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device generating elecricity by footstep using peizoelectic material

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device generating elecricity by footstep using peizoelectic material

  1. 1. 1 DEVICE GENERATING ELECRICITY BY FOOTSTEP USING PEIZOELECRIC MATERIALS SYNOPSIS Man has needed and used energy at an increasing rate for his sustenance and well-being ever since he came on the earth a few million years ago. Due to this a lot of energy sources have been exhausted and wasted. So, non-conventional energy is very essential at the time to world. Walking is the most common activity in day to day life. Method such as burning of coal, wood, diesel (generators) etc. is continuously depleting our natural resources such as fossil fuels, which is the demand for power has exceed the supply due to the rising population. [4] Energy is the ability to do work. While energy surrounds us in all aspects of life, the ability to harness it and use it for constructive ends as economically as possible is the challenge before mankind. Alternative energy refers to energy sources, which are not based on the burning of fossil fuels or the splitting of atoms. The renewed interest in this field of study comes from the undesirable effects of pollution (as witnessed today) both from burning fossil fuels and from nuclear waste by products. Fortunately there are many means of harnessing energy, which have less damaging impacts on our environment. The alternatives are, 1. Solar 2. Wind Power 3. Tides 4. Hydroelectric In addition to these we have developed a new methodology of generating power using human energy and the name of this alternative is a foot step power generation. [5] We are generating electrical power as non-conventional method by simply walking or running on the foot step. Non-conventional energy system is very essential at this time to our nation. Non-conventional energy using foot step is converting mechanical energy into the electrical energy. [2] The main aim of this project is to develop much cleaner cost effective way of power generation method, which in turns helps to bring down the global warming as well as reduce the power shortages. In this project the conversion of the force energy in to electrical energy by using electromagnetic induction. In this project the force energy is converted into electrical energy.
  2. 2. 2 This project uses piezoelectric sensor. A.C. ripples neutralizer, unidirectional current controller And 12v,1.3 Amp lead acid dc rechargeable battery and an inverter is used to drive AC/DC loads “An average person weighing 60 kg , will generate only 0.1 watt in the single second required to take two steps across the tile”, said Yoshiaki Takuya, a planner with sound power crop. “But when they are converging a Large area of floor space and thousands of people are stepping or jumping on tem , then we can generate significant amounts of power .” stored in capacitors ,the power can be channeled to energy-hungry parts of the station ,he said, including the electrical lighting system and ticket gates. [1] The average human takes 3,000-5,000 steps a day. Seems like a lot, but most health experts would tell you to average 10,000 a day. Each step produces only enough electricity to keep a LED-powered street lamp lit for 30 seconds. So this is the very innovative thought in a commercial way for reduce the cost of power used in daily life. The purpose of this analysis is to analyze various methods of foot step power generation such as foot using foot step electricity converter device, using pavagen slabs (recycled rubber), using liquid droplets and metal electrode embedded in shoe sole, using piezoelectric material. [2] Human-powered transport has been existence since time immemorial in the form of walking running and swimming however modern technology has led to machines to enhance the use of human power in more efficient manner. In this context, pedal power is an excellent source of energy and has been in use since the nineteenth century making use of most powerful muscles of body. Ninety five percent of exertion put into pedal power is used to generate electricity to power small electronic appliances. [3] Proposal for the utilization of waste energy of foot power with human locomotion is very much relevant and important for highly populated countries like India and china were the roads railway stations, bus stands, temples, etc. are all overcrowded and millions of people move around the clock.
  3. 3. 3 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1. Methodology of shoe power generators The most common methodology of shoe power generators include 2.1.1. Foot step electric converter device (Mechanical method) 2.1.2. Footstep electricity generation using pavegen 2.1.3. Footwear embedded harvesters 2.1.4. Piezoelectric shoe 2.1.1. Foot step electric device-This device, if embedded in the footpath, can convert foot impact energy into electrical form. The downward movement of the plate results in rotation of the shaft of an electrical alternator fitted in the device, to produce electrical energy electricity generated from these devices can be used for street lights. This is a mechanical arrangement so efficiency is not so good and wear tear problem is there, the weight is less then 50kg then this device will not work.[4] 2.1.2. Footstep electricity generation using pavegen- The recycled rubber "PaveGen" paving slabs harvest kinetic energy from the impact of people stepping on them and instantly deliver tiny bursts of electricity to nearby appliances. The slabs can also store energy for up to three days in an on-board battery, according to its creator. Paving slabs that convert energy from people's footsteps into electricity are set to help power Europe's largest urban mall, at the 2012 London Olympics site. It’s limited due to cost of installation and complex structure.[4] 2.1.3. Footwear embedded harvesters- This works as follows: droplets of liquid are placed between electrodes coated in dielectric film. Both droplets and electrodes are connected to an external electrical circuit. External movement causes the interface between the droplets and the electrodes to decrease which releases an electrical charge which flows back into the electrical circuit, generating an electrical current. Limited due to maintenance cost is high and life time of droplets.[4]
  4. 4. 4 2.1.4. Piezo electric shoe- The piezoelectric effect a material’s capacity to convert mechanica l energy into electrical energy, and the inverse is observable in a wide array of crystalline substances that have asymmetric unit cells. When an external force mechanically strains a piezoelectr ic element, these polarized unit cells shift and align in a regular pattern in the crystal lattice. The discrete dipole effects accumulate, developing an electrostatic potential between opposing faces of the element. Relationships between the force applied and the subsequent response of a piezoelectric element depend on three factors: the structure’s dimensions and geometry, the material’s piezoelectric properties, and the mechanical or electrical excitation vector. The output is not stable always and weight of the shoe is not normal. Free play energy company (USA) as released a human electricity generator for commercial sale in which power is generated by pushing up and down with foot on a step –action treadle.A similar, newly released portable energy source is a foot –powered device that allows individuals to pump out power at a 40-watt clip to charge its own internal battery, which is capable of providing a powerful jolt to car batteries and AC and DC devices. [1] 2.2 Research elaborations 2.2.1.Study of piezo materials Piezoelectric ceramics belong to the group of ferroelectric materials. Ferroelectric materials are crystals which are polar without an electric field being applied. The piezoelectric effect is common in piezo ceramics like PbTiO3, PbZrO3, PVDF and PZT. The main component of the project is the piezoelectric material. The proper choice of the piezo material is of prime importance. For this, an analysis on the two most commonly available piezoelectric material - PZT and PVDF, to determine the most suitable material was done. The criterion for selection was better output voltage for various pressures applied. In order to understand the output corresponding to the various forces applied, the V-I characteristics of each material namely, PZT and PVDF were plotted. For this the Piezo transducer material under test is placed on a Piezo force sensor. Voltmeters are connected across both of them for measuring voltages and an ammeter is connected to measure the current. As varying forces are applied on the Piezo material, different voltage readings corresponding to
  5. 5. 5 the force is displayed. For each such voltage reading across the force sensor, various voltage and current readings of the Piezo test material are noted.[5] Fig 1: V-I graph of PVDF material Fig 2: V-I graph of PZT
  6. 6. 6 The voltage from PZT is around 2 V where as that of PVDF is around 0.4V.We can thus conclude that better output is obtained from the PZT than the PVDF. 2.2.2. Study of connections Next to determine the kind of connection that gives appreciable voltage and current necessary, three PZT are connected in series. Fig .3: PZT in series connection A force sensor and voltmeter is connected to this series combination. As varying forces are applied on this connection, corresponding voltages are noted. Also the voltage generated across the series connection and the current is measured. Similarly the connections are done for parallel and series-parallel connections are done and the graphs are as in figures 3. It can be seen from the graph that the voltage from a series connection is good but the current obtained is poor, whereas the current from a parallel connection is good but the voltage is poor.
  7. 7. 7 But this problem is rectified in a series- parallel connection where a good voltage as well as current can be obtained.[5] Fig.4: V-I graph of parallel and series combination 2.2.3. Hardware implementation In the hardware set up a tile made from piezo material is made. The voltage generated across a piezo tile is supplied to a battery for it to recharge and supply the dc loads. Voltage generated is also given to an inverter, from where it is supplied to all the ac loads. A LCD is interfaced to the tile using a PIC microcontroller to display the voltage generated across the piezo tile. 2.2.4.Maximum theoretical voltage generated When a force is applied on piezo material, a charge is generated across it. Thus, it can be assumed to be an ideal capacitor. Thus, all equations governing capacitors can be applied to it. In this project, on one tile, we connect 3 piezo in series.10 such series connections are connected in parallel. Thus when 3 piezoelectric discs are connected in series, its equivalent capacitance becomesHence, the net voltage generated in series connection is the sum of individual voltages generated across each piezoelectric disc. Output voltage from 1 piezo disc is 13V.Thus the maximum voltage that can be generated across the piezo tile is around 39V.
  8. 8. 8 2.2.5. Analysis done on the piezo tile People whose weight varied from 40kg to 75 kg were made to walk on the piezo tile to test the voltage generating capacity of the Piezo tile. The relation between the weight of the person and power generated is plotted in figure 8. From the graph it can be seen that, maximum voltage is generated when maximum weight/force is applied. Thus, maximum voltage of 40V is generated across the tile when a weight of 75 Kg is applied on the tile.[5] Fig 5: Weight V/s power graph of piezo tile
  9. 9. 9 PROPOSED WORK There are Connections to make the model which we will done in future project work. Unidirectional current controller Rechargeable battery A.C. ripple neutralizer D.C. load LCD Display Voltage sampler Power Micro controller Supply unit ADC Fig.6: Connections in the model Piezoelectric Material Sheet Invertor Load The working of the model is as follows 1. The piezoelectric material converts the pressure applied to it into electrical energy. 2. The source of pressure can be either from the weight of the moving vehicles or from the weight of the people walking over it. 3. The output of the piezoelectric material is not a steady one. So a bridge circuit is used to convert this variable voltage into a linear one. 3. Again an AC ripple filter is used to filter out any further fluctuations in the output. The output dc voltage is then stored in a rechargeable battery. 4. As the power output from a single piezo-film was extremely low, combination of few Piezo films was in vestigated. 5.Two possible connections were tested - parallel and series connections. The parallel connection did not show significant increase in the voltage output.
  10. 10. 10 6. With series connection, additional piezo-film results in increased of voltage output but not in linear proportion. So here a combination of both parallel and series connection is employed for producing 40V voltage output with high current density. 7. From battery provisions are provided to connect dc load. An inverter is connected to battery to provide provision to connect AC load. 8. The voltage produced across the tile can be seen in a LCD. For this purpose microcontroller PIC16F873A is used. 9. The microcontroller uses a crystal oscillator for its operation. The output of the microcontroller is then given to the LCD which then displays the voltage levels. Fig 7: Schematic representation of the working model
  11. 11. 11 REFERENCES 1. www.BEProjectreport.com 2.KiranBoby, Aleena Paul K, Anumol.C.V, Josnie Ann Thomas, Nimisha K., International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT) Volume 3, Issue 10, April 2014 3. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 3, Issue 3, March 2013 4. www.ijesrt.com 5.Alla Chandra Sekhar, B MuraliKishore ,TJogiRaju, International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 4, Issue 6, June 2014

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