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Polysaccharides

Chemistry and significance of polysaccharides

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Polysaccharides

  1. 1. Chemistry of Polysaccharides Biochemistry for medics 1
  2. 2. Classification of carbohydrates Biochemistry for medics 2
  3. 3. Polysaccharides or glycans Biochemistry for medics 3
  4. 4. Homopoysaccharides Homo polysaccharides Fructosan Galactosan e.g. Inulin e.g. Agar Glucosans e.g. Starch Glycogen Cellulose Biochemistry for medics 4
  5. 5. Glucosans /Glucans Biochemistry for medics 5
  6. 6. Glycogen Biochemistry for medics Structure of Glycogen 6
  7. 7. 2) Starch (Storage Polysaccharide) Biochemistry for medics 7
  8. 8. Components of Starch Biochemistry for medics 8
  9. 9. StarchSuspensions of Amylosein water adopt a helical conformationIodine (I2) can insert inthe middle of the Amylosehelix to give a blue colorthat is characteristic anddiagnostic for starch Biochemistry for medics 9
  10. 10. 3) Dextrins Biochemistry for medics 10
  11. 11. 4) Dextrans Biochemistry for medics 11
  12. 12. 5) Cellulose (Structural Polysaccharide) Biochemistry for medics 12
  13. 13. CelluloseCellulose consists of β -D-glucopyranose units linked by β 1 →4bonds to form long, straight chains strengthened by cross-linkinghydrogen bonds. Biochemistry for medics 13
  14. 14. Cellulose- Digestion Biochemistry for medics 14
  15. 15. Significance of Cellulose Biochemistry for medics 15
  16. 16. Chitin- Structural Polysaccharide Biochemistry for medics 16
  17. 17. Inulin (Fructosan) Storage polysaccharide Jerusalem artichoke Biochemistry for medics 17
  18. 18. Uses of Inulin Biochemistry for medics 18
  19. 19. Agar (Galactosan) Biochemistry for medics 19
  20. 20. Heteropolysaccharides/ Mucopolysaccharides Biochemistry for medics 20
  21. 21. Occurrence: synovial fluid, ECM of loose connective tissue. Serves as a lubricant and shock absorber.Hyaluronic acid is unique among the GAGs because it does not contain any sulfate and is not found covalently attached to proteins. ItHyaluronic acid polymers are very large (100 - 10,000 kDa) and can displace a large volume of water. Specific Glycosaminoglycans of Physiological Significance Biochemistry for medics 21
  22. 22. Occurrence: cartilage, tendons, ligaments, heart valves and aorta.It is the most abundant GAG. Biochemistry for medics 22
  23. 23. Glycosaminoglycans of physiologicalSignificance Biochemistry for medics 23
  24. 24. Glycosaminoglycans of PhysiologicalSignificance Biochemistry for medics 24
  25. 25. Neutral Mucopolysaccharides Biochemistry for medics 25
  26. 26. Proteoglycans (mucoproteins) Biochemistry for medics 26
  27. 27. Proteoglycan Monomer Biochemistry for medics 27
  28. 28. Structure of Proteoglycan Monomer Biochemistry for medics 28
  29. 29. Proteoglycan Aggregates Biochemistry for medics 29
  30. 30. Proteoglycan Aggregates Biochemistry for medics 30
  31. 31. Functions of Proteoglycans Biochemistry for medics 31
  32. 32. Functions of Proteoglycans(Biophysical Contd.) Biochemistry for medics 32
  33. 33. Functions of Proteoglycans Biochemistry for medics 33
  34. 34. Summary Biochemistry for medics 34

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