Media texts are not fortunate accidents,
usually profit is the motive for producing
Films are distributed by 6 major conglomerates.
1: Time Warner
2: News Corporation
4: Vivendi Universal
5: CBS Corporation
When one company owns a number of smaller companies
varying a number of different types of media.
Domination by a small number of media companies.
What are the problems with this. News?
Too much Power?
Pushing ideology and the American dream giving the
public a false view.
4. Horizontal integration
Horizontal integration involves the
acquisition of competitors in the same
section of the industry.
(ITV used to be more regional separate
companies - merges from carlton and
Government can intervene to stop one company
owning too much of a particular market.
5. Vertical Integration
Vertical Integration is when companies want to control the three main areas -
production, distribution, exhibition. This company would have ownership over
every stage of the production process.
News Corporation/Fox News.
Fox Entertainment produces, develops and distributes television and film
programming through Fox Film Entertainment and Twentieth Century Fox.
Fox TV/Fox News in the USA and owns parts of smaller cable channels
Owned further by News Corporation.
A film produced by Twentieth Century Fox can be shown in Fox owned
cinemas, publicized in News Corp newspapers, then shown on Fox owned TV
The License fee increase, the fee could be up
to 186.89 in 2013.
‘Why is the BBC paying for the
Should there be a consideration based on
Do the public want any changes?
...’One of the only British institutions that
7. British TV
The era of scarcity
The era of availability
The era of plenty
PSB as a ‘broadcasting ideology’ -
representing a set of values about what TV
8. Commercial TV
ITV broke the BBC’s monopoly and
Why is it important for there to be
Channel 4 brought independent production
to the PSB.
Information rich, information poor?
9. TV in the U.S.
American Tv has primarily been governed by
commercial concerns rather than to commitment of
Programme forms established in 50’s
Tv set, a symbol of new domestic order.
Major networks are part of a huge conglomerate.
ABC, disney owned. NBC, General Electric.
10. American TV
American Tv is culturally dominant on a
American TV networks have a way of
syndicating shows on a global basis,
whereby cost is dependent on the ability to
As such, TV has become a major plank in
debates about Americanisation
11. British Film Industry
Definition is cultural and legislation-al.
‘In the shadow of Hollywood’
Funding - UK Film Council,
Broadcasters such as Channel 4 and the
BBC, investment schemes and foreign
Stereotypes: Gritty - realist, Heritage,
Rom Com, Gangster film.
It’s important to know who holds
ownership over the media we consume.
Who is deciding what we watch, who we
watch, which parts of the news we are
shown and which parts we aren’t.
13. Institution CMT
Who produced, distributed, exhibited.
(Across all three platforms)
Which channel was your A/V text aired on
Worldwide(If American Tv, don’t just put
channel 4 for Ugly Betty etc)
How are the Institutions financed and
controlled. (Across all three platforms)
How have the institutions developed.
(Across all three platforms)