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Custom components

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Custom components

  1. 1. Mohammad Nazmul Hossain nazmul.hossain@revesoft.com Custom Components
  2. 2. 1. Custom Components Source: http://developer.android.com/guide/topics/ui/custom-components.html
  3. 3. 1.1 Introduction  Android offers a robust componentized model for building your UI.  It is based on the fundamental layout classes:  View  ViewGroup  The platform includes a variety of prebuiltView andViewGroup subclasses.They are:  Widgets  Layouts
  4. 4. 1.1 Introduction (Contd.)  A partial list of available widgets are:  Button  TextView  EditText  ListView  CheckBox  RadioButton  Gallery  Spinner  The more special-purpose widgets are:  AutoCompleteTextView  ImageSwitcher  TextSwitcher
  5. 5. 1.2 Why Custom Components? (Not default!)  If none of the prebuilt widgets or layouts meets your needs, you can create your own View subclass.  This approach above gives you the full control over your widgets.  If you only need to make small adjustments to an existing widget or layout, you can simply subclass the widget or layout and override its methods.  This approach above concerns with minor changes suitable with your requirements.Thus it is often easier.
  6. 6. 1.3 Some Application Scenarios  You could create a completely custom-renderedView type, for example a "volume control" knob rendered using 2D graphics, and which resembles an analog electronic control.  You could combine a group ofView components into a new single component, perhaps to make something like a ComboBox (a combination of popup list and free entry text field), a dual-pane selector control (a left and right pane with a list in each where you can re-assign which item is in which list), and so on.  You could override the way that an EditText component is rendered on the screen with some special features. Such as having lines like notepad.  You could capture other events like key presses and handle them in some custom way (such as for a game).
  7. 7. 1.4 The Basic Approach  Extend an existing View class or subclass with your own class.  Override some of the methods from the superclass.The superclass methods to override start with 'on', for example, onDraw(), onMeasure(), and onKeyDown().This is similar to the 'on…' events in Activity or ListActivity that you override for lifecycle and other functionality hooks.  Use your new extension class. Once completed, your new extension class can be used in place of the view upon which it was based.
  8. 8. Important Tips !  Extension classes can be defined as inner classes inside the activities that use them.This is useful because it controls access to them but isn't necessary (perhaps you want to create a new publicView for wider use in your application).
  9. 9. 1.5 Fully Customized Components  Fully customized components can be used to create graphical components that appear however you wish.  To create a fully customized component:  The most generic view you can extend View, so you will usually start by extending this to create your new super component.  You can supply a constructor which can take attributes and parameters from the XML, and you can also consume your own such attributes and parameters (perhaps the color and range of the VU meter, or the width and damping of the needle, etc.)  You will probably want to create your own event listeners, property accessors and modifiers, and possibly more sophisticated behavior in your component class as well.  You will almost certainly want to override onMeasure() and are also likely to need to override onDraw() if you want the component to show something.While both have default behavior, the default onDraw() will do nothing, and the default onMeasure() will always set a size of 100x100 — which is probably not what you want.  Other on... methods may also be overridden as required.
  10. 10. 1.5.1 Extend onDraw() and onMeasure()  The onDraw() method delivers you a Canvas upon which you can implement anything you want: 2D graphics, other standard or custom components, styled text, or anything else you can think of.  This does not apply to 3D graphics. If you want to use 3D graphics, you must extend SurfaceView instead ofView, and draw from a separate thread. (An important fact!)
  11. 11. 1.5.1 Extend onDraw() and onMeasure() (Contd.)  onMeasure() should be overridden to efficiently and accurately report the measurements of its contained parts.  This is made slightly more complex by the requirements of limits from the parent (which are passed in to the onMeasure() method) and by the requirement to call the setMeasuredDimension() method with the measured width and height once they have been calculated.  If you fail to call this method from an overridden onMeasure() method, the result will be an exception at measurement time.  The detail of onMeasure() method is given in the next slide.
  12. 12. 1.5.1 Extend onDraw() and onMeasure() (Contd.)  The overridden onMeasure() method is called with width and height measure specifications (widthMeasureSpec and heightMeasureSpec parameters, both are integer codes representing dimensions) which should be treated as requirements for the restrictions on the width and height measurements you should produce.  Your component's onMeasure() method should calculate a measurement width and height which will be required to render the component. It should try to stay within the specifications passed in, although it can choose to exceed them (in this case, the parent can choose what to do, including clipping, scrolling, throwing an exception, or asking the onMeasure() to try again, perhaps with different measurement specifications).  Once the width and height are calculated, the setMeasuredDimension(int width, int height) method must be called with the calculated measurements. Failure to do this will result in an exception being thrown.
  13. 13. 1.6 Framework Summary Category Methods Description Creation Constructors There is a form of the constructor that are called when the view is created from code and a form that is called when the view is inflated from a layout file.The second form should parse and apply any attributes defined in the layout file. onFinishInflate() Called after a view and all of its children has been inflated from XML. Layout onMeasure(int, int) Called to determine the size requirements for this view and all of its children. onLayout(boolean,int, int, int, int) Called when this view should assign a size and position to all of its children. onSizeChanged(int, int, int, int) Called when the size of this view has changed.
  14. 14. 1.6 Framework Summary (Contd.) Category Methods Description Drawing onDraw(Canvas) Called when the view should render its content. Event processing onKeyDown(int, KeyEvent) Called when a new key event occurs. onKeyUp(int, KeyEvent) Called when a key up event occurs. onTrackballEvent(MotionEvent) Called when a trackball motion event occurs. onTouchEvent(MotionEvent) Called when a touch screen motion event occurs. Focus onFocusChanged(boolean, int, Rect) Called when the view gains or loses focus. onWindowFocusChanged(boolean) Called when the window containing the view gains or loses focus. Attaching onAttachedToWindow() Called when the view is attached to a window. onDetachedFromWindow() Called when the view is detached from its window. onWindowVisibilityChanged(int) Called when the visibility of the window containing the view has changed.
  15. 15. 1.7 Modifying an Existing View Type  In this section, adding some features in a EditText will be discussed.  To accomplish this, we need to do the things described below.  The Definition  Class Initialization  Overridden Methods  Use the Custom Component  These steps will be described in the following slides.
  16. 16. 1.7.1 The Definition  The class is defined with the following line:  public class NumberView extends EditText implements OnClickListener, OnLongClickListener, OnTouchListener  It extends EditText, which is theView we have chosen to customize in this case.When we are finished, the new class will be able to substitute for a normal EditText view.  As we going to implement OnClickListener, OnLongClickListener, OnTouchListener, we will be able to override some existing methods to fulfill our purposes.  In this example we are going to override onTouch() method.  The main purpose of overriding this method is to provide an custom EditText, in which when user touches, no default keyboard will pop out.  Another important purpose is to provide a user facility to move cursor position proper with user’s touch event.
  17. 17. 1.7.2 Class Initialization  As always, the super is called first. Furthermore, this is not a default constructor, but a parameterized one.  The EditText is created with these parameters when it is inflated from an XML layout file, thus, our constructor needs to both take them and pass them to the superclass constructor as well.  Our implemented code segment is given below. public NumberView(Context context,AttributeSet attrs, int defStyle) { super(context, attrs, defStyle); setListeners(); c = context; }
  18. 18. 1.7.2 Class Initialization (Contd.) public NumberView(Context context,AttributeSet attrs) { super(context, attrs); setListeners(); c = context; } public NumberView(Context context) { super(context); setListeners(); //TODOAuto-generated constructor stub }
  19. 19. 1.7.3 Overridden Methods  Here we are only describing the overriding of onTouch method. @Override public boolean onTouch(View v, MotionEvent event) { Layout layout = getLayout(); float x = event.getX() + getScrollX(); float y = event.getY() + getScrollY(); int line = layout.getLineForVertical((int) y); int offset = layout.getOffsetForHorizontal( line, x); setSelection(offset); //moving the cursor position on user touch hideSoftKey(); return true; }
  20. 20. 1.7.3 Overridden Methods (Contd.)  Here is the implementation of hideSoftKey() method. private void hideSoftKey() { InputMethodManager imm = (InputMethodManager) c.getSystemService(Context.INPUT_METHOD_SERVICE); imm.hideSoftInputFromWindow(getWindowToken(), 0); }
  21. 21. Question-Answer   Question: What is the difference between returning true and false in the overridden onTouch() method?  Answer: Return true if the listener has consumed the event, false otherwise. To be more specific, Returning true means that other views that also having a touchlistener will not get this event for handling. If you return false the event will be passed to parent views for handling.  21
  22. 22. 1.7.4 Use the Custom Component  We can add our custom EditText in the layout file that can be found under res/layout folder.The code segment is given below. <view class="com.example.androidcustomview.NumberView" android:id="@+id/yourGivenID" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:padding="10dip" android:scrollbars="vertical" android:fadingEdge="vertical" />
  23. 23. 1.7.4 Use the Custom Component (Contd.)
  24. 24. 2. Creating Custom Views Source: http://developer.android.com/training/custom-views/index.html
  25. 25. 2.1 Creating a View Class  A well-designed custom view is much like any other well-designed class. It encapsulates a specific set of functionality with an easy to use interface, it uses CPU and memory efficiently, and so forth. In addition to being a well-designed class, though, a custom view should:  Conform toAndroid standards  Provide custom styleable attributes that work withAndroid XML layouts  Send accessibility events  Be compatible with multipleAndroid platforms.
  26. 26. 2.1.1 Subclass a View  All of the view classes defined in theAndroid framework extend View  Your custom view can also extend View directly, or you can save time by extending one of the existing view subclasses, such as Button.  To allow the Android DeveloperTools to interact with your view, you must provide a constructor that takes a Context and an AttributeSet object as parameters.  This constructor allows the layout editor to create and edit an instance of your view. class PieChart extendsView { public PieChart(Context context,AttributeSet attrs) { super(context, attrs); } }
  27. 27. 2.1.2 Define Custom Attributes  To add a built-in View to your user interface, you specify it in an XML element and control its appearance and behavior with element attributes.  Well-written custom views can also be added and styled via XML.  To enable this behavior in your custom view, you must:  Define custom attributes for your view in a <declare-styleable> resource element  Specify values for the attributes in your XML layout  Retrieve attribute values at runtime  Apply the retrieved attribute values to your view  In this section you will be able to learn how to define custom attributes and specify their values.
  28. 28. 2.1.2 Define Custom Attributes (Contd.)  To define custom attributes, add <declare-styleable> resources to your project. It is customary to put these resources into a res/values/attrs.xml file. Here is an example of an attrs.xml file: <resources> <declare-styleable name="PieChart"> <attr name="showText" format="boolean"/> <attr name="labelPosition" format="enum"> <enum name="left" value="0"/> <enum name="right" value="1"/> </attr> </declare-styleable> </resources>  This code declares two custom attributes, showText and labelPosition, that belong to a styleable entity named PieChart.  The name of the styleable entity is, by convention, the same name as the name of the class that defines the custom view. (An important fact!)
  29. 29. 2.1.2 Define Custom Attributes (Contd.)  Once you define the custom attributes, you can use them in layout XML files just like built-in attributes.  The only difference is that your custom attributes belong to a different namespace.  Instead of belonging to the http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android namespace, they belong to http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/[your package name].  For example, here's how to use the attributes defined for PieChart: <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android" xmlns:custom="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/com.example.customviews"> <com.example.customviews.charting.PieChart custom:showText="true" custom:labelPosition="left" /> </LinearLayout>
  30. 30. 2.1.3 Apply Custom Attributes  When a view is created from an XML layout, all of the attributes in the XML tag are read from the resource bundle and passed into the view's constructor as an AttributeSet. Although it's possible to read values from the AttributeSet directly, doing so has some disadvantages:  Resource references within attribute values are not resolved  Styles are not applied  Instead, pass the AttributeSet to obtainStyledAttributes().This method passes back a TypedArray array of values that have already been dereferenced and styled.  TheAndroid resource compiler does a lot of work for you to make calling obtainStyledAttributes() easier. For each <declare-styleable> resource in the res directory, the generated R.java defines both an array of attribute ids and a set of constants that define the index for each attribute in the array.You use the predefined constants to read the attributes from the TypedArray.
  31. 31. 2.1.3 Apply Custom Attributes (Contd.)  Here is how the PieChart class reads its attributes: public PieChart(Context context,AttributeSet attrs) { super(context, attrs); TypedArray a = context.getTheme().obtainStyledAttributes(attrs,R.styleable.PieChart,0, 0); try { mShowText = a.getBoolean(R.styleable.PieChart_showText, false); mTextPos = a.getInteger(R.styleable.PieChart_labelPosition, 0); } finally { a.recycle(); } }  Note that TypedArray objects are a shared resource and must be recycled after use.(An important fact!)
  32. 32. 2.1.4 Add Properties and Events  Attributes can only be read when the view is initialized.  To provide dynamic behavior, expose a property getter and setter pair for each custom attribute.  The following snippet shows how PieChart exposes a property called showText: public boolean isShowText() { return mShowText; } public void setShowText(boolean showText) { mShowText = showText; invalidate(); requestLayout(); }  Calling to the methods invalidate() and requestLayout() are crucial to ensure that the view behaves reliably. (Why? Please see the next slide!)
  33. 33. 2.1.4 Add Properties and Events (Contd.)  You have to invalidate the view after any change to its properties that might change its appearance, so that the system knows that it needs to be redrawn. Likewise, you need to request a new layout if a property changes that might affect the size or shape of the view.  Forgetting these method calls can cause hard-to-find bugs.
  34. 34. Related Topics  For further read, please visit the following links given below.  Custom Drawing Source: http://developer.android.com/training/custom-views/custom-drawing.html  Making theView Interactive Source: http://developer.android.com/training/custom-views/making-interactive.html  Optimizing theView Source: http://developer.android.com/training/custom-views/optimizing-view.html
  35. 35. ThankYou.

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