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Extension strategies for rural upliftment

  1. Changing Concepts And Emerging Issues In Extension- Rationale And Realities; Recent Extension Strategies For Rural Upliftment; Future Scenario Of Extension Submitted to:- Submitted by:- Dr. Dhriti Solanki Ms. Nishu Kanwar Bhati Prof. and Head HECM Ph.D
  2. Introduction Agriculture accounts for about one-fourth of the Gross Domestic product and is the source of livelihood or nearly two-thirds of the population. Though Green Revolution has been the cornerstone of India’s agricultural achievement, but remained restricted to the well-endowed irrigated areas of the country showing gap between research and extension. Changing economic scenario calls for appropriate agricultural technologies and agro-management practices to respond to food and nutritional security, poverty alleviation, diversifying market demands, export opportunities, and environmental concerns which pose new challenges to the technology dissemination systems.
  3. Community development approach to extension Transfer of Technology approach Farming system approach Broad based approach
  7. PRIVATE SECTOR  Confusion in multiplicity of service providers  Credibility of information sources  Conflict of interests  The private sector can only provide services related to proprietary goods, while the public sector can provide extension services related to public goods, which tend not to be addressed by private-sector firms.  Private extension only focus & deliver its services on areas with sufficient resources and is limited to a few crops and areas where profits can be assured  The private sector serves a corporate interest, working with individual farmers, so social capital is not built.  Private extension can only work well if farmers are willing and able to pay.  The private sector could serve the needs of medium-size and commercial farmers, while the public sector could work in remote areas which are currently not serviced well.
  8.  Public capacity to build FBOs and SHGs is limited  NGOs rely on donor funds and would need public support to develop the technical skills to facilitate the groups.  Within FBOs or SHGs, problems related to social identity, including gender and caste and are subject to elite capture problems.  When farmer groups interact with other institutions, social identities and other social status perceptions mean that they may be too weak to articulate their concerns  Limited financial strength  Lack professionalism because the members are less qualified THIRD SECTOR
  9. Other generic issues…………….  Continued focus on technology dissemination  Inadequate technical support for extension  Limited human and financial resources  Poor capacity to respond to changes and manage partnerships  Technologies Irrelevant to Local Conditions  Lack of Forward and Backward Linkages  Lack of Infrastructure for Delivery of Technology
  10. The best approach for a concrete situation depends on:  The wider context in which extension is taking place and the value concepts and principles which are common; - the objectives of the extension activity;  The extension institution with its own value concepts and principles and its form of organization - the target population with their value concepts and principles and their forms of organization;  The functions and procedures of extension based on the objectives and principles of the extension institution and the target group.
  11. Extension approach Objectives: 1. The main objective is to persuade and help farmers in increasing agricultural production by adopting improved agricultural practices. 2. It also aimed at improving the rural family life be educated the women and youth in the rural family life by educating the village people.
  12. Training approach in extension  It emphasizes only on systematic and deeper learning of specific skills.  This approach involves assembling learners in a training centre for a sustained period of instruction.  The trained extension workers are supposed to transmit the useful skills to the rural people.
  13. Cooperative self help approach  The chief motive power for rural development must come from the people so that outside help of various kinds can be provided in response to the expressed needs of the people.  There is heavy emphasis in this approach on the building of local institutions for cooperative self-help and governance. 
  14. Integrated development approach  The IADP used the integrated development approach in tackling the problem of rural development. Objectives:  In this Programme there was more emphasis on the package approach. In ten points included in the programme were : 1. Adequate farm credit through strengthened cooperatives. 2. Adequate supplies of fertilizers pesticides, improved seeds, implements and other essential production needs through strengthened service cooperatives. 3. Price incentives to participating farmers through assured price agreements for rice, wheat and millet. 4. Marketing arrangements and services to enable farmers to obtain a full market price for their marketed surplus. 5. Intensive educational, technical and farm management assistance made available in every village. 6. Participation of all interested farmers in farm planning for increased production. 7. Village planning for increased production and village improvement programme by strengthening village organizations and leaderships.
  15. Commodity specific approach  The key characteristic of this approach groups all the functions for increased production - extension, research, input supply, marketing and prices - under one administration.  The objective of this approach is to produce and market relatively high value commodities effectively and efficiently.  The commodities are generally produced for exports such as cotton, cocoa, tea and coffee
  16. Project approach  This approach concentrates efforts on a particular location, for a specific time period, often with outside resources.  Part of its purpose is often to demonstrate techniques and methods that could be extended and sustained after the project period. Change in the short term is often a measure of success.  In this approach, the assumption is that better results can be achieved in a parrticular location during specified timeframe, with large infusion of outside resources.
  17. Farming system approach (FSA)  The primary objective of FSD is to improve the well-being of individual farming families by increasing the overall productivity of the farming system in the context of both the private and societal goals, given the constraints and potentials imposed by the factors that determine the existing farming system.
  18. Thrusts of FSD  Farming Systems Analysis. This involves studying, together with the farmers the natural (i.e., technical) and socio-economic (i.e., human) environments in which farm households operate.  Farming Systems Planning, Monitoring, and Evaluation. These involve testing, monitoring, and evaluating improvements on-farm, with the direct involvement of farmers.
  19. Cost sharing approach  Helping farm people learn those thing s they need to know for self improvement and increased productivity. It is for this purpose that the local people are willing to pay part of the cost.  Another purpose is to make funding of agricultural extension affordable and sustainable, both at central and local levels.
  20. Training and visit approach  Objectives  1. This System will work as unified extension service with single professional service for Agriculture development.  2. It will emphasis extension activities exclusively in coordination of the research training and development.  3. It will deliver systematic concentrated efforts through training and visit programme for the farmers.  4. It will ensure immediate results and success by working with farmers and scientists.  5. It will schedule imitable contacts and feedback mechanism from the farmer’s field.  6. The majority of the farmers are trained to use their resources in efficient ways and improve their management practices of agricultural production.  7. The Agril Technology is transmitted to farmers in consideration with the constraints risk socio-economic factors and supply of input and credit.  8. This system has continuous improvement in agricultural and allied of the farmers.
  21. Technology assessment and refinement through IVLP  It is different from the earlier first line extension efforts of ICAR, in sense that it lays emphasis on the research aspect through the participation of farmers to be carried out by the multidisciplinary team of scientists,  Moreover, IVLP is a production system oriented project with agro-ecosystem analysis of the adopted villages as the basis of identify problems, priorities them and final out technological intervention point which are further developed into action plants to overcome the problems through assessment and refinement of technologies.
  22. Contract farming approach It involves agricultural production being carried out on the basis of an agreement between the buyer and farm producers  Key benefits of contract farming: The key benefits of contract farming for farmers can be summarized as:  * Improved access to local markets.  * Assured markets and prices (lower risks) especially for non-traditional crops.  * Assured and often higher returns.  * Enhanced farmer access to production inputs, mechanization and transport services, and extension advice.
  23. Strategic extension campaigning  The importance of strategic extension campaign can be summarized as :  · Enhances the agricultural extension planning process  · Builds cadres of extension programme planners and trainers  · Helps in improving extension linkage with research  · Is needed most by small, resource-poor farmers  · Helps in improving extension linkage with training  · Reduces extension system's workload and increases its coverage  · Encourages partnership with, and participation of, community-based organizations  · Helps revitalize extension workers' professionalism  · Shows that extension programmes can be strategically planned, efficiently managed, and systematically monitored and evaluated · Can contribute to improving and strengthening agricultural
  24. Participatory extension approach  In this approach the role of the extension agent is to facilitate an in-depth situation analysis by the farmers themselves at the onset of their working relation.  Once farmers have become aware of the causes of their problems and have identified the most pressing ones, the extension agent provides technical knowledge and technologies, which may be useful to address the problems identified.
  25. Animation rurale  . In order to initiate and perpetuate this process, AR relied on a large number of voluntary collaborators, so-called animateurs.  Their task was to initiate discussions within the community on local needs and objectives, thus empowering rural people for a dialogue with the state. At the same time they were to "interpret" government plans to the villagers and acquaint them with services available.
  26. Participatory action models  PAM is a management where all relevant agencies, groups and individuals with common intreast and development come together, form a platform to facilitate joint problem solving and action for mutual benefits.  This is working together (convergence) model where stakeholders interests are focused on a specific issues that creates energy and the group plans and guides how this new energy is distributed and diverted (divergence).
  27. DO OUR OWN RESEARCH (DOOR) APPROACH  DOOR approach promotes a major move from the old way of providing research information, to a new way of self reliance with industry generating its own research information. This empowers farmers to conduct relevant and self generated research. Relationship between farmers and consultants is that of equal partners.
  28. National Demonstration approach  The NDS was launched by ICAR in 1966 with the objective that the scientists who generate the technologies should demonstrate the production potential of their technologies on farmer fields and to develop the farmers into local leaders to serve as change agents. These NDS centres generated field based data on production performance.
  29. Operational research project approach  Objectives :  1. to test, adopt and demonstrate new agricultural technology on farmers fields in the whole village or cluster of contiguous villages.  2. to determine profitability of the new technologies and their place of spread among farmers.  3. to identify and constraints both technological and socio economic which are barrier to rapid change.  4. to demonstrate group action as a method of popularizing the modern technologies at a faster rate.
  30. KVK approach  The mandates of KVKs are as follows-  Conducting “On-Farm Testing” for identifying technologies in terms of location specific sustainable land use systems.  Organising training to update the extension personnel with emerging advances in agricultural research on regular basis.  Organising short and long term training courses in agriculture and allied vocations for the farmers and rural youths with emphasis on “Learning by doing” for higher production on farms and generating self-employment.  Organising Front Line Demonstrations (FLDs) on various crops to generate production data and feed back information.
  31. Lab to Land Programme (LLP)  The overall objective to improve the economic condition of the small and marginal farmers and landless agricultural labourers, particularly scheduled castes and scheduled tribes by the transfer of improved technologies developed by the agricultural universities, research institutes etc.
  32. National Mission on Agricultural Extension (Proposed)  1. Technology Solutions and Innovations  2. Extension Policy and Systems  3. Convergence, Programme Delivery, Governance and Innovations  4. Manpower Planning, HRD and Accreditation  5 Leveraging ICT, Mass Media and e-Governance  6. Partnerships for Agri-preneurship and Business Development  7. National and International Linkages and Partnerships  8. Mobilization for Farmers Empowerment  9. Women Empowerment, Household Food and Nutritional Security  10. Leveraging Youth for Agriculture  11. Extension strategies for Difficult Area, Disadvantaged Farmers and Farm Workers  12. Agrarian distress, conflicts and farm studies
  33. Programme Promotion Priority for Selection of Technologies Flexibility Integration and Convergence Efficient Delivery Mechanism Public Policy Support for Ensuring Sustainability