact, Gestures, Posture Use of Space  Can Everyone See You?  Movement Firmly planted feet, square with shoulders Clean-cut, pleasant dress
  47. 47. Facial Expressions Energy and Openness for effectiveness What are your habits? Is your face –  Open and Smiling?  Neutral?  Serious and Intense?  Smiles have muscles Personality factor - Connecting at the emotional level
  48. 48. Tips About Facial Expressions Leave that deadpan expression Show emotion! Most of the time:  “I care a lot about this.”  “I really believe in this.”  “I love my work.” Sometimes (in response to questions).  “This is the most outrageous thing I’ve ever heard.”  “I will have nothing to do with this.” People watch a speaker's face during a presentation
  49. 49. Gestures ,Postures, Movements Find your nervous gestures Open and closed gestures The Hands Stand tall and stand erect Watch your lower body The ‘ready’ position – keep your energy forward Walk away from the wall Do the two-step Move to add energy
  50. 50. Common Problems Verbal fillers  “Um”, “uh”, “like”  Any unrelated word or phrase Swaying, rocking, and pacing Hands in pockets Lip smacking Fidgeting Failure to be audience-centered
  51. 51. Some More Tips 1. Smile 2. Breathe 3. Water 4. Notes 5. Finish On Or Under Time 6. Don’t go overtime. Ever.
  52. 52. Creating Effective Visual Aids
  53. 53. Top 10 most predictable presentation mistakes Electrifying Color Choices: Zoom, Zoom - The Animation Wizard: W-A-Y Too Many Slides: Design Templates Are Great -- When Used Correctly: Poor Font Choices :
  54. 54. Top 10 most predictable presentation mistakes Photos and Graphs Should Only Illustrate Key Points: The Audience Came to See YOU -- Not Your Slides: T. M. I. ~ Too Much Information: Hardware Malfunctions: You Don't Know Your Topic!
  55. 55. Visual Aids Enhance Understanding Add Variety Support Claims Lasting Impact Used Poorly…A Distraction…Ineffective Presentation
  56. 56. Visual Aids - Examples  PowerPoint Slides  Overhead Trans  Graphs/Charts  Pictures  Films/Video  Flip Charts  Sketches
  57. 57. Visual Aids Should… Supplement presentation Outline of main points Serve audience’s needs, not speaker’s Simple and clear
  58. 58. Purpose of Using Visual Aids Visual aids: Support your ideas Improve audience comprehension Add variety Gives the audience a break from listening Illustrates complex ideas or concepts Helpful in reinforcing ideas
  59. 59. Be Visible Titles should be 38-44 pt. font size Text should be 28 pt font size ALL CAPITALS IS HARDER TO READ, ALTHOUGH IT MIGHT BE OK FOR THE ODD TITLE Use color wisely  Contrasting colors
  60. 60. Thank You