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Cognitive learning

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cognitive learning

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Cognitive learning

  2. 2.  Cognitive School – Information Theorists – Constructivists  Constructivist View – individuals are actively involved in constructing their personal understanding of their experiences, more concerned with learning processes than content
  3. 3.  Main Assumption – Learning results from internal mental activity and not on externally imposed stimuli  Focus: the mental processes involved in learning – observing, categorizing, making generalizations to make sense of the input / to work out how the language system works
  4. 4.  Role of learner: - Active participant in the learning process, using various strategies to process information
  5. 5. Jean Piaget  Renowned for his model of child development and learning. He identified 4 developmental stages and the cognitive processes associated with each of them
  6. 6. Developmental Stages  Sensori-motor - makes sense of his environment through the basic senses  Intuitive /Pre-operational - Thoughts more flexible, memory and imagination begin to play a part in learning, capable of more creativity
  7. 7.  Concrete Operational – Can go beyond the basic information given, but still dependent on concrete material and examples to support reasoning  Formal Operational – Abstract reasoning becomes increasingly possible
  8. 8. Assimilation, Accommodation and Equilibration  Accommodation – The process by which we modify what we already know to take into account the new information  Assimilation – The process by which new knowledge is changed / modified / merged in our minds to fit into what we already know
  9. 9.  Equilibration – the balance between what is known and what is currently being processed, mastery of the new material  Learning is the process of relating new information with what was previously learnt  Learning is cumulative
  10. 10. Jerome Bruner  View of Learning – Development of conceptual understanding, cognitive skills and learning strategies rather than the acquisition of knowledge – Learners must be encouraged to discover solutions via appropriate tasks which require the application of relevant critical thinking skills
  11. 11. Bruner – Modes of Thinking  Extended aspects of Piaget’s theory. He identified three ways in which learners make sense of input  Enactive Level – learning takes place via direct manipulation of objects and materials  Iconic Level – Objects are represented by visual images and are recognized for what they represent
  12. 12.  Symbolic Level – Learning can take place using symbols, objects and mental images. Language is used to represent thoughts and experiences
  13. 13. Application in the Classroom  The importance of providing opportunities for learners to be actively engaged in making sense of the language input through meaningful tasks  Providing opportunities for learners to develop the ability to analyze the language, make generalizations about rules, take risks
  14. 14. in trying the language, and to learn from errors  Catering for interaction of learner with curriculum material and the learning environment  Catering for the three modes of thinking (Bruner)
  15. 15.  The need to organize and structure learning activities. The requirements of the task must be appropriate to the developmental stage (Piaget, Bruner) and the conceptual stage (Bloom) of the learner  The cumulative nature of learning requires frequent opportunities for reviewing previously learnt material
  16. 16. David Ausubel  Stressed the importance of active mental participation in meaningful learning tasks  Learning must be meaningful to be effective and permanent  Makes a distinction between meaningful learning and rote learning
  17. 17.  Meaningful Learning – relatable to what one already knows so it can be easily integrated in one’s existing cognitive structure  Rote Learning – the material to be learnt is not integrated / subsumed into an existing cognitive structure but learnt as isolated pieces of information
  18. 18. Implications for Classroom  Teacher has to enhance the meaningfulness of new material to increase the chances of its being anchored to what is already known  New material must be organized to be easily relatable to what is already known  New material must be appropriately sequenced to facilitate integration
  19. 19.  Use of advance organizers. These facilitate the learning process by providing ideas to which the new knowledge can be attached – Introductory material presented in advance of the new material – Information that activates relevant background knowledge
  20. 20. – Material that orients learners to the subject matter and relates new learning to what is already known – Can take the form of textual material, pictures, titles, topic summaries, questions