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1
By 
NITHYA.C 
2011-06-012 
2
FOOD PACKAGING 
FUNCTIONS 
1.Protection 
2.Communication 
3.Convenience 
4.Containment 
3
Intelligent packaging vs 
Active packaging 
4
INTELLIGENT PACKAGING 
A packaging system that is capable of 
carrying out intelligent functions like 
• Detecting 
• Sens...
• To facilitate decision-making 
• To extend shelf life 
• Enhance safety 
• Improve quality 
• Provide information and 
•...
INTELLIGENT PACKAGING SYSTEMS 
1.Indicators 
2.Radio Frequency Identification Tags 
(RFID) 
3.Sensors 
7
INDICATORS 
Substances that indicate the 
presence or absence of 
another substance or the 
degree of reaction between 
tw...
1. Time-temperature indicator 
• Gives information on temperature 
• Shows the variation and history in 
temperature 
• Vi...
Reaction mechanisms 
• Diffusion 
• Polymerisation 
• Enzyme reaction 
Types 
• Partial history indicators 
• Full history...
CURRENT COMMERCIAL TTI 
† PRODUCTS 
11
Fresh-Check® 
• Full history indicator 
• Polymerisation 
12
13
3M MONITOR MARK 
• Partial-history indicator 
• Diffusion 
14
Check point 
• Full history indicator 
• Two separate compartments 
1.Enzyme solution,lipase plus a pH 
indicating dye com...
pH change results in a color change 
16
OnVuTM 
The heart of the OnVu label 
becomes paler as the ambient 
temperature accumulates 
This indicates gradual decay 
...
18
19
2.Oxygen indicator 
• Gives information on leakage 
• usage area - controlled or modified 
atmosphere food packaging 
• Ag...
Ageless-eye 
O2 indicator tablet 
O2 concentration in atmosphere ≤ 0.1 % → 
indicator is pink 
O2 concentration in atmosph...
22
Professor Andrew Mills with 
food packaging incorporating 
the intelligent plastic indicator. 
The yellow part is the indi...
Photographs of oxygen indicator ink printed on a MAPed 
food package. 
Left: Before UV activation. Middle: After UV activa...
Carbon dioxide indicator 
• Gives information on concentration of 
carbon dioxide 
• Usage area-controlled or modified 
at...
Pathogen indicator 
• Gives information on microbiological 
status 
• Meat ,fish or poultry packaging 
• Reagents are vari...
Freshness indicators 
• Indicate the microbial quality of the 
product by reacting to the metabolites 
produced in the gro...
WORKING 
Colour indicating tags attached as a small adhesive 
label to the outside of packaging film can be used to 
monit...
Fresh Tag® 
– Indicator sensitive to volatile nitrogen 
compounds. 
– packaging of fish 
– Colour change in response to th...
RipeSense® 
- RipeSense® indicates the ripening of fruits. 
-This sensor changes color when it reacts with 
aromatic compo...
SensorQTM 
• Beef and poultry 
• Sulfide gas, by microbial growth 
31
32
RADIO FREQUENCY 
IDENTIFICATION TAGS(RFID) 
Advanced form of data information carrier 
that can identify and trace a produ...
Types 
• Passive tags 
• Active tags 
• Common RFID frequencies range 
from low (125 kHz) to UHF (850–900 
MHz) 
34
Features 
• Traceability 
• Inventory management 
• Labour saving costs 
• Security and promotion 
of quality and safety 
...
36
System of reading RFID tags 
37
Sensors 
A sensor is defined as a device used to 
detect, locate or 
quantify energy or matter, giving a signal 
for the d...
Intelligent sensors 
Two functional units: 
• Receptor - transformes chemical or 
physical information into a form of 
ene...
1.Formation of bacterial metabolite 
2. Dissociation in aqueous phase 
3. Result: Increase in conductivity and NH4+ 
conte...
Bio-Sensors 
Compact analytical devices that detect, 
transmit and record information 
pertaining to biological reactions ...
Components 
• Bioreceptors- organic materials such 
as enzymes, antigens, microbes, 
hormones and nucleic acids 
• Transdu...
43
Food Sentinel System™ 
• Capable of continuous detection 
of contamination 
• Immunological reactions 
occurring in part o...
ToxinGuard 
• A visual diagnostic system that 
incorporates antibodies in a 
polyethylene-based plastic 
packaging 
• capa...
Gas Sensors 
Devices that respond 
quantitatively and 
reversibly to the presence 
of a gaseous analyte by 
changing the p...
ADVANTAGES 
• Provides the user with reliable and correct 
information on the conditions of the food, the 
environment and...
• Prevent unnecessary transport and 
logistics from an early stage 
• Enhancing food safety and biosecurity 
• Enhancing f...
DISADVANTAGES 
• Extra cost 
• Possible migration issues of complex 
packaging materials into product 
• Lack of recyclabi...
CASE STUDY 1 
• Title:- Chitosan biobased and 
intelligent films: Monitoring pH 
variations 
Cristiana,M.P et al 
50
Chitosan 
• Natural polymer 
• Biodegradability 
• Ability to retard the transport of 
moisture, gas, flavour and lipids 
...
Objective 
• To obtain and characterize the fast 
pH-colourimetric indicator device, 
applying a simple manufacturing 
tec...
Materials 
• Chitosan 
• Anthocyanin from grapes 
• Acetic acid 
• sodium chloride and other salts 
53
Method 
Film formation 
• Dispersing chitosan (2.0 g/100 g) in aqueous 
acetic acid 
• The suspensions were homogenized by...
• Colour response efficiency 
• Water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) 
• Soluble matter (SM) 
• Moisture content (MC) 
• M...
Results and discussion 
• Homogeneous, thin, flexible and dark 
violet films were obtained 
56
Characterization of CF and C-ATH films 
• The addition of ATH into chitosan 
matrix film reduced in 27% the WVTR 
57
• The water solubility and water vapour 
transmission rate of C-ATH were 
decreased to 60% and 48%, 
respectively, as comp...
Mechanical properties 
59
The E and TS did not alter significantly in C-ATH 
as compared to CF, but the flexibility was reduced 
47% as a consequenc...
Colour response efficiency 
61
• An intelligent and biobased indicator 
packaging material system was obtained 
mainly for food products that alter the p...
CONCLUSION 
• Intelligent food packaging is an 
innovative technology which is 
developing in recent years 
• Benefits in ...
• Further research is necessary to 
develop low-cost indicators and 
microsensors 
• Food-specific mathematical models 
ne...
• When these issues have been tackled, 
intelligent packaging offers an 
enormous potential for commercial 
applications t...
REFERENCE 
• Adriana,P.2013.Time temperature indicators as 
devices intelligent packaging. Acta Universitatis 
Agricultura...
• Jenneke,K., Matthijs,D., Paul,V.,and 
Van,B.2013.Monitoring the Quality of Perishable Foods: 
Opportunities for Intellig...
• Mike,V.,Peter.R.,Frank,D.,and Bruno,D.Intelligent food 
packaging: The next generation.2014. Trends in Food 
Science & T...
69
70
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Intelligent packaging

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. By NITHYA.C 2011-06-012 2
  3. 3. FOOD PACKAGING FUNCTIONS 1.Protection 2.Communication 3.Convenience 4.Containment 3
  4. 4. Intelligent packaging vs Active packaging 4
  5. 5. INTELLIGENT PACKAGING A packaging system that is capable of carrying out intelligent functions like • Detecting • Sensing • Recording • Tracing • Communicating, and • Applying scientific logic 5
  6. 6. • To facilitate decision-making • To extend shelf life • Enhance safety • Improve quality • Provide information and • Warn about possible problems 6
  7. 7. INTELLIGENT PACKAGING SYSTEMS 1.Indicators 2.Radio Frequency Identification Tags (RFID) 3.Sensors 7
  8. 8. INDICATORS Substances that indicate the presence or absence of another substance or the degree of reaction between two or more substances by means of a characteristic change, especially in colour 8
  9. 9. 1. Time-temperature indicator • Gives information on temperature • Shows the variation and history in temperature • Visualised as a colour movement or colour change. 9
  10. 10. Reaction mechanisms • Diffusion • Polymerisation • Enzyme reaction Types • Partial history indicators • Full history indicators Use • Foods stored under chilled and frozen conditions 10
  11. 11. CURRENT COMMERCIAL TTI † PRODUCTS 11
  12. 12. Fresh-Check® • Full history indicator • Polymerisation 12
  13. 13. 13
  14. 14. 3M MONITOR MARK • Partial-history indicator • Diffusion 14
  15. 15. Check point • Full history indicator • Two separate compartments 1.Enzyme solution,lipase plus a pH indicating dye compound 2.Substrate 15
  16. 16. pH change results in a color change 16
  17. 17. OnVuTM The heart of the OnVu label becomes paler as the ambient temperature accumulates This indicates gradual decay 17
  18. 18. 18
  19. 19. 19
  20. 20. 2.Oxygen indicator • Gives information on leakage • usage area - controlled or modified atmosphere food packaging • Ageless-eye • Vitalon • Samso-Checker 20
  21. 21. Ageless-eye O2 indicator tablet O2 concentration in atmosphere ≤ 0.1 % → indicator is pink O2 concentration in atmosphere ≥ 0.5 % → indicator is blue 21
  22. 22. 22
  23. 23. Professor Andrew Mills with food packaging incorporating the intelligent plastic indicator. The yellow part is the indicator and it has changed colour to show that the food it contains has spoiled. Professor Andrew Mills lights the way: a small blue colour-changing disc can be seen near the bacon 23
  24. 24. Photographs of oxygen indicator ink printed on a MAPed food package. Left: Before UV activation. Middle: After UV activation. Right: On opening the package. 24
  25. 25. Carbon dioxide indicator • Gives information on concentration of carbon dioxide • Usage area-controlled or modified atmosphere packaging 25
  26. 26. Pathogen indicator • Gives information on microbiological status • Meat ,fish or poultry packaging • Reagents are various chemicals reacting with toxins 26
  27. 27. Freshness indicators • Indicate the microbial quality of the product by reacting to the metabolites produced in the growth of microorganisms • FreshTags® • Timestrip® • RipeSense® • SensorQTM 27
  28. 28. WORKING Colour indicating tags attached as a small adhesive label to the outside of packaging film can be used to monitor the freshness of perishable food products such as seafood. 28
  29. 29. Fresh Tag® – Indicator sensitive to volatile nitrogen compounds. – packaging of fish – Colour change in response to the release of volatile amines 29
  30. 30. RipeSense® - RipeSense® indicates the ripening of fruits. -This sensor changes color when it reacts with aromatic compounds 30
  31. 31. SensorQTM • Beef and poultry • Sulfide gas, by microbial growth 31
  32. 32. 32
  33. 33. RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION TAGS(RFID) Advanced form of data information carrier that can identify and trace a product 33
  34. 34. Types • Passive tags • Active tags • Common RFID frequencies range from low (125 kHz) to UHF (850–900 MHz) 34
  35. 35. Features • Traceability • Inventory management • Labour saving costs • Security and promotion of quality and safety • Prevention of product recalls 35
  36. 36. 36
  37. 37. System of reading RFID tags 37
  38. 38. Sensors A sensor is defined as a device used to detect, locate or quantify energy or matter, giving a signal for the detection or measurement of a physical or chemical property to which the device responds 38
  39. 39. Intelligent sensors Two functional units: • Receptor - transformes chemical or physical information into a form of energy • Transducer - transforms this energy into a useful analytical signal 39
  40. 40. 1.Formation of bacterial metabolite 2. Dissociation in aqueous phase 3. Result: Increase in conductivity and NH4+ content 40
  41. 41. Bio-Sensors Compact analytical devices that detect, transmit and record information pertaining to biological reactions 41
  42. 42. Components • Bioreceptors- organic materials such as enzymes, antigens, microbes, hormones and nucleic acids • Transducers -electrochemical, optical, calorimetric,etc., and are system dependent 42
  43. 43. 43
  44. 44. Food Sentinel System™ • Capable of continuous detection of contamination • Immunological reactions occurring in part of a barcode • The barcode is rendered unreadable by the presence of contaminating bacteria 44
  45. 45. ToxinGuard • A visual diagnostic system that incorporates antibodies in a polyethylene-based plastic packaging • capable of detecting Salmonella sp., Campylobacter sp.,E. coli and Listeria sp. 45
  46. 46. Gas Sensors Devices that respond quantitatively and reversibly to the presence of a gaseous analyte by changing the physical parameters of the sensor and are monitored by an external device 46
  47. 47. ADVANTAGES • Provides the user with reliable and correct information on the conditions of the food, the environment and the packaging integrity • Enables the detection of calamities and possible abuse through the entire supply chain, from farm to fork. • Reducing food loss and waste 47
  48. 48. • Prevent unnecessary transport and logistics from an early stage • Enhancing food safety and biosecurity • Enhancing food quality assurance 48
  49. 49. DISADVANTAGES • Extra cost • Possible migration issues of complex packaging materials into product • Lack of recyclability of disposable packages • Possible mistrust/confusion of technology 49
  50. 50. CASE STUDY 1 • Title:- Chitosan biobased and intelligent films: Monitoring pH variations Cristiana,M.P et al 50
  51. 51. Chitosan • Natural polymer • Biodegradability • Ability to retard the transport of moisture, gas, flavour and lipids Anthocyanins(ATH) • Polyphenolic plant pigments • Colour changes depending on the pH 51
  52. 52. Objective • To obtain and characterize the fast pH-colourimetric indicator device, applying a simple manufacturing technique, using food grade and biodegradable materials 52
  53. 53. Materials • Chitosan • Anthocyanin from grapes • Acetic acid • sodium chloride and other salts 53
  54. 54. Method Film formation • Dispersing chitosan (2.0 g/100 g) in aqueous acetic acid • The suspensions were homogenized by magnetic stirring at room temperature for 60 min until complete dissolution. • 1.0 g/100 g ATH was homogenized in filmogenic suspension • Poured into Petri dishes 54
  55. 55. • Colour response efficiency • Water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) • Soluble matter (SM) • Moisture content (MC) • Mechanical properties • Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) • Film thickness 55
  56. 56. Results and discussion • Homogeneous, thin, flexible and dark violet films were obtained 56
  57. 57. Characterization of CF and C-ATH films • The addition of ATH into chitosan matrix film reduced in 27% the WVTR 57
  58. 58. • The water solubility and water vapour transmission rate of C-ATH were decreased to 60% and 48%, respectively, as compared to control film (CF, without indicator) 58
  59. 59. Mechanical properties 59
  60. 60. The E and TS did not alter significantly in C-ATH as compared to CF, but the flexibility was reduced 47% as a consequence of the lower moisture content. 60
  61. 61. Colour response efficiency 61
  62. 62. • An intelligent and biobased indicator packaging material system was obtained mainly for food products that alter the pH value during the deteriorative process • The C-ATH could offer an efficient alternative to trace down food packaging giving a safe and quality product package due to the pH variation information during the transport and storage 62
  63. 63. CONCLUSION • Intelligent food packaging is an innovative technology which is developing in recent years • Benefits in product quality and safety, shelf life and more efficient supply chain management have to outweigh production costs. 63
  64. 64. • Further research is necessary to develop low-cost indicators and microsensors • Food-specific mathematical models need to be developed for translating the measured information with the quality perception of the consumer 64
  65. 65. • When these issues have been tackled, intelligent packaging offers an enormous potential for commercial applications to improve supply chain management and guarantees for product quality for consumers 65
  66. 66. REFERENCE • Adriana,P.2013.Time temperature indicators as devices intelligent packaging. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis.LXI, No. 1: 245–251. • Andrew,M.2005. Oxygen indicators and intelligent inks for packaging food, The Royal Society of Chemistry. 34: 1003–1011. • Cristiana, M.P.Y., Vinicius ,B.V.M., Mariana,E. D. M.,and Telma,T. F. 2014.Chitosan biobased and intelligent films: Monitoring pH variations.LWT - Food Science and technology.55:83-89 66
  67. 67. • Jenneke,K., Matthijs,D., Paul,V.,and Van,B.2013.Monitoring the Quality of Perishable Foods: Opportunities for Intelligent Packaging .Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 54:645–654 . • Kerry,J.P., Grady,M.N.O.,and HoganPast,S.A.2006.Current and potential utilisation of active and intelligent packaging systems for meat and muscle-based products: A review.Meat Science. 74:113– 130. • Kit,Y., Paul,T.,Takhistov.,and Joseph,Miltz.2005. Intelligent packaging:concepts and applications. Journal of food science,70(1). 67
  68. 68. • Mike,V.,Peter.R.,Frank,D.,and Bruno,D.Intelligent food packaging: The next generation.2014. Trends in Food Science & Technology.20:1-16. • Pereira,D.A.Cruz.,and Paseiro,L.2012.Active and Intelligent Packaging for the Food Industry. Food Reviews International.28(2): 146-187. • Semih,O.and Buket,Y.2008. Intelligent packaging. LogForum.4:4. 68
  69. 69. 69
  70. 70. 70

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