Lecture 2 culture and society

HR Management Consultant um Acitad
17. May 2014

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Lecture 2 culture and society

  1.  Culture in society refers to the ways of life of the members of a society, or of groups within the society. It includes how people constructed their life, customs, values, norms, religions, ceremonies, show the way they dress, eat, drink ect. In other words culture includes all our behaviours and structured all our lives.
  2.  Culture compromises both intangible aspects (beliefs, ideas and values) which form the content of culture, and tangible aspects (the objects, symbols or technology) which represents that content.
  3.  Sosyologlar kulturden söz ettiklerinde, insan toplumlarının devralınan degil, ögrenilen özellikleriyle ilgilenirler. Bir toplumun kulturu hem maddi olmayan (kulturun içerigini olusturan inanç, dusunce ve degerler) hem de maddi yönlerden (bu içerigi temsil eden nesneler, simgeler ya da teknoloji) olusur.
  4. In all cultures are the ideas which defined what is considered important and desirable. 2Are the rules of behaviour which reflect or embody a culture’s values.
  5.  Butun kulturlerin temelinde yer alan konu, neyin önemli degerli ve istenir oldugunu tanımlayan dusuncelerdir. Bu soyut dusunceler ya da degerler, insanlar toplumsal dunya ile etkilesim içindeyken onların yaptıklarını anlamlı kılar ya da onlara yol gösterir.
  6. Also norms and values work together to shape how members of culture behave within their everyday life. Example: Hospitality gets norms like giving gifts, visited etc.
  7. Every culture differ from each other by values and norms. Example: Individualism is a new value- modern society. In world are so many societies that have high technology but they do not accept individualism as values for their society (Arabia).
  8.  Even within one society, community or groups, values may be contradictory (Children and parents; Between people with different religions ect).
  9.  In our changing life, filled with the global movement of people,ideas,goods and information,it is not suprising that we encounter instance of cultural values in conflict.
  10.  The diversity of human bahviour,practices and cultural beliefs forms are so remarkable in a society.  Acceptable forms of behaviour vary widely from culture to culture and often contrast dramaticaly with what people from Western societies consider ‘normal’. (Marriages in early age; Family structure; Way they give salutes; Kissing)
  11. - In this type of culture are not found a vary of differences. -Monoculture structure is founded generaly in small societies. -But some modern societies such as Japon, have remained fairly monocultural and are marked by high levels of cultural homogenety.
  12. -Subculture do not refer just only ethnic or linguistic groups within a large society. They concern any segments of population which are distinguishable from the rest of society by their cultural patterns.
  13.  Subcultures are very broad in scape and might include Goths, Computer hackers, Hippies, Fans of hip hop or football club supporters est.
  14.  Every culture has its own unique patterns of behaviour, which seem alien to people from other cultural backgrounds.
  15.  Often people feel disoriented when they become immersed in a new culture. This happens because they have lost the ‘familiar’ reference points which help them understand the world around them and have not yet learned how to navigate in the new culture.
  16.  The process by which children or other new member of society learn the way of life of their society. Also socialization is the primary channel for the transmission of culture over time and generations.
  17. 1-Primary Socialization: is the time when children learn language and basic behavioural patterns which form the foundation for latter learning. The family is the main agent of socialization during this phase.
  18.  2-Secondary Socialization: In this phase other agents of the socialization take over some of responsibility from family. Schools, peer groups, organizations, workplace and media become socializing forces for individuals.
  19.  Social interactions in these context help people learn the values, norms and beliefs which make up the patterns of their culture.
  20.  Identity is the fact of collecting ‘data’ from the family and the society’s culture where a social actor is living. Form birth to death we are involved in interaction with others certainly conditions our personalities, the values we hold and the behaviour we engage in. Socialization is also at the origin of our very individual and freedom.
  21. Self identities refers to the process of self development through which we formulate a unique sense of ourselves and our own relationships to the world around us.
  22. Refers to the characteristics that are attributed to an individual by others social actors and by the culture’s values and norms. That can be seen as markers that indicate who that person is, in basic sense.
  23.  Social identity: involve a collective dimension. They mark ways that others mark them at the same way (common values, common norms etc).
  24.  Through the process of socialization, individuals learn about social roles. Social roles are defined by the social active and passive life. Expectations that a person in given social position follows is called also the part of a social role. A social actor, has so much social roles in everyday life.
  25.  The Greek philosopher Heraclitus pointed out that a person can not step into the same river twice. On the second occasion, the river is different, since water has flowed along it and the person has change in subtle ways too. (Difficult to defined, because there is a sense in which everything changes all of the time)
  26. The changes that are going on in the world today are producing different cultures and societies are much more interdependent that they everywhere before. (Electronic communications)
  27. Has an effect on the development of human social organization. (Chiefs, Lords, Kings, Governments etc) Includes the effects of religion, leadership and communication system.
  28. 3 Includes the effects of: 1- Religion may be either a conservative or an innovative force in social life. 2- The invention of writing for instance allows for keeping of records, making possible increased control of material resources and the development of large scale organizations.
  29.  3- Politics has always been the main factor for social change (France and Britain revolution).
  30.  A society is a system of interrelationships which connects individuals together.  It includes groups and communities of people that have relationships to each other by reference of culture.
  31. They do not have division of rich and poor but difference of position tend to be at age and gender. This type of societies are not primitive people, because they contain natural life. Duties: 1- WOMEN: gather crops, cook, bring up the children 2- MAN: always hunter, tend to domain in public and ceremonial position
  32. Raising domesticated animals and cultivations. Are people that relying mainly on the domesticated livestock ( sheep, goats etc). Migrate according to the seasonal changes (Nomadic hosts). Today: Africa, Middle East, Central Asia)
  33. Are people that grow crops (practice agricultures and Horticulture). Duties: Collections of crops Many pastoral and agrarian societies still exist in the modern world, concentrated in areas of Africa, Middle East and Central Asia (Kazakhstan and Mongolia).
  34. The society were based on the development of cities, showed very pronounced inequality of wealth and power. Were associated with the rule of Kings or Emperors. Because the involved the use of writing, science and art flourished, they are often called civilization base.
  35.  The modern world contains industrial societies. Industrialization refers to the emergence of machine production, based on the use of inanimate power resources like steam or electricity.
  36.  The industrial modern societies or developed societies which are utterly different from any previous type of social order and their development has consequences stretching for beyond their European origins(it is an ideology and propaganda of western country).