Culture in society refers to the ways of life of
the members of a society, or of groups within
It includes how people constructed their life,
customs, values, norms, religions,
ceremonies, show the way they dress, eat,
In other words culture includes all our
behaviours and structured all our lives.
Culture compromises both intangible aspects
(beliefs, ideas and values) which form the
content of culture, and tangible aspects (the
objects, symbols or technology) which
represents that content.
Sosyologlar kulturden söz ettiklerinde, insan
toplumlarının devralınan degil, ögrenilen
özellikleriyle ilgilenirler. Bir toplumun kulturu
hem maddi olmayan (kulturun içerigini
olusturan inanç, dusunce ve degerler)
hem de maddi yönlerden (bu içerigi temsil
eden nesneler, simgeler ya da teknoloji)
In all cultures are the ideas which defined
what is considered important and desirable.
2Are the rules of behaviour which reflect or
embody a culture’s values.
Butun kulturlerin temelinde yer alan konu,
neyin önemli degerli ve istenir oldugunu
tanımlayan dusuncelerdir. Bu soyut
dusunceler ya da degerler, insanlar toplumsal
dunya ile etkilesim içindeyken onların
yaptıklarını anlamlı kılar ya da onlara yol
Also norms and values work together to
shape how members of culture behave
within their everyday life.
Example: Hospitality gets norms like giving
gifts, visited etc.
Every culture differ from each other by
values and norms.
Example: Individualism is a new value-
In world are so many societies that have high
technology but they do not accept
individualism as values for their society
Even within one society, community or
groups, values may be contradictory
(Children and parents; Between people with
different religions ect).
In our changing life, filled with the global
movement of people,ideas,goods and
information,it is not suprising that we
encounter instance of cultural values in
The diversity of human bahviour,practices
and cultural beliefs forms are so remarkable
in a society.
Acceptable forms of behaviour vary widely
from culture to culture and often contrast
dramaticaly with what people from Western
societies consider ‘normal’.
(Marriages in early age; Family structure;
Way they give salutes; Kissing)
- In this type of culture are not found a vary of
-Monoculture structure is founded generaly in
-But some modern societies such as Japon,
have remained fairly monocultural and are
marked by high levels of cultural homogenety.
-Subculture do not refer just only ethnic or
linguistic groups within a large society.
They concern any segments of population
which are distinguishable from the rest of
society by their cultural patterns.
Subcultures are very broad in scape and
might include Goths, Computer hackers,
Hippies, Fans of hip hop or football club
Every culture has its own unique patterns of
behaviour, which seem alien to people from
other cultural backgrounds.
Often people feel disoriented when they
become immersed in a new culture.
This happens because they have lost the
‘familiar’ reference points which help them
understand the world around them and have
not yet learned how to navigate in the new
The process by which children or other new
member of society learn the way of life of
Also socialization is the primary channel for
the transmission of culture over time and
1-Primary Socialization: is the time when
children learn language and basic behavioural
patterns which form the foundation for latter
The family is the main agent of socialization
during this phase.
2-Secondary Socialization: In this phase
other agents of the socialization take over
some of responsibility from family.
Schools, peer groups, organizations,
workplace and media become socializing
forces for individuals.
Social interactions in these context help
people learn the values, norms and beliefs
which make up the patterns of their culture.
Identity is the fact of collecting ‘data’ from
the family and the society’s culture where a
social actor is living. Form birth to death we
are involved in interaction with others
certainly conditions our personalities, the
values we hold and the behaviour we engage
Socialization is also at the origin of our very
individual and freedom.
Self identities refers to the process of self
development through which we formulate a
unique sense of ourselves and our own
relationships to the world around us.
Refers to the characteristics that are
attributed to an individual by others social
actors and by the culture’s values and norms.
That can be seen as markers that indicate who
that person is, in basic sense.
Social identity: involve a collective
dimension. They mark ways that others mark
them at the same way (common values,
common norms etc).
Through the process of socialization,
individuals learn about social roles. Social
roles are defined by the social active and
Expectations that a person in given social
position follows is called also the part of a
social role. A social actor, has so much social
roles in everyday life.
The Greek philosopher Heraclitus pointed out
that a person can not step into the same river
On the second occasion, the river is different,
since water has flowed along it and the
person has change in subtle ways too.
(Difficult to defined, because there is a sense
in which everything changes all of the time)
The changes that are going on in the world
today are producing different cultures and
societies are much more interdependent that
they everywhere before.
Has an effect on the development of human
(Chiefs, Lords, Kings, Governments etc)
Includes the effects of religion, leadership and
3 Includes the effects of:
1- Religion may be either a conservative or an
innovative force in social life.
2- The invention of writing for instance allows
for keeping of records, making possible
increased control of material resources and
the development of large scale organizations.
3- Politics has always been the main factor
for social change (France and Britain
A society is a system of interrelationships
which connects individuals together.
It includes groups and communities of
people that have relationships to each other
by reference of culture.
They do not have division of rich and poor but
difference of position tend to be at age and
This type of societies are not primitive people,
because they contain natural life.
1- WOMEN: gather crops, cook, bring up the
2- MAN: always hunter, tend to domain in public
and ceremonial position
Raising domesticated animals and cultivations.
Are people that relying mainly on the
domesticated livestock ( sheep, goats etc).
Migrate according to the seasonal changes
Today: Africa, Middle East, Central Asia)
Are people that grow crops (practice agricultures
Duties: Collections of crops
Many pastoral and agrarian societies still exist in
the modern world, concentrated in areas of
Africa, Middle East and Central Asia (Kazakhstan
The society were based on the development of
cities, showed very pronounced inequality of
wealth and power.
Were associated with the rule of Kings or
Because the involved the use of writing, science
and art flourished, they are often called
The modern world contains industrial
Industrialization refers to the emergence of
machine production, based on the use of
inanimate power resources like steam or
The industrial modern societies or
developed societies which are utterly
different from any previous type of social
order and their development has
consequences stretching for beyond their
European origins(it is an ideology and
propaganda of western country).