Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Wir verwenden Ihre LinkedIn Profilangaben und Informationen zu Ihren Aktivitäten, um Anzeigen zu personalisieren und Ihnen relevantere Inhalte anzuzeigen. Sie können Ihre Anzeigeneinstellungen jederzeit ändern.
Nächste SlideShare
×

# Ge 249 SOPHISTS GROUP SAUT BUKOBA

• Full Name
Comment goes here.

Are you sure you want to Yes No
• Loggen Sie sich ein, um Kommentare anzuzeigen.

• Gehören Sie zu den Ersten, denen das gefällt!

### Ge 249 SOPHISTS GROUP SAUT BUKOBA

1. 1. SAINT AUGUSTINE UNIVERSITY OF TANZANIA BUKOBA CENTRE FACULTY: EDUCATION DEPARTMENT: GEOGRAPHY COURSE TITLE RESEARCH METHODS IN GEOGRAPHY COURSE CODE: GE 249 NAME OF INSTRUCTOR: MR, BASHEKA J. J WORK: GROUP ASSIGNMENT DATE OF SUBMISSION: March, 25th 2014. GROUP NAME SOPHISTS B PARTICIPANTS NO NAME REG NO SIGNATURE 1 KIBIRITI JOSEPH BAED II 41546 2 LAMECK MHOJA BAED II 41554 3 MADUHU GONZI BAED II 41573 4 MAPESA NESTORY BAED II 41584 5 MATHIAS BHOKE BAED II 41594 6 MSILA BHOKE BAED II 40971 QuestionTask Age and Sex Pyramid Define concepts Compound Bar graph State procedures for construction Dot Maps What are the Advantages Simple Line Graph What are the disadvantages Flow Line Maps Use Hypothetical data to construct
2. 2. 1. Age and Sex pyramid; Are the type of graph which shows demographic study in age and sex that show the structure of population in selected country. Age and Sex pyramid displays the percentage or actual amount of a population broken down by the gender and age. Types of Age and Sex pyramid; There are three key types of population pyramid, which are Rapid growth, Slow growth and Negative growth i/ Rapid Growth This shows a triangle shaped pyramid and reflects a high growth rate of about 2.1% annually. Example is in Mexico 2000. ii/ Slow growth; This population grown at the rate of about 1.7% annually. This growth rate is reflected in the more square like structure of the pyramid. Example in Iceland 2000. iii/ Negative growth; This is a negative growth in a country continues population is reduced. A population can shrink due to a low birth rate and stable birth rate. Common example is in Japan 2000. It is experiencing a period of negative growth of -0.1% Examples of figures are illustrated below to the next page
3. 3. Procedures to construct Age and Sex Pyramid graph; i/ To construct Vertical and horizontal axes . While horizontal axis is scaled either in absolute value or percentage and vertical axis occupies independent variable. ii/ To select the methods to use. Either percentage method or absolute method used in modification of horizontal scale that could produce different shape of population (female and male). iii/ Male usually presented in the left and female in the right. This must be indicated in graph. iv/The male and female section must be separated in space provided with vertical scale in terms of Age group. v/ Horizontal scale must be printed in both sides (female and male) vi/ When used for purpose of comparison, the graph must be drawn in the same scale. vii/ Care must be taken in choosing the scale so as to avoid narrow and elongated or one that is too wide or flat. Advantages of Age and Sex pyramid; i/ It gives clear picture or summary of population composition. ii/ It is used to make comparison of population in terms of time or location. iii/ It is used to represent Age and Sex structure of the population which is dependent on birth and death rates of population over time. iv/ It is used to represent growth of the total population over a period of years.Example in Census enumeration. Disadvantages of Age and Sex pyramid; i/ It consumes much time to construct since it comprise different age groups and sex ii/ It leads exaggeration in choosing scales ( vertical and horizontal) which can produce narrow or elongated graph. iii/ It is difficult to construct because it uses complex calculation , for instance when the percentage method is used.
4. 4. Example; The given data of Tanzania, then produce a neat Age and Sex graph (population pyramid) based on the data in (000) Age (yrs) Male Female 0--4 43200 41000 5--9 38800 37200 10--14 33500 32500 15--19 28900 27400 20--24 26000 22300 25--29 25000 19900 30--34 19900 18500 35--39 18800 16000 40--44 12000 12000 45--49 9900 10000 50--54 8800 8900 55--59 6500 8800 60--64 6000 8700 65--69 5500 8500 70--74 5000 7500 75--79 4200 7000 80--84 4000 6800 85--89 3700 6000 90--94 2000 4000 95--99 900 2200 100+ Solution; Scale; H.S 1cm = 10000 mil (000) V.S 1cm = x group age
5. 5. AGE AND SEX PYRAMID GRAPH IN TANZANIA 2013 2: COMPOUND BAR GRAPHS; Are the graphs which drawn by sub-dividing one bar into its component parts; The total length of the bar represent the total value of the component parts shown as sub- divisions. Procedures to construct Compound Bar Graphs; i/ Identify the title of given data ii/ Add or cumulate the value data in specific period and individuals to get the total length of bar. It help to estimate the scale. iii/Choose scales, the vertical and horizontal line in term of absolute values or percentages iv/Draw the Compound bar vertically or horizontally bars should be drawn vertically and year bars drawn horizontally. v/When drawing vertical, bars may be sub- divided in descending order of size ( The smallest at the top largest value at bottom). vi/Colouring or shading of the Components to improves the appearance and assist interpretation. That Colouring or shading must indicate the same components over period of time.
6. 6. Example crop production during 1998-2001 in tons Crop 1998 1999 2000 2001 Maize 200 260 275 280 Tea 100 200 180 260 Coffee 150 220 200 170 Total 450 680 655 710 Solution; A COMPOUND BAR GRAPH FOR YEARS 1998-2001 A Cumulative Table Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 maize 200 260 275 280 tea 300 460 455 540 coffee 450 680 655 710 Scale; V.S 1cm to 100 tonnes H.S 2cm to 1year.
7. 7. Advantages of Compound bar Graph; i/ It facilitates easy comparison of data or production ii/ It is easy to interpret when data provided iii/ It shows good impressive since different colours are used iv/ It saves space in presentation v/ It is easy to construct Disadvantages of Compound bar Graph; i/ It involves tedious Calculations when estimating scale ii/ It is not easy to see the trend of individual variable when they are too many and vary by great margins. iii/ They can cause confusion if proper care is not taken in data presentation iv/ Colouring and shading do not provide actual results when many data are involved. 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 1998 1999 2000 2001 A COMPOUND BAR GRAPH FOR THE YEAR 1998- 2001 COFFEE TEA MAIZE
8. 8. 3. DOT MAPS; This refers to the maps which normally shows the distribution statistical information through the use of dots. There are three considerations under dot maps which are; I/Dot size;This refers to the size of dot to be drawn, Ii/dot value; This refers to the number of values which each dot represent a base map. Example 1dot = 1000 students iii/dot location; It is used to locate the correct position of dot in the base map. Procedures to construct dots maps; i/You should have the base maps ii/Find the dot value example 1dot = 200 people in the class iii/ Determine the dot size iv/Drawing the dos. v/ Back to your topographical map and identify title, key and scale Advantages of Dots maps; i/It is easy to be interpreted quantitation ii/ They show good visual impression for comparison purpose iii/ They are easy to draw if the calculation is already calculated iv/ More than one item can be shown by using different colours of dots. Example people and animals. v/ It has variety of uses example showing volume and quantity vi/ Simple and easy to construct so long the dot value can be computed vii/ Different tribes can be shown in a region Disadvantages of Dots maps; i/ Faults in construction as dot value can be too low or too high
9. 9. ii/If topographical map is not given, distribution of dots in the map gives wrong impression as one cannot easily know the location of physical barriers. iii/ With large dot value distributions cannot be shown accurately . iv/ It is difficult to make dots of the same size if you do not have a special dot pen v/ Requires careful selection of dot scale to get correct picture vi/ It is time consuming as it involves trial and error in finding dot value. Example; Draw a dot map to show distribution of goats in Dodoma region in 1980 District Goats Kongwa 10,000 Kondoa 30,000 Mpwapwa 20,000 Dodoma 50,000 Solution; Thus in trial and error map you may use a scale of one dot to 1000 goats District Dots Kongwa 10000/1000 = 10 Kondoa 30,000/1000 = 30 Mpwapwa 20,000/1000 = 20 Dodoma 50,000/1000 = 50
10. 10. Dot map: Distribution of Goats in Dodoma region, 1980 1dot represents 1000 Goats Dodoma= 50,000 Kondoa= 30,000 Mpwapwa = 20,000 Kongwa = 10,000 4 .SIMPLE LINE GRAPH Is it used to portray the relationship between two variables for example tonnage of maize production over time. Construction procedures; i/ Draw a horizontal axis and two vertical axes one at each end of the horizontal axis ii/ Mark an approximate scale for both the horizontal axis that is time in months or year and vertical axis which is value or amount example tone. Iii/ Use dots when plotting the time against on the graph and join the dots to produce a line graph, either using a free hand line segment. v/ The line graph is completed by giving it a suitable title, Example Maize production in Tanzania; 1990-1994( in 000`s tons) YEAR 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 PRODUCTION IN (000`S) 200 250 275 280 285
11. 11. Scale: V.S= 2cm to 50,000 tones H. S= 2cm to 1 year 300 250 200 150 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 Time in years Key; ___ Maize Advantages of simple line graph; i/ Easy to construct and interpret ii/ Enables ones to easily compare variations in the relationship between variables iii/ Does not involves lengthy and tedious calculations. Iv/ The trend of the relationship can easily seen v/ Exact value can easily be estimated from the graph Disadvantagesof simple line graph; i/ It gives the misleading impression that the pattern or trend is constant. ii/ The causes of illustrated relationship cannot be established from the graph.
12. 12. 5. FLOW LINE MAP Flow line maps also are called Flow chart. Flow line maps can be defined as a chart that illustrate the movement of information and products between different locations. Also it can show flow/ movement or migration data of people, animals, products or object of concern in given geographical location. This movement is observed at a specific check point along the route or data can be obtained at the end station such as port, bus station or airport.When volume of flows is shown by lines whose width varies in proportion to the number of goods, people travelling along the route. Steps/ Procedures/ Methods of Construction Flow line Map; i/Draw a base map of the route network each route being shown by fine single pencil line traced from the original map called reduced or enlarged if necessary. ii/ Mark in pencil all the check points or each and flow values against each point iii/ Choose a suitable scale for the flow line map. This usually depends on the map size, the data value range and the route network density simple direct proportion between quantity to be represented and width of the flow line taken. This help to avoid very thin line to be used. Sometimes square root or logarithms are used for very large values. iv/ Divide each flow line scale value by 2. Then with point of the compasses or dividers on the traced road, the route. Join the mark points with a pencil line and do the same for other size of the route .Angular joint should be drawn at each junction neatly. v/ Outline the key flow line in the ink and shade them lightly in colour. vi/ Insert the key for your flow line map together with the heading of the map. Example ; Read careful the data below and answer the question follows as instructed. Town Tones Arusha 15117 Dodoma 25000 Mwanza 12400 Songea 11013 Iringa 13000 Dar es Salaam 40000 Draw the flow line map to represent the movements of goods in some regions of Tanzania to Dar es Salaam Solution;
13. 13. Town Tones Rounded the figure Scale 1mm=4000 tones Divided by 2 Arusha 15117 15000 15000/4000=3.75mm 4mm/2= 2mm Dodoma 25000 25000 25000/4000= 6.25mm 6mm/2=3mm Mwanza 12400 12000 12000/4000=3mm 3mm/2= 1.5mm Songea 11013 11000 11000/4000=2.75mm 3mm/2=1.5mm Dar es Salaam 40000 40000 40000/4000= 10mm 10mm/2=5mm THE FLOW LINE MAP SHOWING THE MOVEMENT OF GOODS IN SOME REGION IN TANZANIA TO DAR ES SALAAM UGANDA KENYA KEY; ZAMBIA Mwanza to Dodoma Arusha to dodoma Dodoma to Dar es Salaam Songea to Dodoma MOZAMBIQUE
14. 14. Advantages of Flow line maps; 1. The only way which can show movement of goods 2. It is easy to draw and interpret once the scale has being considered 3. They provide a convenient visual way of illustrating movement. 4. It can show direction of two traffics such as import and exports at the same time. 5.It is good in showing problem of movement example traffic congestion 6. It gives good visual impression which facilitates interpretation. 7. The method allows other statistical information to be added on the map. Disadvantages of Flow line maps; 1. Choice of scale and calculation is not easy 2. It is not easy to present more than one item instead of traffic only. 3. It is difficult to present low volume of the item in question 4. Real figures are not shown on the map so it is difficult to know the actual volume of the item being represented. 5. It may give misleading information as it assumes that all reluctes leaving a point will arrive at the same ending point. 6. It is very difficult to maintain the width of the flow paths in cases where the flow line has many bend
15. 15. REFERENCES Cothari C.R. (1990), Research Methodology, Methods and Techniques, Weley Eastern, New Delhi Pritchat J. M (1984) Practical Geography for Africa, Hong Kong