Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Wir verwenden Ihre LinkedIn Profilangaben und Informationen zu Ihren Aktivitäten, um Anzeigen zu personalisieren und Ihnen relevantere Inhalte anzuzeigen. Sie können Ihre Anzeigeneinstellungen jederzeit ändern.
Nächste SlideShare
×

# Basheka 244

• Full Name
Comment goes here.

Are you sure you want to Yes No
• Loggen Sie sich ein, um Kommentare anzuzeigen.

• Gehören Sie zu den Ersten, denen das gefällt!

### Basheka 244

1. 1. SAINT AUGUSTINE UNIVERSITY OF TANZANIA BUKOBA CENTRE FACULTY: EDUCATION DEPARTMENT: GEOGRAPHY COURSE TITLE QUANTITATIVE TECHNIQUES IN GEOGRAPHY COURSE CODE: GE 244 NAME OF INSTRUCTOR: MR, BASHEKA J. J WORK: GROUP ASSIGNMENT DATE OF SUBMISSION: December 2013 GROUP NAME SOPHISTS B PARTICIPANTS NO NAME REG NO SIGNATURE 1 KIBIRITI JOSEPH BAED II 41546 2 LAMECK MHOJA BAED II 41554 3 MADUHU GONZI BAED II 41573 4 MAPESA NESTORY BAED II 41584 5 MATHIAS BHOKE BAED II 41594 6 Question 4 a/ Why do we make inferences in geographical studies b/ Explain the meaning, functions, limitations and characteristics of models in geography.
2. 2. Inferential statistics consists of generalizing from samples to populations, performing hypothesis testing, determining relationships among variable and making predictions. ( Bluman 1976). Statistical Inferences: Sampling theory uses statistical underpinnings to make a generalized statement about a specific population extended from the studies conducted. Therefore Inferential statistics is the type of statistics which deals with methods that enable a conclusion to be made from a sample of observation that describe the property of the population from which the sample was drawn also this type known as Quantitative method. Inferential statistics originated in the 1600’s when John Graunt published his book on population growth Natural and Political Observations. Made upon the Bills of Mortality at the same time mathematician/ astronomer, Edmund Halley published the first complete mortality tables. Sampling techniques for inferential statistics include Testing of hypothesis and Probability theories. In testing hypothesis means to state on the basis of data the researcher has collected whether or not the hypothesis seen to be valued. The main question is to accept the null hypothesis or to reject it. The significance level correspond to the confidence level CONFIDENCE LEVEL SIGNIFICANCE LEVEL 90% 0.1 95% 0.05 99% 0.01 WHY DO WE MAKE INFERENCES IN GEOGRAPHICAL STUDIES There are various purposes and reasons to make inferences in Geographical studies. Such benefits are as follows below; It enables geographers to handle large quantities which can be easily summarizing information of large number of data. They are simple to understand and easy to apply also do not require any assumption to be made about population following normal or any other distribution. when the sample sizes are small.Example; Non-parametric tests are distribution free. Most non-parametric tests do not require
3. 3. Lengthy and laborious computations and hence are less time-consuming. If significant results are obtained no further work is necessary. Measurement techniques help in maintaining objectivity of study. In geographical research as more and more scales of measurement are being developed, objectivity of study is increasing. Even if several factors contribute in hindering such objectivity, it has been achieved to such a limit that useful prediction has been possible. To determine the normal distribution;The most common probability distribution is the normal distribution. The normal distribution is a continuous distribution that is symmetric and bell- shaped. Its tool can be used to draw conclusions. The process of data to create models and be of use relies heavily on this process and thus its importance to make inferences in geographical studies. Mathematical Notation,The mathematical notation used most often in statistical inferences used in geography example is the summation notation.The Greek letter is used as a shorthand way of indicating that a sum is to be taken: ni i i x 1
4. 4. To determine the total area; Inferential statistics in Geography used to determine the total area under the curve is equal to one. The method can be used in other subjects, they convert data into mathematical from then making comparison with variable, formulating principles hence they used to test the significance. CONCEPT, CHARACTERISTICS ,FUNCTION AND LIMITATION OF MODEL IN GEOGRAPHY Chorley and Haggett (1967) defined model is a simplified structuring of reality that presents supposedly significant features of relationships in general form. Thus “model’’ is conventionally used in a number of different ways. In its simplest form a model is the representation of reality in an idealized form. The process of model building is actually a process of idealization. TYPES OF MODELS There are two classes of models that are commonly used in research activities, classified as follows: a) Physical Models (b) Symbolic Models PHYSICAL MODELS These types of models give the appearance of the real system, as such, these include toys and photographs. These models easily depict the system but are not easily manipulated. This makes them of little value for purpose of analysis and prediction. Physical models are the least abstract of all models. These are of two subtypes:
5. 5. a/Iconic models: Iconic models represent the system as it is but in different size. Thus Iconic models are obtained by enlarging or reducing the size of the system. In other words, they are images. Some common examples are photographs, drawing, model airplanes, ships engines globes, maps etc. A toy airplane is an iconic model of a real one. Iconic models of the sun and its planets are scaled down while the model of the atom is scaled up so as to make it visible, to the naked eye, Figure 1 GLOBE Figure 2 MAP b) Analogue Models: In analogue models one set of properties is used to represent another set of properties. After the problem is solved the solution is re-interpreted in items of the original system. For example, contour lines on a map are analogue of elevation as they present the rise and fall of heights. Graphs are analogues as linear lines are used to represent a wide variety of variables such as time, percentage weight and others. SYMBOLIC MODELS In this class models, letter, numbers and other types of mathematical symbols are used to represent variables and the relationships between them. Thus symbolic models are some kind of mathematical equations or inequalities reflecting the structure of the system they represent. Inventory models, queuing models etc. are the example of symbolic models. The symbolic models are the most abstract models and, therefore, usually general in nature. Symbolic models can be manipulated easily and, therefore, of great value for analysis and prediction. Hence, in research symbolic models are often used. Quadratic Equation
6. 6. Symbolic models have following subtypes: Mathematical Models: Sometimes, models described by means of mathematical symbols and equations are known as mathematical models. For example, simulation model uses mathematical formulae. This model is very commonly used by the manager to „simulate‟ their decision making process. Function Models: Models may also be grouped according to the mathematical function used. For example, a function may serve to acquaint the analyst with growth pattern of consumer demand. Quantitative Models: are those models that can measure the observations. A yardstick, a unit of measurement of length value, degree of temperature, etc. are quantitative models. Other example of quantitative models are the transformation models that help in converting a measurement of one scale into one of the other scales (e.g. Logarithmic tables, Centigrade vc. Fahrenheit conversion scale) and the test models that act as „standards‟ against which measurements are compared (example., a specified standard production control, business dealings, the quality of a medicine). Qualitative Models: are those that can be classified by the subjective description in terms of numeric data. Examples of these are the “economic models” and the “business models” which represent the gathering and representation of data pertaining to economic or business research problem respectively. Heuristic Models: These models are mainly used to explore alternative strategic (course of action) which have been overlooked previously, using mathematical models to represent systems that define strategies. CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD MODELS i) It should be capable of adjustments with new experimental situations without having any significant change in its framework ii) It should contain limited variables. iii) A model should not consume too much time in its construction iv) Model are structured in the sense that the selected aspect of the web of reality are exploited in term of their connections. v)Model are analogies because model are different from the real world ,the use hard ware model is an obvious example of the general aim of model builder to reformulate some features of the
7. 7. real world into a more familiar, simplified, accessible, observable , easily formulated or controllable form. vi) It regards as experimentally fertile, suggesting further questions . vii) They are sought of as selective pictures and direct description of the logical. . ADVANTAGES OF A MODEL Models play a very important role in geography. i)Models simulate descriptions and explanations of the operations of the system that they represent. By experimenting with models one can determine how the changes in the conditions will affect performance of a system. ii)Models enable us to experiment in a cost effective manner than the system itself which is either impossible or too costly. iii) It depicts a research problem much more precisely. iv) It provides a logical and systematic approach to the research problem. v) It indicates the limitations and scope of the research problem. vi) It presents the overall structure of the research problem more comprehensively. vii) It facilitates dealing with the problem in its totality. viii) It enables the use of mathematical techniques to analyse the research problem. ix ) Analogue models are easier to manipulate than iconic models. FUNCTIONS OF MODELS IN GEOGRAPHY Based on various properties and uses of a model it is nine (9) functions maybe identified ; Acquisitive or Organizational, The model provides a frame work where in the information may be defined, collected, ordered and manipulated. A model acquires the information that could be defined in its frame work or provides a frame work for defining certain kind of information. Logical; A model explain the situation rationally accounting for how a particular phenomenon comes about or how a particular relationship among components parts work about. Psychological; it can act as a psychological device that facilitates complex interaction to be more easily visualized , a kind of picturing device . This function enables some group of phenomena to be visualized and comprehended more easily that could otherwise not be because of its magnitude and complexity. A model help to understand the reality in a simpler manner than otherwise it would have been.
8. 8. Normative; the model represents reality in an Idealized form with the help of certain norms, conditions assumption. The normative function of a model allows broad comparisons to be made, by comparing some less known phenomena with more familiar ones. Systematic; It function like a system, the systematic of a model stresses that the “web of reality” should be viewed in term of interlocking system. This leads to the constructional function of the system. Constructional; It means that a model provides a stepping –stone to the building of theories and laws. As a constructional device it helps in searching for geographic theory or the extension of the existing theory. Selective;it is a selective approximation, allowing some fundamental, relevant or interesting aspects of the real world to appear in some generalized form. Interpretative;an important function of the model is to provide an interpretation of the theory in the sense that every sentence occurring in the theory is a meaningful statement. Cognitive;finally there is the cognitive function of model, promoting the communication of scientific ideas. LIMITATIONS OF MODELS IN GEOGRAPHY Models have few disadvantages which are as follows: i) Models are an attempt in understanding a research problem and should never be considered an absolute ever. ii) The validity of any model with regard to the research problem at hand can only be verified by carrying out experiments and by characteristics of data thus obtained. iii) Analogue models are less specific and less concrete iv) These are difficult to manipulate for experimental purposes vi) It is not easy to make any modification or improvement in these models. vii) Adjustments with changing experimental situations cannot be done in these models. In conclusion; inferential statistics is body of technique used to assess the degree of certainty with which a statement can be made about a population is studied or has been studied. It is classified into two main groups basing on whether the data is normally or not normally distributed. The scales for measurements are like Nominal scale, Ordinal scales, Interval scale and Ratio scale. Also models provide controls for the model and solution a model once accurate may cease to represent reality or the variables believed to be beyond control may change in value or the relationships of variables may change, provision must be made for control of the model and the solution as applied in geographical studies.
9. 9. REFERENCE Beri, G.C. (2009). Business Statistics, 3rd Ed. Tata McGraw Hill Pvt. Ltd.; India. Cooper, Donald R. & Schindler, Pamela S. (2006). Business Research Methods, Tata McGraw Hill Companies; India. Kothari, C.R. (2004). Research Methodology Methods and Techniques, New Age International (P) Limited: New Delhi. Singh, D. & Chaudhary F.S. (2006). Theory and Analysis of Sample Survey Designs, New Age International (P) Limited: New Delhi. Shajahan, S. (2009). Research Methods for Management, Jaico Publishing House, Delhi; India.