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BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 2 PART 1 - CELL STRUCTURE

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BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 2 PART 1 - CELL STRUCTURE

  1. 1. BIOLOGY FORM 4 CHAPTER 2 CELL STRUCTURE (2.1)
  2. 2. Lesson Outcome: • Define the term of organelles • Identify the component of organelles in an animal cell and plant cell • state the functions of the cellular components in an animal cell • state the functions of the cellular components in a plant cell
  3. 3. • the living component of a cell. • Protoplasm = cytoplasm + nucleus • surrounded by the plasma membrane. • Plant cells have an outer boundary called the cell wall. PROTOPLASM
  4. 4. Animal cell Plant cell
  5. 5. Cell membrane Cytoplasm Nucleus Mitochondria
  6. 6. Cell wall Cell membrane Mitochondria Vacuole Cytoplasm Chloroplast Nucleus
  7. 7. Components Of The Cell
  8. 8. Components Of The Cell STRUCTURE Organelles Non-organelles Mitochondri a Lysosome Ribosome Chloroplast Centrioles Vacuoles Golgi apparatus Nucleus ER Plasma membrane Cytoplasm Cell wall
  9. 9. NON-ORGANELLES
  10. 10. NON ORGANELLES 1. Plasma membrane 2. Cytoplasm 3. Cell wall (found only in plants)
  11. 11. 1. PLASMA MEMBRANE
  12. 12. 1. PLASMA MEMBRANE STRUCTURE  Thin,  semi-permeable membrane
  13. 13. • Separates the content of the cell from its external environment. • Regulates the movement of substances entering and leaving the cell. • Allows the exchange of nutrients, respiratory gases and wastes products between the cell and its environment.
  14. 14. 2. CYTOPLASM STRUCTURE  Jelly-like substance containing water and mineral salt  Contains organelles Cytoplas m
  15. 15. • Acts as a medium where biochemical reactions and most living processes occur within the cell. • Provides the organelles with substances obtained from external environment.
  16. 16. 3. CELL WALL
  17. 17. 3. Maintains the shape of plant cells.
  18. 18. Cell wall • Protects plants cells from rupturing due to the movement of excess water into the cells.
  19. 19. Animal Cells Plant Cells Centrioles Lysosomes Nucleus Vacuoles Mitochondria Endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes Golgi apparatus Chloroplasts Venn Diagrams ORGANELLES
  20. 20. NUCLEUS STRUCTURE  Spherical with double membrane  Contain 1. nucleolus, 2. chromosome and 3. nuclear membrane
  21. 21. • Controls cellular activities. • Nucleus membrane controls inflow and outflow of material to and from nucleus • Nucleolus acts as site of ribosome construction. • Chromosome carries hereditary information (DNA).
  22. 22. Nucleus: largest organelle found in all cells  except: Mature red blood cells phloem sieve element
  23. 23. The outer membrane of the nuclear envelope is continuous with: the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)
  24. 24. RIBOSOME STRUCTURE  Small particle  consist of RNA
  25. 25. Ribosomes are located : bound to the rough endoplasmic reticulum Cell membrane Microtubule Microfilament free in cytoplasm Mitochondrion
  26. 26. Function Synthesis of protein
  27. 27. ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM (ER) consists of membrane enclosed tubules two types of ER: Rough ER lined with ribosomes Smooth ER no ribosomes
  28. 28. • Forms a network of transportation within the cell. Rough endoplasmic reticulum transports protein synthesised by ribosome to other parts of the cell Smooth endoplasmic reticulum synthesise lipid and cholesterol.
  29. 29. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
  30. 30. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  31. 31. Endoplasmic Reticulum
  32. 32. Role of the rough ER RER is concerned with the transport of proteins which are made by the ribosomes on its surface
  33. 33. Proteins: enter into the ER via a channel are transported through the cisternae are usually being modified en route
  34. 34. Proteins from the RER commonly travel to the Golgi apparatus:
  35. 35. Smooth ER is made up of tubular cavities occupies a smaller area compared to the rough ER Rough ER Smooth ER Function? [occurs away from the nucleus]
  36. 36. Functions of the smooth ER: 1. lipid synthesis  e.g. in the epithelium of the intestine, the smooth ER makes lipids from fatty acids and glycerol absorbed from the gut and passes them to the Golgi apparatus for export
  37. 37. Functions of the smooth ER: 2. proteins synthesised on the rough ER are chemically modified within the lumen of the smooth ER 3. makes steroids (a type of lipid)  some steroids are hormones e.g. testosterone
  38. 38. GOLGI APPARATUS STRUCTURE  Vacuolar region surrounded by a complex meshwork of vesicles budding off at its end
  39. 39. • Functions as a processing, packaging and transport centre of carbohydrates, proteins and glycoproteins. • These materials will be membrane-bound and secreted through vesicles.
  40. 40. Golgi Apparatus
  41. 41. The Golgi apparatus consists of two components: 2. Golgi vesicles 1. Cisternae Lumen [stack of flattened, membrane-bound sacs]
  42. 42. New cisternae are constantly formed at one end of the Golgi & pinched off at another
  43. 43. Functions of the Golgi apparatus: 1) it receives proteins from the ER and chemically modifies them e.g.: carbohydrate is added to proteins to form glycoproteins the slime, wax, gum & mucilage secretions of many cells are released by the Golgi apparatus
  44. 44. Functions of the Golgi apparatus: 2) proteins are concentrated, packaged, and sorted before being sent to their cellular or extracellular destinations 3) forms lysosomes
  45. 45. Proteins from the Golgi apparatus can be: 1. secreted from the cell 2. passed on to other organelles in the same cell
  46. 46. The Story of Endoplasmic Reticulums (ER) Here are the points of ER for easy comprehension: 1. There are 2 ER in cells - rough & smooth. The ribosomes are attached at rough ER. "This R means Ribosome" "Ohh... I thought R stands for Rosak Masa Depan Dia."
  47. 47. 2. The function of ribosomes are to synthesize proteins. The rough ER will carry the proteins.
  48. 48. 3. The function of smooth ER is to do both synthesize & transporting lipids(tough jobs!) My life is miserable & I like it."
  49. 49. 4. Finally, both proteins & lipids will be send to Golgi apparatus to be further processed /modified & packaged and send them out of the cell. "The reticulums have arrived. Do you really reti xxxxx
  50. 50. MITOCHONDRIA STRUCTURE  Rod-shape with a double membrane  Outer membrane is smooth and regular while inner membrane is folded to form cristae FUNCTION  Known as the ‘power-house’ of the cell  Releases energy as it the site for aerobic respiration  Energy generated or released in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).
  51. 51. LYSOSOMES STRUCTURE  Membrane bound vesicle found in animal cells only FUNCTION  Contain enzyme which control breakdown of protein and lipid  Contain enzyme that digest aged or defective cell components  Self digestion of a cell
  52. 52. Lysosomes originate from the Golgi apparatus: LYSOSOME Golgi apparatus A lysosome is surrounded by a single membrane
  53. 53. Lysosomes are: simple sacs that contain digestive enzymes such as: Proteases Nucleases Lipases
  54. 54. Lysosomes • As a digestive compartments. • In certain unicellular organisms, lysosomes fuse with food vacuoles and dispense their enzymes into these vacuoles to digest the contents of the vacuoles
  55. 55. CENTRIOLES STRUCTURE  Consist of two cylindrical body structure arranged at right angles to one another  Found only in animal cells FUNCTION  Formation of spindle fibre during cell division
  56. 56. What is the ‘centrosome’?  the region surrounding the pair of centrioles in all animal cells No centrosomes in plant cells
  57. 57. CHLOROPLAST STRUCTURE  Disc-shape organelle with double membrane  Consist of grana within stroma  Each granum contains chlorophyll pigment FUNCTION  Carry out photosynthesis
  58. 58. • Chlorophyll captures the energy of sunlight and converts light energy into chemical energy during photosynthesis. • The green pigment of chlorophyll gives plants their colour.
  59. 59. VACUOLE STRUCTURE  Cavities filled with cell sap  surrounded by a semi-permeable membrane called tonoplast FUNCTION  Contains water, sugar and dissolved materials  Maintains turgidity of cell in plant
  60. 60. Label plasma membrane ribosome mitochondrion rough ER smooth ER nucleolus cytoplasm nuclear membrane lysosome
  61. 61. Animal cell
  62. 62. Plant cell
  63. 63. 95 Different kinds of plant cells Onion Epidermal Cells root hair Root Hair Cell Guard Cells
  64. 64. 96 Different kinds of animal cells white blood cell red blood cell cheek cells sperm nerve cell muscle cell Amoeba Paramecium
  65. 65. Complete the table below STRUCTURE Organelles Non-organelles __________ structure : Function : __________ structure : Function : __________ structure : Function : __________ structure : Functon : __________ structure : Function : __________ structure : Function : __________ structure : Function : __________ structure : Function : __________ structure : Function : __________ structure : Function : __________ structure : Function : Homework __________ structure : Function : Function :
  66. 66. LETS DO AN ACTIVITY   Divide yourself into 6 group  Each group will be prepared by modeling clay and manila card.  Each group’s representative will vote for cell  In 15 minutes, by using your creativity, build a model based on the cell and their organelles  Need to label each structure and state their function
  67. 67. Comparison of an Animal Cell & a Plant Cell
  68. 68. Animal Cell Plant Cell Similarities Both has nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondrion, ribosome, cell membrane, rough endoplasmic reticulum, smooth endoplasmic recticulum and Golgi apparatus
  69. 69. Animal Cell Differences Plant Cell Do not have fixed shape Shape Have a fixed shape Do not have cell walls Cell walls Have cell walls Do not have vacuoles. If present, vacuoles are usually small and numerous Vacuoles Have a large central vacuole Do not have chloroplasts Chloroplasts All green plants have chloroplast which contain chlorophyll Have centrioles centrioles Do not have centrioles Carbohydrate is stored in the form of glycogen Food storage Carbohydrate is stored in the form of starch
  70. 70. The Density of Organelles in Spesific Cells
  71. 71. • The number of organelles in each cell varies according to type of organism and nature of the cell. For example, • more active cells will possess more mitochondria than less active cells. • Abundant chloroplasts are found in the palisade mesophyll cells than other parts of the leaves.
  72. 72. Sperm cells Require energy to propel through the uterus towards the Fallopian tubes, so that fertilisation can take place. High density of ______
  73. 73. Muscle cells Contract and relax to enable movement and flight High density of ______
  74. 74. Cells in meristems Require large amounts of energy during active cell division to produce new cells High density of ______
  75. 75. Mesophyll palisade cells Absorb sunlight during photosynthesis High density of ______

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