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organic certification

  1. Doctoral Seminar - II MAJOR ADVISOR Dr. K.R.Naik SEMINAR INCHARGE Dr. M.L.Kewat PRESENTED BY Nirjharnee Nandeha Ph.D. Scholar Deptt. Of Agronomy Roll No. 230
  2. • A production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems and people. • It relies on ecological processes, biodiversity and cycles adapted to local conditions, rather than the use of inputs with adverse effects. • It combines tradition, innovation and science to benefit the shared environment and promote fair relationships and a good quality of life for all involved. (IFOAM 2008, What is organic agriculture?
  4. PERCENTAGE OF AREA UNDER ORGANIC FARMING IN THE TOTAL CULTIVATED AREA OF DIFFERENT COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD Country Percentage of area under organic farming USA 0.23 UK 4.22 Germany 4.10 Argentina 1.70 Austria 8.40 Australia 2.20 Japan 0.10 Switzerland 7.94 South Africa 0.05 Italy 3.70 India 0.03 Pakistan 0.08 Sri lanka 0.05 0.23 4.224.1 1.7 8.4 2.2 0.1 7.94 0.05 3.7 0.03 0.08 0.05 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Percentage of area under organic farming Department of Agriculture & Cooperation, Annual Report 2014-15
  5. Source: Department of Agriculture & Cooperation, Annual Report 2014-15
  6. Area under organic farming in India Source: Department of Agriculture & Cooperation,
  7. STATUS OF ORGANIC FARMING IN INDIA  TOTAL NUMBER OF PROJECTS : 1320 UNDER THE CBs  NUMBER OF GROWER GROUPS : 484  NUMBER OF CERTIFIED : 1,95,741 ORGANIC FARMERS Source: Department of Agriculture & Cooperation, Annual Report 2014-15
  8. India’s green leaders top organic states and there main crops they grow (both certified & In-conversion) STATES TOTAL CERTIFIED AREA (in M ha) MAIN CULTIVATED CROPS Madhya Pradesh 286.65 Cotton, oil seeds, cereals like maize and sorghum, pulses Himachal Pradesh 63.19 Fruits, vegetables, cereals like maize and sorghum, wheat, pulses Rajasthan 21.7 Oilseeds, cotton, cereals like maize and sorghum, spices Maharashtra 17.7 Cotton, oilseeds, fruits and vegetables, pulses Uttar Pradesh 11.11 Cereals like maize and sorghum, fruits and vegetables, wheat, pulses Uttarakhand 10.5 Cereals like maize and sorghum, herbs and medicines, oil seeds, rice Source: Department of Agriculture & Cooperation, Annual Report 2014-
  9. Total Farmers Under Organic Production In Madhya Pradesh In 2015-16 DISTRICT TOTAL FARMERS DINDORI 36118 CHHINDWARA 20313 DATIYA Total in M.P 18915 1,56,175 JABALPUR 524 SOURCE:
  11. When organic farmers and traders are operating in an anonymous market, certification is developed to show and guarantee to consumers that a product has been produced in consistency with organic standards. • For small farmers/producers - when there is surplus & scale that warrants new markets, certification becomes important. Is there a need for organic certification?
  12. Why certification programs exist? • It brings opportunities to producers/farmers (e.g., market access, protection of local resources, improvement of worker’s health & living conditions of rural communities.) • Growing market/consumer awareness of the social & environmental problems • Safe and quality products ensure consumer health
  13. Organic Certification Balance of interests •CONSUMER requires healthy and environmentally sound products willing to pay premium price Trust •FARMER/PROCESSOR is producing according to certain standards (may be putting higher labour, etc.) getting access to premium price markets
  14. – A procedure by which a third party gives written assurance that a product, process or service is in conformity with certain standards – Intended to assure quality and prevent fraud – A marketing initiative aimed at regulating and facilitating the sale of organic products to consumers Whatis organiccertification…
  15. Accreditati on Standard s Inspectio n Certificatio n Keys to organic certification
  16. Accreditation Guarantees that the certification program is competent to carry out specific tasks • Authoritative body defines policies, standards and checks whether a certification system is operating according to standards Standards define production methods, not the product quality Minimum requirements, not "best practice" Can be International, National or regional standards
  17. Inspection On-site visit to verify that the performance of an operation is in accordance with specific standards Certification Written confirmation that a process or product is in compliance with prescribed standards
  18. International Organic Standards 1. IFOAM: • International federation of organic Agricultural movements • Established in 1972 • Headquarter in Germany • Developed international basic standards of organic agriculture • Established IFOAM accreditation programme (1992) to accredit certifying bodies 2. CODEX: •Codex Alimentarious Commission – a joint FAO/WHO •Intergovernment body •Established in 1962 •Produced a set of guidelines for organic production 3. EU regulation •Laid out a basic regulation for European Union’s organic standards in Council regulation No. 2092/91 (June 1991) •Regulations give guidelines for the production of organic crops in the European Community. 4. Demeter •Demeter International is a world wide net work of 19 International certification bodies in Africa, Australia, Europe •Developed guideline for biodynamic preparation. 5. JAS •A set of guidelines Japan Agricultural Standards for organic production
  19. Accredited certifying and inspection agencies in India • Association for promotion of Organic Farming (APOF) Bangalore • Indian Society for Certification of organic production (ISCOP)- Tamil Nadu • Indian Organic Certification Agency (INDOCERT)- Cochin, Kerala • Skal Inspection and Certificaton Agency- Bangalore • IMO Control Pvt. Ltd.- Bangalore • Ecocert International –Aurangabad • Bioinspectra -Cochin, Kerala • SGS India Pvt Ltd- Gurgaon • International Resources for Fair Trade (IRFD)- Mumbai • National Organic Certification Association (NOCA)- Pune • Madhya Pradesh State Organic Certification Agency – Bhopal
  20. National Standards For Organic Production (NSOP)
  21. Crop Production
  22. Starts from the day of signing contract Organic and conventional parts (Part farm conversion) must be separate and inspectable Simultaneous production of conventional, in conversion and/or organic crops which cannot be clearly distinguished from each other is not allowed Conversion Requirements
  23. When organic planting materials are available these shall be used When certified organic planting materials are not available chemically untreated conventional materials shall be used The use of genetically engineered seeds, pollen, transgenic plants or planting material is not allowed Planting material
  24. No synthetic inputs are allowed – Only natural or mined minerals Biodegradable material of microbial, plant or animal origin Mineral fertilizers to be applied in their natural composition (rock phosphate, gypsum, lime, mica) Chilean nitrate and all synthetic nitrogenous fertilizers including urea are prohibited Fertilization Policy
  25. • Plant, animal & microbial products locally produced at the farm are allowed • The use of synthetic herbicides, fungicides, insecticides and other pesticides is prohibited • Farm equipments from conventional farming systems shall be free from residues & clean Pest, disease and weed management
  26. • Clearing of land by burning organic matter shall be restricted to the minimum • Clearing of primary forest is prohibited • Relevant measures shall be taken to prevent erosion. • Excessive exploitation and depletion of water resources shall not be allowed. • Relevant measures shall be taken to prevent salination of soil and water Soil and Water conservation
  28. • Sufficient free movement • Sufficient fresh air and natural daylight • Protection against excessive sunlight, temperatures, rain and wind • Enough lying and/or resting area. • Ample access to fresh water and feed. • Adequate facilities for expressing behavior in accordance with the biological and ethological needs of the species Animal Husbandry Management must ensure
  29. • conversion period is twelve months • Brought in Animals allowed : • For dairy and egg production, this period shall not be less than 30 days 2 day old chickens for meat production 18 week old hens for egg production 2 week old for any other poultry piglets up to six weeks Calves up to 4 weeks old which have received colostrum and are fed a diet consisting mainly of full milk Conversion Period
  30. Animal Nutrition • •All feed and fodder to be organic •In-conversion to organic fodder allowed A percentage of feed consumed by farm animals can be sourced from conventional farm. • Vitamins, trace elements and supplements shall be used from natural origin • Following are allowed – Bacteria, fungi and enzymes – By-products of food industry (e.g. molasses)
  31. • Synthetic growth promoters or stimulants • Synthetic appetisers • Preservatives, except when used as a processing aid • Artificial colouring agents • Droppings, dung or other manure (all types of excreta) even if technologically processed • Genetically engineered organisms Prohibited substances in Animal Nutrition
  33. Farmer Processor Trader Transporter Exporter Shipping transporter Retailer Consumer *Those shaded in blue needs organic agriculture certification Organic Certification
  34. • First Party Verification – The producer with installed internal control system claims that the farm is organic – The system exist in areas or communities where the producer and consumer know each other – Farm or processing activity is open for consumer inspection – Example is the Participatory Guarantee System (PGS) Levels or Types of Certification
  35. • Second Party Verification – Occurs when the consumer verifies the production system and farmer/processor adheres to the standard set by the consumers – Consumers inspect the farms before a marketing agreement and activity takes place – This type of guarantee system sits in a situation where there exist an organized consumer and producer group – Example is the Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) Levels or Types of Certification
  36. • Third Party Certification – Is done by a third party without direct interest in the economic relationship between the supplier and the buyer – The certification is the formal and documented procedure by which a third party assures that the organic production standards are followed Levels or Types of Certification
  37. Study the organic standards Compliance to the standards Documentation and record keeping (day to day farming and marketing records and other activities) Planning –written annual production plan Application Inspection Fees (need for costing and scale for cost recovery) Certification Requirement
  38. CERTIFICATION Time Scale Choice of Certification Body Preparation Source of Information
  39. • Obtain Copy of Organic Standards • Compare various standards and charges Choose Certification Body • Optional but recommended Advisory Visit • Product specification sheet (s) • GMO declaration • Supplier certificates • Label • Pest Control Details Prepare and Submit Application Receipt of Application Acknowledged and Inspector Allocated How to gain Organic certification?
  40. • Quality manual • Training records • Goods in records • Production record • Sale/Outpu t records • Copy left at site Inspection • Specifications checked • Certification equivalence of ingredients checked • Any other issue decided upon Report Submitted for Consideration by Certification Department • Send in any requested information • Sign and return Compliance From Issued Detailing Actions • Both process and products licensed • License last for 12 months Organic License Issued
  41. Certification Process for Individual Farm or Processor Certification Comm. assigns inspector Inspector inspects the farm/processing plant •Farm walk •Check inputs and its sources •Check documentation •Exit meeting Inspection report to be submitted to Certification Committee Certification Committee deliberation Release of Certification Decision Organic Certification Applicant apply for certification •Fill out forms and sign contracts
  42. Certification Process for Smallholder Group Applicant apply for certification •Fill out forms and sign contracts Certification Comm. assigns inspector Inspector inspects the internal control system of the organization •Farm walk (random sampling) •Check inputs and its sources •Check documentation •Exit meeting Inspection report to be submitted to Certification Committee Certification Committee deliberation Release of Certification Decision Organic Certification
  44. Exploitation of global market Weak links in certification system National standards should be the same for domestic market and for export. Strong research back up has to be put in place to develop and improve national standards for organic farming. Prevent the sale of substandard material in the name of organic produce Certification issues
  45. Marketing & Economic constraints CONSTRAINTS Most Serious Serious Not so Serious Rank Order Complicated process of organic certification 81 (67.5%) 24 (20.0%) 15 (12.5%) I High certification cost for organic products 65 (54.1%) 35 (29.2%) 20 (16.7%) II Lack of knowledge about certification process 67 (55.8%) 4 (3.4%) 49 (40.8%) III Lack of standardization for certification of organic products 61 (50.8%) 44 (36.7%) 15 (12.5%) IV Certification related constraints in adoption of organic farming (n=120) SOURCE: Shehrawat P. S,(2016).Study of constraints analysis in organic farming cultivation in Sonipat and Hisar district of Haryana state, India. Journal of Applied and Natural Science 8 (1) : 100 - 106 (2016)
  46. Lack of marketing facilities (43.7 %), Non availability of premium prices (39.5 %), Difficulty in control of weed, pest and diseases (35.4 %), Limited availability of organic manures (31.3 %) Constraints expressed by organic growers in Madhya Pradesh (Bhopal, Sehore and Raisen districts, total number of organic farmers surveyed: 98) MADHYA PRADESH DEVELOPMENT REPORT PLANNING COMMISSION OF INDIA,2009
  47. Organic farming which relies on internal inputs has higher potential for premium price and quality produce than external input of inorganic agriculture practices. Keeping these potentials in mind, farmers starts practicing organic farming but at the same time they are facing several constraints. So, the efforts from the various players like policy makers, researcher, extension workers, farmers’ representative, inputs suppliers, marketing personnel and consumers are needed to promote organic farming in a big way to tackle the present crisis. It is hoped that organic farming will emerge as an important component of sustainable agriculture and congenial environment in future. SUMMARY
  48. REFERNCE: •APEDA 2013. Organic production and current scenario in India. •IFOAM Survey, 2012. Organic Agriculture Worldwide: Current Statistics, 2012 •National programme for organic production( NPOP) •Regional Conference on Organic Agriculture in Asia, December 1215, 2007 Bangkok, Thailand. •Yadav AK 2012. Organic Agriculture (Concept, Scenario, Principals and Practices ) National Centre of Organic Farming, Ghaziabad Organic Farming Newsletter 8(2): June 2012) •Shehrawat P. S,(2016).Study of constraints analysis in organic farming cultivation in Sonipat and Hisar district of Haryana state, India. Journal of Applied and Natural Science 8 (1) : 100 - 106 (2016) •WEBLINKS: • •