1. Introduction to Psychology
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2. What isPsychology?
Psychology is defined as the scientific
study of behavior and mental
Behavior includes all of our outward or
overt actions and reactions, such as
verbal and facial expressions and
Mental processes refer to all the internal
and covert activity of our mind such as
thinking, feeling and remembering.
3. Why Psychology IsaScience?
Psychology uses scientific method
Psychology is factual
The laws of psychology are universal
The laws of psychology are verifiable
Psychology discover the cause effect
Psychology predict behavior
4. Importance and Scope ofPsychology
Allows us to learn about others
Better understanding of emotions
In short, psychology plays an
important role in every aspect of human
5. Goal of Psychology
The first goal of psychology is to
describe how humans and animals
behave in different situations.
Through continued observation we
can define what kind of behavior is
considered normal or healthy and
what may be deemed as abnormal or
Once a particular behavior is defined,
they need to be expanded upon so
that people can understand why a
person acts or reacts in a certain
way. They have to consider which
factors trigger certain behavior, as
well as formulate certain theories
which will help explain the same.
Once a psychologist understands why a
person acts in a certain way and under
what circumstances, he is able to predict
when this behavior might emerge in the
future. Being able to correctly predict
occurrences of certain behavior is very
important, as with this understanding,
models can be developed to encourage
The final goal of psychology is to control or
modify certain types of behavior based on
observation. Researchers take cue from
what they have observed and predicted to
rectify orimprove someone's behavior.
Goal of Psychology
7. Key IssuesofPsychology
Nature vs. Nurture
How much of a person's behavior is
hereditary and how much is from how
they were raised. Certain characteristics
shaped by one or the other
8. Conscious vs.
How much of our behavior is produced by forces of
which we are fully aware, and how much is due to
unconscious activity, mental processes that are not
accessible to the conscious mind.
9. Scope of Psychology
Scope of psychology is vast and
scientific study of following:
Social influence and interaction
Love, romance and attraction
Judgment and decision making
Anything related to mind, emotions,
perception, behavior and society etc.
comes under the scope of psychology.
11. Key IssuesinPsychology
Free will vsdeterminism
How much of our behavior is a matter of choices made freely by
an individual and how much is subject to the notion that behavior
is largely produced by factors beyond people's willful control.
13. Branches OfPsychology
branch of psychology
deals with scientific ways
of handling psychological
This branch of psychology
problems in the workplace
through the application of
also called organizational
Educational psychology is
the scientific study of
human behavior in an
educational setting and,
as such, it deals withissues
such as learning disorders,
14. Branches ofPsychology
work to understand the
underlying causes of
behavior by studying
humans and animals.They
work mainly in a
psychology is a branch of
psychology that attempts
to explain the
development of humans
The application of
psychology to law
making, law enforcement,
the examination of
witnesses, and the
treatment of the criminalis
the job of the forensic
Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Behavior includes all of our outward or overt actions and reactions, such as
talking, facial expressions and movement.
Mental processes refer to all the internal, covert activity of our minds such as
thinking feeling and remembering.
In psychology, there are four goals that aim at uncovering the mysteries of
human and animal behavior
Description: what is happening?
Explanation: why is it happening?
Prediction : when will ithappen again?
Control : how can itbe changed?
Inthedefinitionofpsychology, behavior means
d)only human behavior
A psychologist isinterestedinwhata particular personmightdo ina
stressfulsituation.Thispsychologist ismostinterestedinthegoal of
Whichof thefollowingisthebestexample of covert behavior?
a)blinking inresponsetoa light
d)rapid eye movement
17. WHICHOF THEFOLLOWINGBEHAVIORSCAN BESTBEDESCRIBEDASOVERTBEHAVIOR?
a) watching a TVgameshow
b)thinking about the answer toa contestant'squestion c)being
sad thatthecontestant answered incorrectly d)wondering if
thereare any frozenwafflesleft inthe freezer
a)anything a person does.
b)only thosethingsa person does which you can see. c)only
thosethingswhich can be recorded by a camera.
d)only thosethingswhich a person can see withhis/hersenses
DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGISTSSTUDY THEEFFECTSOF ON BEHAVIOR.
18. APPROACHES TO PSYCHOLOGY
There are many different theories and models within
psychology which try to explain our behavior, emotion and
thoughts. Each theory contributes something different and
increases our understanding.
These approaches are not mutually exclusive; rather they
tend to focus on different aspects of a complex problem.
There is no ‘’right’’ or “wrong” approach to the study of
Most psychologist take an eclectic viewpoint.
20. Mostofhisexperiments wereon sensation and
He used themethod of Introspection.
Thiswasthefirstattemptby anyone tobring
objectivity and measurementtotheconcept of
THEPROCESS OF OBJECTIVELY EXAMINING
AND MEASURING ONES’S OWN
THOUGHTS AND MENTALACTIVITIES
21. Titchener and StructuralisminAmerica
One of Wundt's students was Edward Titchener.
Titchener expanded on Wundt's originalideas,
calling his new view point structuralism.
Titchener also believed that the introspection
method could be used on thoughts as it was on
Structuralism was a dominant force in the early
days of Psychology but eventually died out in the
22. Functionalism (WilliamJames)
Harvard University was the firstschool in America to offer
classes in Psychology in the late 1870s.
These classes were taught by William James.
He wrote a comprehensive textbook on the subject,
Principles of Psychology.
Unlike Wundt and Titchener, James believed that trying to
study consciousness is like trying to study the wind.
Instead, James focus on how the mind allows people to
function in the real world how people work ,play, and adopt
to their surroundings.
Gestalt psychology is a school of thought that looks at human
mind and behavior as a whole.
This approach to psychology began in Germany and Austria
during the late 19thcentury in response to the structuralism.
Instead of breaking down thoughts and behavior to their smallest
elements, the gestalt psychologist believed that you mustlook
at the whole of experiences.
According to the gestalt thinkers, the whole is greater than the sum
of its parts.
Founders: Max Wertheimer , KurtKofka ,Kohler
Psychoanalysis is a school of psychology founded by Sigmund
Thisschool of thought emphasized the influence of the
unconscious mind on behavior.
Psychoanalytic concepts are based on extensive case studies of
individual patients rather than on experimental studies.
Psychoanalysis focuses on unconscious mental activities.
According to Freud, much of the individual’s observable
behavior is influenced by wishes, desires or fears which the
individual has learned to suppress because they are not socially
27. Freud believed that human mind composed of three
Id, Ego and Super Ego
Freud believed that the interaction of these three
elements was what led to all of the complex human
Other major psychoanalytic thinkers include:
Anna Freud, Carl Jung Erik Erikson
Behaviorism became a dominant school of thought during
Itwas based upon the work of thinkers such as
John B. Watson , Ivan Pavlov B.F. Skinner
Behaviorism suggest that all behavior can be explained by
environmental process rather than by internal forces.
Behaviorism is focused on observable behavior.
We respond to stimuli with our behavior, not thoughts.
30. Psychodynamic Perspective
Freud’s theory is still used by many professionals in therapy
situations. Itis far less common today than it was a few
decades ago, however, and even those who use his
techniques modify them for contemporary use.
Inthe more modern psychodynamic perspective, the focus may
still include the unconscious mind and itsinfluence over
conscious behavior and on early childhood experiences, but
with less of an emphasis on sex and sexual motivations and
more emphasis on the development of a sense of self, social
and interpersonal relationships, and the discovery of other
motivations behind a person’s behavior.
Like modern psychodynamic perspectives, behaviorism isstillalso very
B.F.Skinner became the new leader of the field.
Skinner not only continued research in classical conditioning, but he also
developed a theory called operant conditioning, to explain howvoluntary
behavior islearned (Skinner, 1938).Inthistheory, behavioral responses that
are followed by pleasurable consequences are strengthened, or reinforced
Thisapproach claims thatpeople as well as theiractions and problems,
can be understood by observing theirbehavior.
Focuses only on observable behavior while putting feeling to the side.
Behavior isthe resultof learned associations between stimuliand
responses to them.
Themain theories are of classical and operant conditioning.
Humanism wasreally a reaction to both psychoanalytic theory and
Humanistsheld the view that people have free will, the freedom to
choose theirown destiny, and striveforself-actualization, the
achievement of one’s full potential.
Twoof the earliest and mostfamous founders of thisview were
Abraham Maslow (1908–1970)and Carl Rogers(1902–1987).
this approach is person-centered.
Today, humanismexists as a formof psychotherapy aimed at self-
understanding and self-improvement.
33. Biopsychological Perspective
Inthe biopsychological perspective, human and animal
behavior is seen as a direct result of events in the body.
Hormones, heredity, brain chemicals, tumors, and diseases are
some of the biological causes of behavior and mental events.
Some of the topics researched by biopsychologists include sleep,
emotions, aggression, sexual behavior, and learning and
memory—as well as disorders.
study the relationship between psychological events (what
happens in the mind) and biological events (what happens in the
Drug can bring change to behavior.
Thecognitive approach developed largely as a reaction to the behavioral
Cognitive psychologists argue that individuals do not passively respond to stimuli,
but actively process information in their brain before responding to the information.
Focuses on how people think, remember, store, and use information.
They are interested in what happens in the mind between the stimulusand the
They look at topics such as perception, memory, thought, language and
Withinthe cognitive perspective, the relatively new field of cognitive
neuroscience includes the study of the physical workings of the brain and
nervous system when engaged in memory, thinking, and other cognitive
Another modern perspective in psychology isthe sociocultural perspective, which
actually combines twoareas of study: social psychology, which is the study of
groups, social roles, and rules of social actions and relationships; and cultural
psychology, which isthe study of cultural norms,*values, and expectations.
These twoareas are related in that they are both about the effect that people have on
one another, either individually or in a larger group such as a culture (Peplau &
Psychological approach that emphasizes social and cultural forces outside the
Behavior is explained by the influence of other people present, culture, cultural
Stresses the importance of social interaction, communication and instruction in
36. Russianpsychologist LevVygotsky (1978)also used sociocultural
concepts informinghissociocultural theory of children’s cognitive
Thesociocultural perspective isimportantbecause itreminds people
thatthe way they and othersbehave (oreven think)isinfluenced not
only by whether they are alone, withfriends, ina crowd, orpart of a
group but also by the social norms,class differences, and ethnic
identity concerns of the particular culture inwhich they live.
Cross-cultural research also fitswithinthisperspective. Incross-cultural
research, the contrasts and comparisons of a behavior orissueare
studied inat least twoormore cultures.
Theevolutionary perspective focuses on the biological bases for
universal mental characteristics that all humans share.
evolutionary psychologists studythe evolutionary origins of human
Forexample: human behavior of not eating substances that have a bitter
taste (such as poisonous plants) as an adaptive* behavior that evolved as
early humans came into contact withsuch bitter plants. Thosewhoate the
bitter plants would die, while those whospitthem out survived to pass on
their“I-don’t-like-this-taste” genes to their offspring, who would pass on the
genes to theiroffspring, and so on, untilafter a long period of time there isan
entire population of humans that naturally avoids bitter-tasting substances
38. Eclectic Approach
No one perspective has all the answers. Some
perspectives are more scientific (e.g., behavioral
and cognitive) while others are based more in
thinking about human behavior (e.g.,
psychodynamic and humanistic). Some, like
sociocultural, biopsychological, and
evolutionary perspectives, are related to each
other. Psychologists will often take an eclectic
perspective—one that uses the “bits and pieces”
of several perspectives that seem to best fit a
An Eclectic Perspective inpsychotherapy is
one thatcombines aspects of twoormore
differentapproaches to meet the needs of a
client. Forexample, an eclectic therapist
mightuse techniques frompsychodynamic
therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and
dialectal behavioral therapy, depending on
whatworksbest fora particular client.
39. Why studying psychology isimportant
in business management ?
It will help you understand human behavior and mental
processes and allow you to better understand how we
think act and feel.
It allows people to understand more about how the body
and mind work together. This knowledge can help with
decision-making and avoiding stressful situations.
It can promotes self awareness.
It helps to understand the behavior of people.