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CPR2015 update: Ethical issues

AHA/ECC CPR 2015 guideline update: Part 3 Ethical Issues

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CPR2015 update: Ethical issues

  1. 1. 2015 Guidelines Update Part 3: Ethical Issues
  2. 2. ➤ หลักการด้านจริยธรรมไม่ได้มีการเปลี่ยนแปลงตั้งแต่มีการเผยแพร่ แนวทางฉบับ พ.ศ. 2553 ➤ มีการปรับปรุงข้อมูลที่รายงานการหารือด้านจริยธรรมหลายครั้งตลอด กระบวนการทบทวนหลักฐานของ ILCOR พ.ศ. 2558 ➤ ผลของแนวทางฉบับปรับปรุงของ AHA ระบุการปรับปรุงทาง วิทยาศาสตร์หลายประการซึ่งมีผลโดยนัยต่อการตัดสินใจด้าน จริยธรรมสำาหรับผู้ป่วยที่ใกล้ภาวะหัวใจหยุดทำางาน ภาวะหัวใจหยุด ทำางาน และหลังภาวะหัวใจหยุดทำางาน
  3. 3. Outlines ➤ Withholding and Withdrawing CPR (Termination of Resuscitative Efforts) Related to Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Criteria for Not Starting CPR Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in Neonatal, Pediatric, or Adult Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Use of Extracorporeal CPR for Adults With OHCA Intra-arrest Prognostic Factors for Cardiac Arrest in Infants and Children
  4. 4. Outlines ➤ Withholding and Withdrawing CPR (Termination of Resuscitative Efforts) Related to In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Criteria for Withholding and Discontinuing CPR in Newly Born Infant IHCA Use of a Prognostic Score in the Delivery Room for Preterm Infants Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in Late Preterm and Term Infants Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in Pediatric or Adult IHCA Terminating Cardiac Arrest Resuscitative Efforts in Pediatric IHCA Prognostication During CPR Prognostication After Cardiac Arrest
  5. 5. Outlines ➤ Predicting Neurologic Outcomes in Adult Patients After Cardiac Arrest Timing of Prognostication in Post–Cardiac Arrest Adults Prognostic Testing in Adult Patients After Cardiac Arrest ➤ Ethics of Organ and Tissue Donation
  6. 6. Outlines ➤ Predicting Neurologic Outcomes in Adult Patients After Cardiac Arrest Timing of Prognostication in Post–Cardiac Arrest Adults Prognostic Testing in Adult Patients After Cardiac Arrest ➤ Ethics of Organ and Tissue Donation
  7. 7. Outlines ➤ Withholding and Withdrawing CPR (Termination of Resuscitative Efforts) Related to Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Criteria for Not Starting CPR Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in Neonatal, Pediatric, or Adult Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Use of Extracorporeal CPR for Adults With OHCA Intra-arrest Prognostic Factors for Cardiac Arrest in Infants and Children
  8. 8. Criteria for Not Starting CPR ➤ Situations where attempts to perform CPR would place the rescuer at risk of serious injury or mortal peril (eg, exposure to infectious diseases). ➤ Obvious clinical signs of irreversible death (eg, rigor mortis, dependent lividity, decapitation, transection, decomposition). ➤ A valid advance directive, a Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (POLST) form (www.polst.org) indicating that resuscitation is not desired, or a valid Do Not Attempt Resuscitation (DNAR) order.
  9. 9. Outlines ➤ Withholding and Withdrawing CPR (Termination of Resuscitative Efforts) Related to Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Criteria for Not Starting CPR Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in Neonatal, Pediatric, or Adult Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Use of Extracorporeal CPR for Adults With OHCA Intra-arrest Prognostic Factors for Cardiac Arrest in Infants and Children
  10. 10. ➤ The 2010 Guidelines contain a complete discussion of clinical decision rules for terminating resuscitative efforts. Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in Neonatal or Pediatric OHCA Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in Adult OHCA - Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in a BLS Out-of-Hospital System - Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in an ALS Out-of-Hospital System
  11. 11. ➤ The 2010 Guidelines contain a complete discussion of clinical decision rules for terminating resuscitative efforts. Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in Neonatal or Pediatric OHCA Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in Adult OHCA - Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in a BLS Out-of-Hospital System - Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in an ALS Out-of-Hospital System
  12. 12. ➤ Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in Neonatal or Pediatric OHCA In the absence of clinical decision rules for the neonatal or pediatric OHCA victim. The responsible prehospital provider should follow BLS pediatric and advanced cardiovascular life support protocols and consult with real-time medical direction or transport the victim to the most appropriate facility per local directives.
  13. 13. ➤ The 2010 Guidelines contain a complete discussion of clinical decision rules for terminating resuscitative efforts. Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in Neonatal or Pediatric OHCA Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in Adult OHCA - Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in a BLS Out-of-Hospital System - Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in an ALS Out-of-Hospital System
  14. 14. ➤ The 2010 Guidelines contain a complete discussion of clinical decision rules for terminating resuscitative efforts. Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in Neonatal or Pediatric OHCA Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in Adult OHCA - Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in a BLS Out-of-Hospital System - Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in an ALS Out-of-Hospital System
  15. 15. ➤ Rescuers who start BLS should continue resuscitation until one of the following occurs: - Restoration of effective, spontaneous circulation - Care is transferred to a team providing advanced life support - The rescuer is unable to continue because of exhaustion, the presence of dangerous environmental hazards, or because continuation of the resuscitative efforts places others in jeopardy - Reliable and valid criteria indicating irreversible death are met, criteria of obvious death are identified, or criteria for termination of resuscitation are met.
  16. 16. BLS termination-of resuscitation rule for adult OHCA
  17. 17. ➤ The 2010 Guidelines contain a complete discussion of clinical decision rules for terminating resuscitative efforts. Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in Neonatal or Pediatric OHCA Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in Adult OHCA - Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in a BLS Out-of-Hospital System - Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in an ALS Out-of-Hospital System
  18. 18. ➤ The National Association of EMS Physicians (NAEMSP) suggested that resuscitative efforts could be terminated in patients who do not respond to at least 20 minutes of ALS care.
  19. 19. ALS termination-of resuscitation rule for adult OHCA
  20. 20. Outlines ➤ Withholding and Withdrawing CPR (Termination of Resuscitative Efforts) Related to Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Criteria for Not Starting CPR Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in Neonatal, Pediatric, or Adult Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Use of Extracorporeal CPR for Adults With OHCA Intra-arrest Prognostic Factors for Cardiac Arrest in Infants and Children
  21. 21. ➤2015 Recommendation—Revised In settings where it can be rapidly implemented, ECPR may be considered for select cardiac arrest patients for whom the suspected etiology of the cardiac arrest is potentially reversible during a limited period of mechanical cardiorespiratory support (Class IIb, LOE C-LD).
  22. 22. ➤ Extracorporeal CPR (ECPR)such as ECMO or cardiopulmonary bypass ➤ Reversible underlying causes of cardiac arrest Acute coronary artery occlusion Pulmonary embolism Refractory ventricular fibrillation Profound hypothermia Cardiac injury Myocarditis Cardiomyopathy Congestive heart failure Drug intoxication Or Serve as a bridge for left ventricular assist device implantation Or Cardiac transplant
  23. 23. Outlines ➤ Withholding and Withdrawing CPR (Termination of Resuscitative Efforts) Related to Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Criteria for Not Starting CPR Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in Neonatal, Pediatric, or Adult Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Use of Extracorporeal CPR for Adults With OHCA Intra-arrest Prognostic Factors for Cardiac Arrest in Infants and Children
  24. 24. ➤ 2015 Evidence Summary For infants and children with OHCA, age of less than 1 year,longer duration of cardiac arrest, and presentation with a nonshockable as opposed to a shockable rhythm are all predictors of poor patient outcome.
  25. 25. ➤2015 Recommendation—New Multiple variables should be used when attempting to prognosticate outcomes during cardiac arrest (Class I, LOE C-LD). Although there are factors associated with better or worse outcomes, no single factor that was studied predicts outcome with sufficient accuracy to recommend termination or continuation of CPR.
  26. 26. Outlines ➤ Withholding and Withdrawing CPR (Termination of Resuscitative Efforts) Related to In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Criteria for Withholding and Discontinuing CPR in Newly Born Infant IHCA Use of a Prognostic Score in the Delivery Room for Preterm Infants Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in Late Preterm and Term Infants Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in Pediatric or Adult IHCA Terminating Cardiac Arrest Resuscitative Efforts in Pediatric IHCA Prognostication During CPR Prognostication After Cardiac Arrest
  27. 27. Outlines ➤ Withholding and Withdrawing CPR (Termination of Resuscitative Efforts) Related to In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Criteria for Withholding and Discontinuing CPR in Newly Born Infant IHCA Use of a Prognostic Score in the Delivery Room for Preterm Infants Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in Late Preterm and Term Infants Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in Pediatric or Adult IHCA Terminating Cardiac Arrest Resuscitative Efforts in Pediatric IHCA Prognostication During CPR Prognostication After Cardiac Arrest
  28. 28. ➤In the 2010 Guidelines When gestational age, birth weight, or congenital anomalies are associated with almost certain early death and when unacceptably high morbidity is likely among the rare survivors, resuscitation is not indicated. Examples may include extreme prematurity (gestational age 23 weeks or birth weight 400 g), anencephaly, and some major chromosomal abnormalities such as trisomy 13 (Class IIb, LOE C).
  29. 29. Outlines ➤ Withholding and Withdrawing CPR (Termination of Resuscitative Efforts) Related to In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Criteria for Withholding and Discontinuing CPR in Newly Born Infant IHCA Use of a Prognostic Score in the Delivery Room for Preterm Infants Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in Late Preterm and Term Infants Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in Pediatric or Adult IHCA Terminating Cardiac Arrest Resuscitative Efforts in Pediatric IHCA Prognostication During CPR Prognostication After Cardiac Arrest
  30. 30. ➤ Use of a Prognostic Score in the Delivery Room for Preterm Infants —Updated The 2015 ILCOR systematic review evaluated studies about prognostic scores applied to extremely preterm infants (below 25 weeks) compared with assessment of gestational age only.
  31. 31. ➤ Use of a Prognostic Score in the Delivery Room for Preterm Infants —Updated There is no evidence to support the prospective use of any particular delivery room prognostic score presently described, over gestational age assessment alone, in preterm infants at less than 25 weeks of gestation.
  32. 32. ➤ Use of a Prognostic Score in the Delivery Room for Preterm Infants —Updated The most useful data for antenatal counseling provides outcome figures for infants alive at the onset of labor, not only for those born alive or admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit(Class IIb, LOE C-LD).
  33. 33. Outlines ➤ Withholding and Withdrawing CPR (Termination of Resuscitative Efforts) Related to In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Criteria for Withholding and Discontinuing CPR in Newly Born Infant IHCA Use of a Prognostic Score in the Delivery Room for Preterm Infants Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in Late Preterm and Term Infants Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in Pediatric or Adult IHCA Terminating Cardiac Arrest Resuscitative Efforts in Pediatric IHCA Prognostication During CPR Prognostication After Cardiac Arrest
  34. 34. ➤2015 Recommendation—Updated Infants with an Apgar score of 0 after 10 minutes of resuscitation, if the heart rate remains undetectable, it may be reasonable to stop assisted ventilation (Class IIb, LOE C-LD).
  35. 35. Outlines ➤ Withholding and Withdrawing CPR (Termination of Resuscitative Efforts) Related to In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Criteria for Withholding and Discontinuing CPR in Newly Born Infant IHCA Use of a Prognostic Score in the Delivery Room for Preterm Infants Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in Late Preterm and Term Infants Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in Pediatric or Adult IHCA Terminating Cardiac Arrest Resuscitative Efforts in Pediatric IHCA Prognostication During CPR Prognostication After Cardiac Arrest
  36. 36. ➤ Use of ECPR in IHCA To answer the question of whether outcome is changed by the use of ECPR for individuals in IHCA.
  37. 37. ➤2015 Recommendations—New In settings where it can be rapidly implemented, ECPR may be considered for select cardiac arrest patients for whom the suspected etiology of the cardiac arrest is potentially reversible during a limited period of mechanical cardiorespiratory support (Class IIb, LOE C-LD).
  38. 38. ➤2015 Recommendations—New ECPR may be considered for pediatric patients with cardiac diagnoses who have IHCA in settings with existing ECMO protocols, expertise, and equipment (Class IIb, LOE C-LD).
  39. 39. Outlines ➤ Withholding and Withdrawing CPR (Termination of Resuscitative Efforts) Related to In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Criteria for Withholding and Discontinuing CPR in Newly Born Infant IHCA Use of a Prognostic Score in the Delivery Room for Preterm Infants Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in Late Preterm and Term Infants Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in Pediatric or Adult IHCA Terminating Cardiac Arrest Resuscitative Efforts in Pediatric IHCA Prognostication During CPR Prognostication After Cardiac Arrest
  40. 40. ➤2015 Recommendations—Updated Multiple variables should be used when attempting to prognosticate outcomes during cardiac arrest (Class I, LOE C-LD). Although there are factors associated with better or worse outcomes, no single factor studied predicts outcome with sufficient accuracy to recommend termination or prolongation of CPR.
  41. 41. Outlines ➤ Withholding and Withdrawing CPR (Termination of Resuscitative Efforts) Related to In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Criteria for Withholding and Discontinuing CPR in Newly Born Infant IHCA Use of a Prognostic Score in the Delivery Room for Preterm Infants Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in Late Preterm and Term Infants Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in Pediatric or Adult IHCA Terminating Cardiac Arrest Resuscitative Efforts in Pediatric IHCA Prognostication During CPR Prognostication After Cardiac Arrest
  42. 42. ➤2015 Recommendations—New In intubated patients, failure to achieve an ETCO2 of greater than 10 mmHg by waveform capnography after 20 minutes of CPR may be considered as one component of a multimodal approach to decide when to end resuscitative efforts, but should not be used in isolation (Class IIb, LOE C-LD).
  43. 43. ➤2015 Recommendations—New In nonintubated patients, a specific ETCO2 cutoff value at any time during CPR should not be used as an indication to end resuscitative efforts (Class III: Harm, LOE C-EO).
  44. 44. Outlines ➤ Withholding and Withdrawing CPR (Termination of Resuscitative Efforts) Related to In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Criteria for Withholding and Discontinuing CPR in Newly Born Infant IHCA Use of a Prognostic Score in the Delivery Room for Preterm Infants Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in Late Preterm and Term Infants Terminating Resuscitative Efforts in Pediatric or Adult IHCA Terminating Cardiac Arrest Resuscitative Efforts in Pediatric IHCA Prognostication During CPR Prognostication After Cardiac Arrest
  45. 45. ➤2015 Recommendations—New EEGs performed within the first 7 days after pediatric cardiac arrest may be considered in prognosticating neurologic outcome at the time of hospital discharge (Class IIb, LOE C-LD) but should not be used as the sole criterion.
  46. 46. ➤2015 Recommendations—New The reliability of any 1 variable for prognostication in children after cardiac arrest has not been established. Practitioners should consider multiple factors when predicting outcomes in infants and children who achieve ROSC after cardiac arrest (Class I, LOE C-LD).
  47. 47. Outlines ➤ Predicting Neurologic Outcomes in Adult Patients After Cardiac Arrest Timing of Prognostication in Post–Cardiac Arrest Adults Prognostic Testing in Adult Patients After Cardiac Arrest ➤ Ethics of Organ and Tissue Donation
  48. 48. Outlines ➤ Predicting Neurologic Outcomes in Adult Patients After Cardiac Arrest Timing of Prognostication in Post–Cardiac Arrest Adults Prognostic Testing in Adult Patients After Cardiac Arrest ➤ Ethics of Organ and Tissue Donation
  49. 49. ➤2015 Recommendations—Updated The earliest time for prognostication in patients treated with TTM using clinical examination where sedation or paralysis could be a confounder may be 72 hours after return to normothermia (Class IIb, LOE C-EO).
  50. 50. ➤2015 Recommendations—Updated We recommend the earliest time to prognosticate a poor neurologic outcome in patients not treated with TTM using clinical examination is 72 hours after cardiac arrest (Class I, LOE B-NR).
  51. 51. ➤2015 Recommendations—Updated This time can be even longer after cardiac arrest if the residual effect of sedation or paralysis confounds the clinical examination (Class IIa, LOE C-LD).
  52. 52. Outlines ➤ Predicting Neurologic Outcomes in Adult Patients After Cardiac Arrest Timing of Prognostication in Post–Cardiac Arrest Adults Prognostic Testing in Adult Patients After Cardiac Arrest ➤ Ethics of Organ and Tissue Donation
  53. 53. ➤ 2015 Recommendations: Clinical Examination Findings—New In combination with other diagnostic tests at 72 or more hours after cardiac arrest, the presence of status myoclonus during the first 72 hours after cardiac arrest is a reasonable finding to help predict poor neurologic outcomes (FPR, 0%;95% CI, 0%–4%; Class IIa, LOE B-NR).
  54. 54. ➤ 2015 Recommendations: EEG—Updated In comatose post–cardiac arrest patients who are not treated with TTM, it may be reasonable to consider the presence of burst suppression on EEG at 72 hours or more after cardiac arrest, in combination with other predictors, to predict a poor neurologic outcome (FPR, 0%; 95% CI, 0%–11%; Class IIb, LOE B-NR).
  55. 55. Outlines ➤ Predicting Neurologic Outcomes in Adult Patients After Cardiac Arrest Timing of Prognostication in Post–Cardiac Arrest Adults Prognostic Testing in Adult Patients After Cardiac Arrest ➤ Ethics of Organ and Tissue Donation
  56. 56. ➤2015 Recommendations—Updated We recommend that all patients who are resuscitated from cardiac arrest but who subsequently progress to death or brain death be evaluated for organ donation (Class I, LOE B-NR).
  57. 57. ➤2015 Recommendations—Updated Patients who do not have ROSC after resuscitation efforts and who would otherwise have termination of efforts may be considered candidates for kidney or liver donation in settings where programs exist (Class IIb, LOE B-NR).
  58. 58. 2015 Guidelines UpdatePart 4: Systems of Care and Continuous Quality Improvement
  59. 59. Outlines ➤ Taxonomy of Systems of Care: SPSO ➤ System-specific Chains of Survival ➤ Use of Social Media to Summon Rescuers ➤ Prearrest Rapid Response Systems Early Warning Sign Systems, Rapid Response Teams, and Medical Emergency Team Systems ➤ Continuous Quality Improvement
  60. 60. Outlines ➤ Taxonomy of Systems of Care: SPSO ➤ System-specific Chains of Survival ➤ Use of Social Media to Summon Rescuers ➤ Prearrest Rapid Response Systems Early Warning Sign Systems, Rapid Response Teams, and Medical Emergency Team Systems
  61. 61. Outlines ➤ Taxonomy of Systems of Care: SPSO ➤ System-specific Chains of Survival ➤ Use of Social Media to Summon Rescuers ➤ Prearrest Rapid Response Systems Early Warning Sign Systems, Rapid Response Teams, and Medical Emergency Team Systems
  62. 62. Outlines ➤ Taxonomy of Systems of Care: SPSO ➤ System-specific Chains of Survival ➤ Use of Social Media to Summon Rescuers ➤ Prearrest Rapid Response Systems Early Warning Sign Systems, Rapid Response Teams, and Medical Emergency Team Systems
  63. 63. ➤ 2015 Recommendation—New Given the low risk of harm and the potential benefit of such notifications, it may be reasonable for communities to incorporate, where available, social media technologies that summon rescuers who are willing and able to perform CPR and are in close proximity to a suspected victim of OHCA (Class IIb, LOE B-R).
  64. 64. Outlines ➤ Taxonomy of Systems of Care: SPSO ➤ System-specific Chains of Survival ➤ Use of Social Media to Summon Rescuers ➤ Prearrest Rapid Response Systems Early Warning Sign Systems, Rapid Response Teams, and Medical Emergency Team Systems
  65. 65. ➤ 2015 Recommendations—Modified For adult patients, RRT or MET systems can be effective in reducing the incidence of cardiac arrest, particularly in general care wards (Class IIa, LOE C-LD).
  66. 66. ➤ 2015 Recommendations—Modified Pediatric MET/RRT systems may be considered in facilities where children with high-risk illnesses are cared for on general in-patient units (Class IIb, LOE C-LD). The use of EWSS may be considered for adults and children (Class IIb, LOE C-LD).
  67. 67. 2015 Guidelines UpdatePart 6: Alternative Techniques and Ancillary Devices for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
  68. 68. Outlines ➤ Impedance Threshold Device ➤ Mechanical Chest Compression Devices: Piston Device ➤ Extracorporeal Techniques and Invasive Perfusion Devices
  69. 69. Outlines ➤ Impedance Threshold Device ➤ Mechanical Chest Compression Devices: Piston Device ➤ Extracorporeal Techniques and Invasive Perfusion Devices
  70. 70. ➤ 2015 Recommendation—New The routine use of the ITD as an adjunct during conventional CPR is not recommended (Class III: No Benefit, LOE A). This Class of Recommendation, new in 2015, indicates that high quality evidence did not demonstrate benefit or harm associated with the ITD when used as an adjunct to conventional CPR.
  71. 71. Outlines ➤ Impedance Threshold Device ➤ Mechanical Chest Compression Devices: Piston Device ➤ Extracorporeal Techniques and Invasive Perfusion Devices
  72. 72. Mechanical Chest Compression Devices
  73. 73. ➤ 2015 Recommendation—New The evidence does not demonstrate a benefit with the use of mechanical piston devices for chest compressions versus manual chest compressions in patients with cardiac arrest. Manual chest compressions remain the standard of care for the treatment of cardiac arrest, but mechanical piston devices may be a reasonable alternative for use by properly trained personnel (Class IIb, LOE B-R).
  74. 74. ➤ 2015 Recommendation—New The use of mechanical piston devices may be considered in specific settings where the delivery of high-quality manual compressions may be challenging or dangerous for the provider, provided that rescuers strictly limit interruptions in CPR during deployment and removal of the devices (Class IIb, LOE C-EO).
  75. 75. Outlines ➤ Impedance Threshold Device ➤ Mechanical Chest Compression Devices: Piston Device ➤ Extracorporeal Techniques and Invasive Perfusion Devices
  76. 76. Extracorporeal CPR
  77. 77. ➤ 2015 Recommendation—New There is insufficient evidence to recommend the routine use of ECPR for patients with cardiac arrest. In settings where it can be rapidly implemented, ECPR may be considered for select patients for whom the suspected etiology of the cardiac arrest is potentially reversible during a limited period of mechanical cardiorespiratory support (Class IIb, LOE C-LD).
  78. 78. ➤ 2015 Recommendation—New Published series have used rigorous inclusion and exclusion criteria to select patients for ECPR. Although these inclusion criteria are highly variable, most included only patients aged 18 to 75 years, with arrest of cardiac origin, after conventional CPR for more than 10 minutes without ROSC. Such inclusion criteria should be considered in a provider’s selection of potential candidates for ECPR.‍
  79. 79. “The end

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