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CMR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
PRESENTATION BY: N.NATESH(12H51A0142)
• DEFINITION OF FORMWORK
• REQUIREMENTS OF A GOOD FORMWORK
• CATEGORIES OF FORMWORK
• TYPES OF FORMWORK
• PROCESS OF FORMWORK CONSTRUCTION
• FAILURE OF FORMWORK
• SAFETY PRECAUTION
DEFINITION OF FORMWORK
Formwork is a mould or open box, like container into
which fresh concrete is poured and compacted.
When the concrete is set, the formwork is removed and
a solid mass is produced in the shape of the inner face of
It should be capable of carrying all imposed dead and
live loads apart from its own weight.
REQUIREMENTS OF A GOOD FORMWORK
Materials should be cheap and reusable.
Swelling and shrinkage should be minimum .
Surface should be smooth, and afford easy stripping.
Light in weight, so that easy to transfer.
It should be practically water proof, so that it should not absorb
water from concrete.
The material of formwork should not warp or get distorted when
exposed to the elements.
The joints in the formwork should be tight against leakage of
Deflection should be minimum.
CATEGORIES OF FORMWORK
CONVENTIONAL: The formwork is built on site out of timber or moisture-
resistant particle board. It is easy to produce but time-consuming for larger
structures, and the plywood facing has a relatively short lifespan. It is still used
extensively where the labour costs are lower than the costs for procuring
MODERN-DAY FORMWORK: This formwork system are mostly
modular, which are designed for speed and efficiency. The main
types of formwork systems in used now are
Table form/flying formwork
System column formwork
ENGINEERED/PRE-FABRICATED FORMWORK: This formwork is
built out of prefabricated modules with a metal frame (usually steel
or aluminium) and covered on the application (concrete) side with
material having the wanted surface structure (steel, aluminium,
Major objectives considered in formwork
Forms must be designed and built with sufficient
stiffness and accuracy so that the size, shape, position, and
finish of the cast concrete are maintained.
Forms must be built sufficient strength and factor of
safety so that they have the capable of all supporting
Forms must be built efficiently, minimizing time and
Most common material used for
bracing the member, hence called
as the traditional formwork.
Can easily be cut to size on site.
ADVANTAGES OF TIMBER FORMWORK:
Easy handling because its light weight.
Easy to disassemble.
Damaged parts can be replaced with new one.
It has good thermal insulation which makes it
useful to be used in colder regions.
Reduced site labour.
Can be built to exceed 60 year design life.
DISADVANTAGES OF TIMBER FORMWORK:
Can’t be used for long, have limited reuse.
If timber is dry, it will absorb moisture from wet
concrete which could weaken the resultant concrete
Timber with high moisture content (more than 20%
moisture content), wet concrete will shrink & cup
leading to open joints & leakage of grout.
Steel forms are stronger,
durable and have longer life
than timber formwork and
their reuses are more in
Steel forms can be installed
and dismantled with greater
ease and speed.
ADVANTAGES OF STEEL FORMWORK:
Very strong and able to carry loads
Easy to be fixed.
Uniform size and surface.
Can be used for more number of times.
More durable than timber formwork.
No shrinkage of formwork occurs.
DISADVANTAGES OF STEEL FORMWORK:
More expensive than wood.
Due to high weight handling is difficult.
Excessive loss of heat.
Limited size and shape.
ADVANTAGES OF PLASTIC FORMWORK:
Fungus and termites resistant.
Can be easily cut and nail by using wood working.
Damages on the formwork can be easily removed.
Very useful for complex shaped and special features.
DISADVANTAGES OF PLASTIC FORMWORK:
Expensive at first.
Load carrying capacity low.
Damage the plastic by the heat.
Aluminium is strong and light,
and consequently fewer,
supports and ties are required.
ADVANTAGES OF ALUMINIUM FORMWORK:
Monolithic crack free structures.
Doesn’t require timber or plywood for construction
Casting of walls and slabs possible simultaneously.
Doesn’t required skilled labour.
DISADVANTAGES OF ALUMINIUM FORMWORK:
Architectural changes are not possible on the structure.
Due to the tremendous speed of construction, working
capital finance needs to the planned in advance.
PROCESS OF FORMWORK
FORMWORK FOR VARIOUS STRUCTURAL MEMBERS
FORMWORK FOR WALL
It consists of
FORMWORK FOR COLUMN
It consists of
-Side and end planks
-Nuts and bolts
Two end and two side planks are joined by
the yokes and bolts.
Erection sequence for a column:
Prior to positioning column formwork check that steel for the column has been inspected and cleared f
- Position formwork for the column from predetermined grids.
- Plumb formwork both ways and securely support using adjustable steel props.
- The propping angle should be 45° to the floor.
- Ensure the steel props are safely secured to the column formwork and
the floor, and that adjustment for pushing and pulling is operational.
- Set out the positions of column clamps from a storey rod.
- Transfer the column clamp positions from the storey rod onto column formwork.
- Use nails to support the arms of column clamps while wedging.
- Position and wedge the bottom, middle and top clamps sets.
- Check the formwork at the top for square.
- Position and wedge the remainder of the column clamps.
- Using a plumb bob suspended from a gauge block plumb the column
When all the column formwork is securely propped a final check must be ma
de for plumb and column alignment before and immediately after the
concrete has been poured and vibrated.
Formwork for staircase
Points to consider when designing
Stair formwork must support the weight
Because of the slope of the stair, some of
the force is transmitted to the sideways. All
formwork must be well tied together to
prevent sideway movement.
Erection sequence for a beam:
Marking out and setting height for formwork
Assemble and position props, adjustable head jacks, formworks,
bearers and spreaders.
Construct and erect sidewalls and beam soffit.
Position of sole plates.
“DESHUTTERING” means the process of removing the shuttering.
Order and method of removing formwork:
Shuttering forming vertical faces of walls, beams
and columns should be removed first. Shuttering
forming soffit to slab should be removed next.
Shuttering forming soffit to beams or other
heavy loaded members should be removed in the
Time of removal of formwork:
No Structural Member
(Ordinary Portland Cement)
1 Beam sides, walls & Columns 2-3 Days 2 Days
2 Slab (Vertical Supports remains intact) 4 Days 3 Days
3 Slab (Complete Formwork removal) 10 Days 5 Days
4 Beams (Removal of Sheeting, Props
8 Days 5 Days
5 Beams & Arches (Complete formwork
removal) (up to 6 m span)
14 Days 5-8 Days
6 Beams & Arches (Complete formwork
removal) (more than 6 m span)
21 Days 8-10 Days
Cost of formwork:
For normal works formwork costs about 30-40% of
the concrete cost.
Generally some unexpected event causes one
member to fail, then others become overloaded
or misaligned and the entire formwork
Unstable soil under foundations.
Inadequate control of concrete placement.
Lack of attention of formwork details.
Inadequate cross bracing and horizontal
bracing of shores.
Movement of workers and equipment on the
Material used for the construction of formwork must fulfill the
Formwork is fixed firmly and properly.
Construction area must be protected to prevent vandalism of
Warning sign must be put up at the area where the formwork
is fixed to prevent entrance of people that may damage the
The formwork must be inspected before the concrete is poured.