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Key skills of  EFL teacher
Key skills of EFL teacher
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Chapter 5

  1. 1. Basic Methods of Teaching and Learning<br /><ul><li>A master educator is responsible for making sure all student’s understand that learning is a life-long endeavor!
  2. 2. Teaching is the act of imparting knowledge or instructing by example or experience.
  3. 3. Learning means that skills or knowledge is acquired by instruction, study, or experience.
  4. 4. Learner-centered education will dominate the 21st century.
  5. 5. There are 4 steps in learning </li></ul>D.I.A.R.<br />Desire- First we have to WANT to know something.<br />Information- Then we have to OBTAIN the information about the subject.<br />Assimilation- Then we have to UNDERSTAND the information.<br />Repetition- Then we have to PRACTICE—either by using the theory or the practical applications—until we have it mastered.<br />
  6. 6. Teaching and Learning Methods and Techniques<br /><ul><li>Teaching Method- Represents the manner in which the educator uses the material and resources to achieve results.
  7. 7. Teaching methods must be appropriate for the type of lesson and the types of learners in the classroom.
  8. 8. The more varied the methods, the more likely that every learner will ultimately “get it.”</li></li></ul><li>Interactive Lecture<br /><ul><li>Lecture is a discourse or formal presentation given before a group of learners especially for the purpose of instruction.
  9. 9. To develop a highly effective interactive lecture of powerful presentation, the educator will follow the C-R-E-A-T-E format.</li></ul>Consider the topic for the lectures.<br />Research it extensively.<br />Examples for clarification.<br />Analyze the learners.<br />Teach with poise.<br />Enjoy the presentation and relax.<br /><ul><li>The educator will develop powerful openings and build thorough content for the middle of the lecture.
  10. 10. The educator will vary the stimuli.
  11. 11. The educator will incorporate a closing for the presentation that has a high impact on the learners.</li></li></ul><li>Demonstration and Practice<br /><ul><li>Key: Master educators use the demonstration method of teaching to bring the lesson or presentation to life.
  12. 12. Demonstration is used to clarify and instill the underlying theory of a procedure into the minds of the learners.
  13. 13. The 6 P’s are critical to demonstrations. Proper preparation and planning promote positive performance.
  14. 14. It also requires to take necessary steps to ensure that it is effective and that objectives are met.</li></ul>Preparation- It includes identifying the objectives of the lessons. It also involves gathering and organizing materials and tools necessary.<br />Demonstration- Avoid distractions, perform demonstration at an appropriate speed. Question students during the demonstration to verify their understanding. Do not pass around any objects around during a demonstration. <br />Practice or Application- After a demonstration has been completed, students must have the opportunity to practice as soon as possible. Use the same implements as the instructor used during the demonstration. <br />Evaluation or Assessment- Closely supervise student practice of a skill and evaluate their performance. Give immediate feedback.<br />
  15. 15. Activity<br />Directions<br />Create a demonstration outline for the following subject:<br />How to properly drape a client for a shampoo.<br /><ul><li>Keep in mind the 6 P’s.
  16. 16. Include a supply list of what you will need during your presentation.
  17. 17. Type your outline, print and keep in your Learning Binder. Place it in a sheet protector.</li></ul>Now practice giving your demonstration! Have someone you know be your student. Remember practice makes PERMANENT!<br />
  18. 18. Group Discussion and Discovery<br /><ul><li>Group learning is extremely advantageous because it requires a high degree of learner participation, which is highly motivating for adult learners.
  19. 19. Tips for group discovery and learning:</li></ul>Avoid interrupting learners and groups when at work.<br />Provide ample time.<br />Ensure that activity is based on problems or questions that are solvable.<br />Allow for differences of opinions among learners.<br />
  20. 20. Role-Playing<br /><ul><li>The purpose of role-playing is to help learners understand the views and feelings of other people with respect to a wide range of personal and social issues.
  21. 21. The educator’s purpose is to structure the scenario and lead the follow-up discussion.
  22. 22. The student takes on the attitude and behavior of another person in a particular situation.
  23. 23. There are three basic types of role-playing.</li></ul>Position Role-Playing- Learner plays the part of a particular position. Ex: Manager, Educator<br />Character Role-Playing- Learner plays the part of a specific person and acts as that person would in the given situation.<br />Role-Reversal- Learners assume the roles of other persons with whom they interact with on a regular basis. Ex: Client, Educator<br /><ul><li>Use volunteers only, whenever possible.
  24. 24. Never role-playing situations that involve personal problems.
  25. 25. Don’t embarrass the students.
  26. 26. Key: The role of the educator is to ensure that all learners leave the experience feeling that there is more than one solution to any problem or conflict.</li></li></ul><li>Window Paning<br /><ul><li>Window Paning is the process of transferring key elements, points, or steps in a lesson that are then hand-sketched into “panes.”
  27. 27. The mind thinks in pictures of images when the right brain is more active than the left.
  28. 28. People can retain in their short-term memory an average of seven “bits” of information, with a variation of two.
  29. 29. Encourage learners to develop and create their own window panes for any subject with which they are struggling. Never use more than 1 image per square.
  30. 30. It is recommended to use no more than nine panes for a given topic.</li></li></ul><li>Activity<br />Directions<br />Create a window pane on how to properly part hair for a basic hair cut. Remember to include diagrams and very few words. Print and keep in your Learning Binder. <br />
  31. 31. Field Trips<br /><ul><li>Excursions into the workplace in various venues provides the students with an opportunity for active learning.
  32. 32. It also encourages the students to explore the marketplace and discover various aspects of the career path they have chosen.
  33. 33. Outline objectives and discuss with learners prior to the field trip.
  34. 34. Share responsibility and gathering information about the observations.
  35. 35. Tie those observations to the initial objectives.
  36. 36. Advantages of field trips include: building interest in field, broaden understanding and provide “real world” experience.
  37. 37. Field trip ideas:</li></ul>Salons<br />Retail Stores<br />Trade Shows<br />Community Events<br />
  38. 38. Guest Speakers<br /><ul><li>Using guest speakers can be extremely motivating for students.
  39. 39. Having a guest speaker does not reduce or eliminate the responsibility of the educator to be present during the presentation.
  40. 40. A preliminary meeting with any guest speaker is recommended.
  41. 41. Establish the ground rules.</li></li></ul><li>Mind Mapping<br /><ul><li>Mind mapping creates a free-flowing, graphic organizing system to outline information.
  42. 42. It engages both sides of the brain.
  43. 43. It improves recall abilities.
  44. 44. Mind mapping has proved more effective than the linear form of note taking taught in traditional education.
  45. 45. The map lays out the relative importance of each idea or element of the subject matter.
  46. 46. Mind mapping is nothing more than putting ideas on paper using headings, color, drawings, symbols, and connecting elements to identify relationships between concepts, topics, or ideas.
  47. 47. Keep these steps in mind when mind mapping.</li></li></ul><li>Activity<br />Directions<br />Review the mind map on Page 114 in your Master Educator Course Book. Create a mind map of any topic you have studied so far. Keep your mind map in your Learning Binder. <br />Remember not to worry about the organization. This is your map. A basic example is shown below.<br />
  48. 48. Peer Coaching<br /><ul><li>Peer coaching or tutoring can be extremely effective.
  49. 49. Can increase learning results in the classroom.
  50. 50. Highly Motivational.
  51. 51. There are steps that increase the effectiveness of peer coaching.</li></ul>Assign learners to work in pairs. Learners can be of comparable ability or a more advanced students can be paired with a student who is progressing at a lesser rate.<br />Prepare instructional materials appropriate for the area that needs improvement.<br />Provide training to the student coaches.<br />Monitor learning by observing, answering questions, and intervening when necessary.<br />Monitor and assess the compatibility of the team. Can reassign the team.<br />
  52. 52. Projects<br /><ul><li>Projects are used to allow learners to apply what they have learned.
  53. 53. They can apply underlying theory.
  54. 54. Hand-on experience.</li></ul>Workbooks and Partially Complete Handouts<br /><ul><li>Workbook assignments should closely follow the lesson or text material being covered.
  55. 55. Not as effective for some learner types than others.
  56. 56. Should not rely heavily on workbook activity.</li></li></ul><li>Case Studies<br /><ul><li>Case studies provide detailed descriptions of realistic problem situations that require resolution.
  57. 57. There are two types of case studies.</li></ul>The first type presents only the problem.<br />The second presents a problem and a possible solution.<br /><ul><li>Make sure the problem is sufficiently challenging and solvable.
  58. 58. Give options for answering the discussion questions. Make the first and last question easiest. Make the others most difficult.
  59. 59. Prepare more than one case study for the class.</li></li></ul><li>Concept Connectors<br /><ul><li>Concept connectors bridge the gap or provide a link between the student and a past experience.</li></li></ul><li>Visualization<br /><ul><li>The process by which the mind translates the content of a lesson into visual imagery.
  60. 60. Encourage learners to visualize themselves performing perfect practical skills.
  61. 61. Visualization has become increasingly common.</li></li></ul><li>Stories and Anecdotes<br /><ul><li>Educational research indicates that educators who talk only about content, and not people, are failing to deliver.
  62. 62. Remember that relevance is an important characteristic of an adult learner.
  63. 63. Bring the human element into every classroom if at al possible.</li></ul>Mnemonics<br /><ul><li>They are aids that can be used to assist the learners’ memory.
  64. 64. They can be word associations, songs, or other memory triggering methods.</li></li></ul><li>Energizers<br /><ul><li>When the heavy material creates a sag in the lesson, the educator should incorporate a brief energizer.
  65. 65. It should only take one to three minutes.
  66. 66. Great for mental and physical breaks.</li></ul>Activity<br />Directions<br />Create a small list of energizers you could use in your future classroom. If you need help, search online. There are so many ideas that would be great for an adult classroom. Type your list, print and keep in your learning binder.<br />
  67. 67. Experiments<br /><ul><li>An experiment is an operation or procedure carried out under controlled conditions in order to discover an unknown effect or result or to illustrate a know effect or law.
  68. 68. Great way to reach intuitive learners.
  69. 69. Experiments are great hands-on activities for learners.</li></li></ul><li>Games, Group Synergy, and Competitions<br /><ul><li>When establishing groups, master educators will limit them to no more than seven members.
  70. 70. Establish group leaders to direct the group.
  71. 71. Master educators observe and monitor.
  72. 72. All learners to work through the material so they can retain the information and apply it.
  73. 73. Competitions allow learners to measure themselves against themselves and against others. </li>