STAGES OF THE CONSUMER BUYING PROCESS
The consumer identifies that he has an unsatisfied need
to be satisfied.
As an example, an undergraduate who just enrolled for
a degree is given assignments to be submitted with
deadline. He needs portability in the computer to work
at home as well as at the college.
This is where he recognized he has a problem which
can be solved with laptop.
This is where the consumer starts searching information about
the products that can satisfy his satisfied need.
--- Friends and Relatives
A successful information search leaves a buyer with possible
alternatives, the evoked set.
example the undergraduate who wanted to buy a laptop would gather
information about laptop brands such as HP, Dell, Mac and acer .
Evaluation of alternatives
This is where the customer evaluate products based on
chosen criteria such as performance,
durability, warranty, price, after sale services and
quality on competitive basis.
example the undergraduate who gathered information
about laptop brands such as HP, Dell, Mac and Acer
will now evaluate the product in terms of price,
durability, speed, warranty, performance and colour.
Choose buying alternative, includes product, package,
store, method of purchase etc.
example after the evaluation of many brands of laptop
the undergraduate decides to purchase a HP laptop due
to the high battery life.
May differ from decision, time lapse between purchase
decision and the actual purchase, product availability.
This is where the customer make the final choice and
ends up effectively purchasing the product.
Post purchase evaluation
Positive post purchase behaviour
This is where the consumer holds a positive feedback about the
product and happy with the product quality.
example if the undergraduate is happy with the performance of the
HP laptop he will recommend his fellow students to purchase a HP
and will be brand loyal by purchasing more of HP products.
Negative post purchase behaviour
This is where the customer is dissatisfied with the product and holds
a negative feedback about the product.
If the undergraduate who purchased the HP is not happy with the
laptop he will persuade is friends not to buy a HP as his experience
about HP is negative.
TYPES OF CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOR
Limited Decision Making
Extensive Decision Making
Routine Response/Programmed Behavior :-
Buying low involvement, frequently purchased, low cost items.
Soft drinks, snack foods, milk etc.
Limited Decision Making :-
Buying product occasionally.
That is when you need to obtain information about unfamiliar
brand in a familiar product category.
• Clothes , shoes etc .
Extensive Decision Making :-
Complex high involvement, unfamiliar, expensive and infrequently
Spend a lot of time seeking information and deciding. High degree of
Cars, homes, computers, education.
Impulse buying :-
No conscious planning.
The purchase of the same product does not always elicit the same
Buying Behavior. Product can shift from one category to the next.
○ while shopping in mall the choice for a soap may change if the
available product is not there .
○ Choice of a cold drink on a hot climate day
Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior
Life-Cycle Stage Perception
Social class Culture
Maintaining the status Adopting the culture
Sharing similar values, among the peers
interests and behaviors Pattern of usage and
behavior among the
group of individuals
(family , friends )
Examples of Buying Motives:
Psychological or Functional?
A girl wants to remember her
grandmother on her birthday.
Her primary motive is…?
A homemaker needs a new washing
machine and has had good
experiences with LG.
Her primary motive is …?
A teacher wants to buy a practical car
to be used for family transportation.
Her/his primary motive is …?
A career woman always buys
Her primary motive is…?
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