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Menstrual Cycle
DR . SNEHAL
Biology and the Menstrual Cycle
• Menstrual cycle is regulated by fluctuating
levels of sex hormones and pituatary
Hormone...
The Phases of the Menstrual Cycle
1. Follicular phase - proliferative
phase or preovulatory phase
2. Ovulation
3. Luteal p...
What Happens in the Ovaries
• Follicular phase - high levels of FSH secreted
– Function is to stimulate follicles in the o...
What Happens in the Uterus
• Follicular phase - endometrium proliferates
• Luteal phase - progesterone secreted by the
cor...
Length and Timing of the Cycle
• Normal menstrual cycle = 20 to 36 to 40 days;
average is about 28 days
– Menstruation beg...
Other Cyclic Changes
• Two other physiological processes
fluctuate with the menstrual cycle:
– The cervical mucus cycle
– ...
Menstrual cycle ppt nitin
Menstrual cycle ppt nitin
Menstrual cycle ppt nitin
Menstrual cycle ppt nitin
Menstrual cycle ppt nitin
Menstrual cycle ppt nitin
Menstrual cycle ppt nitin
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Menstrual cycle ppt nitin

  1. 1. Menstrual Cycle DR . SNEHAL
  2. 2. Biology and the Menstrual Cycle • Menstrual cycle is regulated by fluctuating levels of sex hormones and pituatary Hormones. • These hormones produce certain changes in the ovaries and uterus.
  3. 3. The Phases of the Menstrual Cycle 1. Follicular phase - proliferative phase or preovulatory phase 2. Ovulation 3. Luteal phase - secretory phase or postovulatory phase 4. Menstruation
  4. 4. What Happens in the Ovaries • Follicular phase - high levels of FSH secreted – Function is to stimulate follicles in the ovaries – One follicle begins to ripen and brings an egg to maturity – Follicle secretes estrogen • Ovulation - follicle ruptures open and releases the ripened egg • Luteal phase - after releasing an egg, the follicle turns into the corpus luteum manufactures progesterone • Menstruation - shedding of the inner lining of the uterus
  5. 5. What Happens in the Uterus • Follicular phase - endometrium proliferates • Luteal phase - progesterone secreted by the corpus luteum stimulates the glands of the endometrium to start secreting the nourishing substances. • Corpus luteum continues to produce estrogen and progesterone for about 10 to 12 days • If pregnancy has not occurred, its hormone output declines
  6. 6. Length and Timing of the Cycle • Normal menstrual cycle = 20 to 36 to 40 days; average is about 28 days – Menstruation begins on day 1 and continues until about day 4 or 5 – Follicular phase extends from about day 5 to about day 13 – Ovulation occurs on day 14 – Luteal phase extends from day 15 to the end of the cycle, day 28 • Mittelschmerz - middle pain; cramping in lower abdomen that occurs during ovulation
  7. 7. Other Cyclic Changes • Two other physiological processes fluctuate with the menstrual cycle: – The cervical mucus cycle – The basal body temperature cycle

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