Changing Concepts And
Emerging Issues In
Extension- Rationale And
Extension Strategies For
Rural Upliftment; Future
Scenario Of Extension
Submitted to:- Submitted by:-
Dr. Dhriti Solanki Ms. Nishu Kanwar Bhati
Prof. and Head HECM Ph.D
Agriculture accounts for about one-fourth of the Gross Domestic
product and is the source of livelihood or nearly two-thirds of the
Though Green Revolution has been the cornerstone of India’s
agricultural achievement, but remained restricted to the well-endowed
irrigated areas of the country showing gap between research and
Changing economic scenario calls for appropriate agricultural
technologies and agro-management practices to respond to food and
nutritional security, poverty alleviation, diversifying market demands,
export opportunities, and environmental concerns which pose new
challenges to the technology dissemination systems.
Confusion in multiplicity of service providers
Credibility of information sources
Conflict of interests
The private sector can only provide services related to proprietary
goods, while the public sector can provide extension services related
to public goods, which tend not to be addressed by private-sector
Private extension only focus & deliver its services on areas with
sufficient resources and is limited to a few crops and areas where
profits can be assured
The private sector serves a corporate interest, working with
individual farmers, so social capital is not built.
Private extension can only work well if farmers are willing and able
The private sector could serve the needs of medium-size and
commercial farmers, while the public sector could work in remote
areas which are currently not serviced well.
Public capacity to build FBOs and SHGs is limited
NGOs rely on donor funds and would need public support
to develop the technical skills to facilitate the groups.
Within FBOs or SHGs, problems related to social identity,
including gender and caste and are subject to elite capture
When farmer groups interact with other institutions, social
identities and other social status perceptions mean that they
may be too weak to articulate their concerns
Limited financial strength
Lack professionalism because the members are less
Other generic issues…………….
Continued focus on technology dissemination
Inadequate technical support for extension
Limited human and financial resources
Poor capacity to respond to changes and manage
Technologies Irrelevant to Local Conditions
Lack of Forward and Backward Linkages
Lack of Infrastructure for Delivery of Technology
The best approach for a concrete situation
The wider context in which extension is taking
place and the value concepts and principles
which are common; - the objectives of the
The extension institution with its own value
concepts and principles and its form of
organization - the target population with their
value concepts and principles and their forms
The functions and procedures of extension
based on the objectives and principles of the
extension institution and the target group.
1. The main objective is to
persuade and help
farmers in increasing
by adopting improved
2. It also aimed at
improving the rural
family life be educated
the women and youth in
the rural family life by
educating the village
Training approach in extension
It emphasizes only on systematic and
deeper learning of specific skills.
This approach involves assembling
learners in a training centre for a
sustained period of instruction.
The trained extension workers are
supposed to transmit the useful skills to
the rural people.
Cooperative self help approach
The chief motive power for rural development
must come from the people so that outside
help of various kinds can be provided in
response to the expressed needs of the
There is heavy emphasis in this approach on
the building of local institutions for cooperative
self-help and governance.
The IADP used the integrated development approach in tackling the problem of rural
In this Programme there was more emphasis on the package approach. In ten points
included in the programme were :
1. Adequate farm credit through strengthened cooperatives.
2. Adequate supplies of fertilizers pesticides, improved seeds, implements and other
essential production needs through strengthened service cooperatives.
3. Price incentives to participating farmers through assured price agreements for rice,
wheat and millet.
4. Marketing arrangements and services to enable farmers to obtain a full market price
for their marketed surplus.
5. Intensive educational, technical and farm management assistance made available in
6. Participation of all interested farmers in farm planning for increased production.
7. Village planning for increased production and village improvement programme by
strengthening village organizations and leaderships.
Commodity specific approach
The key characteristic of this
approach groups all the
functions for increased
production - extension,
research, input supply,
marketing and prices - under
The objective of this
approach is to produce and
market relatively high value
commodities effectively and
The commodities are
generally produced for
exports such as cotton,
cocoa, tea and coffee
This approach concentrates
efforts on a particular location, for
a specific time period, often with
Part of its purpose is often to
demonstrate techniques and
methods that could be extended
and sustained after the project
period. Change in the short term
is often a measure of success.
In this approach, the assumption
is that better results can be
achieved in a parrticular location
during specified timeframe, with
large infusion of outside
Farming system approach (FSA)
The primary objective of FSD is to improve the well-being
of individual farming families by increasing the
overall productivity of the farming system in the context of
both the private and societal goals, given the constraints
and potentials imposed by the factors that determine the
existing farming system.
Thrusts of FSD
Farming Systems Analysis. This involves
studying, together with the farmers the natural
(i.e., technical) and socio-economic (i.e.,
human) environments in which farm
Farming Systems Planning, Monitoring,
and Evaluation. These involve testing,
monitoring, and evaluating improvements on-farm,
with the direct involvement of farmers.
Cost sharing approach
Helping farm people learn
those thing s they need to
know for self improvement
and increased productivity. It
is for this purpose that the
local people are willing to pay
part of the cost.
Another purpose is to make
funding of agricultural
extension affordable and
sustainable, both at central
and local levels.
Training and visit approach
1. This System will work as unified extension service with single professional
service for Agriculture development.
2. It will emphasis extension activities exclusively in coordination of the
research training and development.
3. It will deliver systematic concentrated efforts through training and visit
programme for the farmers.
4. It will ensure immediate results and success by working with farmers and
5. It will schedule imitable contacts and feedback mechanism from the
6. The majority of the farmers are trained to use their resources in efficient
ways and improve their management practices of agricultural production.
7. The Agril Technology is transmitted to farmers in consideration with the
constraints risk socio-economic factors and supply of input and credit.
8. This system has continuous improvement in agricultural and allied of the
Technology assessment and
refinement through IVLP
It is different from the earlier first line extension
efforts of ICAR, in sense that it lays emphasis on
the research aspect through the participation of
farmers to be carried out by the multidisciplinary
team of scientists,
Moreover, IVLP is a production system oriented
project with agro-ecosystem analysis of the
adopted villages as the basis of identify problems,
priorities them and final out technological
intervention point which are further developed into
action plants to overcome the problems through
assessment and refinement of technologies.
Contract farming approach
It involves agricultural production being carried out on
the basis of an agreement between the buyer and
Key benefits of contract farming: The key benefits of
contract farming for farmers can be summarized as:
* Improved access to local markets.
* Assured markets and prices (lower risks) especially
for non-traditional crops.
* Assured and often higher returns.
* Enhanced farmer access to production inputs,
mechanization and transport services, and extension
The importance of strategic extension campaign can be
summarized as :
· Enhances the agricultural extension planning process
· Builds cadres of extension programme planners and trainers
· Helps in improving extension linkage with research
· Is needed most by small, resource-poor farmers
· Helps in improving extension linkage with training
· Reduces extension system's workload and increases its
· Encourages partnership with, and participation of, community-based
· Helps revitalize extension workers' professionalism
· Shows that extension programmes can be strategically
planned, efficiently managed, and systematically monitored and
· Can contribute to improving and strengthening agricultural
In this approach the role of the
extension agent is to facilitate an in-depth
situation analysis by the farmers
themselves at the onset of their working
Once farmers have become aware of
the causes of their problems and have
identified the most pressing ones, the
extension agent provides technical
knowledge and technologies, which
may be useful to address the problems
. In order to initiate and perpetuate this
process, AR relied on a large number of
voluntary collaborators, so-called animateurs.
Their task was to initiate discussions within the
community on local needs and objectives, thus
empowering rural people for a dialogue with
the state. At the same time they were to
"interpret" government plans to the villagers
and acquaint them with services available.
Participatory action models
PAM is a management where all relevant
agencies, groups and individuals with common
intreast and development come together, form
a platform to facilitate joint problem solving
and action for mutual benefits.
This is working together (convergence) model
where stakeholders interests are focused on a
specific issues that creates energy and the
group plans and guides how this new energy
is distributed and diverted (divergence).
DO OUR OWN RESEARCH (DOOR) APPROACH
DOOR approach promotes a major move
from the old way of providing research
information, to a new way of self reliance
with industry generating its own research
information. This empowers farmers to
conduct relevant and self generated
research. Relationship between farmers and
consultants is that of equal partners.
The NDS was launched by ICAR in 1966 with
the objective that the scientists who generate
the technologies should demonstrate the
production potential of their technologies on
farmer fields and to develop the farmers into
local leaders to serve as change agents.
These NDS centres generated field based
data on production performance.
Operational research project
1. to test, adopt and demonstrate
new agricultural technology on
farmers fields in the whole village
or cluster of contiguous villages.
2. to determine profitability of the
new technologies and their place
of spread among farmers.
3. to identify and constraints both
technological and socio economic
which are barrier to rapid change.
4. to demonstrate group action as
a method of popularizing the
modern technologies at a faster
The mandates of KVKs are as follows-
Conducting “On-Farm Testing” for identifying
technologies in terms of location specific sustainable
land use systems.
Organising training to update the extension personnel
with emerging advances in agricultural research on
Organising short and long term training courses in
agriculture and allied vocations for the farmers and
rural youths with emphasis on “Learning by doing” for
higher production on farms and generating self-employment.
Organising Front Line Demonstrations (FLDs) on
various crops to generate production data and feed
Lab to Land Programme (LLP)
The overall objective to improve the economic
condition of the small and marginal farmers
and landless agricultural labourers, particularly
scheduled castes and scheduled tribes by the
transfer of improved technologies developed
by the agricultural universities, research
National Mission on Agricultural
1. Technology Solutions and Innovations
2. Extension Policy and Systems
3. Convergence, Programme Delivery, Governance and Innovations
4. Manpower Planning, HRD and Accreditation
5 Leveraging ICT, Mass Media and e-Governance
6. Partnerships for Agri-preneurship and Business Development
7. National and International Linkages and Partnerships
8. Mobilization for Farmers Empowerment
9. Women Empowerment, Household Food and Nutritional Security
10. Leveraging Youth for Agriculture
11. Extension strategies for Difficult Area, Disadvantaged Farmers
and Farm Workers
12. Agrarian distress, conflicts and farm studies
Public Policy Support for