3. She obtained her basic nursing education at St.
Anthony School of Nursing in Denver, Colorado.
She became aware of the importance of caring
Statements made by the patients expressing
their appreciation for nursing care changed her
view of caring values and led her focus on care
as dominant culture of nursing.
She graduated from St. Anthony School of
She merited her Bachelor of Science degree.
She was the first professional nurse with
graduate preparation in nursing to hold a PhD
in cultural and social anthropology.
6. Mid 1950’s
She went through what she relates to as cultural shock
when she was a nurse in a child guidance home in the
Midwestern United States.
She was working as a clinical nurse specialist with
disturbed children and their parents.
Her experiences led her to become the first
professional nurse in the world to earn a doctorate in
She led to the development of the new field of
Transcultural Nursing as a subfield of nursing.
7. 1966 (University of Colorado)
She offered the first transcultural nursing
course with field experiences.
8. She developed her theory of Transcultural
Defining the ways on how people of
different cultures can see their nursing
Focusing on the people’s general beliefs
9. Her belief that different cultures have
both health practices that are specific
to one’s culture and prevailing
patterns are common across cultures
led to the addition of terms “Diversity”
and “Universality” to the title of her
Human beings are best explained in her
Human care is collective, that is seen in all cultures.
Human have endured within cultures and through
place and time because they have been able to care
for infants, children and the elderly in a variety of
ways and in many different environments.
12. Humans are universally caring beings who survive in
a diversity of cultures through their ability to provide
the universality of care in a variety of ways according
to different cultures, needs and settings.
She also indicates that nursing as a caring science
should focus ahead on traditional nurse-patient
interactions to include families, groups, communities,
cultures, institutions as well as worldwide health
institutional nursing care policies and practices.
Included events with meanings and
interpretations given to them
particularly in physical, ecological,
socio political and cultural settings.
14. In terms of environment, Leininger speaks
about worldview, social structure and
Environment framework is defined as
being the totality of an event, situation or
Health is a key concept in transcultural nursing.
Health is seen as being universal in different
cultures but it varies within each culture in a way
that represents the beliefs, values, and practices
of the particular culture.
Health is both universal and diverse.
Madeleine Leininger showed her concern
to nurses with insufficient preparation for a
For that reason, they will not be able to
value nor practice such viewpoint to the
fullest extent possible.
17. Madeleine Leininger gave three types of
nursing actions that are culturally-based
and consistent with the needs and values
of the clients. These are:
Cultural care preservation/maintenance
Cultural care accommodation/negotiation
Cultural care repatterning/restructuring
18. These three modes of action can:
lead to the deliverance of nursing care that
best fits with the client’s culture
reduce cultural stress
reduce chances of conflict between the
client and nurse
19. Transcultural Theory in Nursing
A humanistic and scientific area of formal
study and practice in nursing which is focused
upon differences and similarities among
cultures with respect to human care, health
and illness based upon the people's cultural
values, beliefs and practices to use this
knowledge to provide nursing care to people
based on specific cultures.
20. Goals of Transcultural Nursing
To give nursing care that is suitable to the
To provide universal nursing care practices
for the health and well being of people
To help people in facing illness or death in
culturally meaningful ways
The addition of culture and relative
care in the nursing curriculum began
in 1966 at the University of Colorado,
where Leininger was a professor of
Nursing and Anthropology.
23. Nowadays, with the sensitive public
awareness of healthcare costs, different
cultures and human rights, there is a
superior demand for the transcultural
people who are trained to protect the
quality of care and to prevent improper
24. Since 1980, there has been a growing
number of nursing curriculums
emphasizing transcultural nursing of
One of the first programs to focus on care
was the Cuestra College in California in
the 1970’s were an undergraduate nursing
program was developed with care as the
central curriculum theme.
A lot of nurses today are using Leininger
Culture Theory culture worldwide.
This theory is the only one in nursing
focused on culture and care with a
research technique called ethnonursing to
examine this theory.
A research method for describing,
documenting and explaning nursing
care phenomena by the study of the
beliefs, values and practices
concerning nursing care that belongs
to a specific culture.
27. Finances to sustain transcultural nursing
are not enough.
Despite of inadequate funds, reseachers of
transcultural nursing are furthering their
Does not demonstrate its criterion of
Broad, comprehensive and worldwide
31. Empirical Precision
Researchable, qualitative research has
been the primary paradigm to discover
largely unknown phenomena of care and
health in diverse culture.
How well the evidence support the theory
is indicative of empirical adequacy.
Other scientist should be able to evaluate
and verify results by themselves.
32. Derivable Consequences
Has important outcomes for nursing,
culture specific care is necessary and
essential new goal in nursing, useful and
applicable to nursing practice, education
Theories should reveal what knowledge
nurses must and should spend time