1. CHAPTER 1
Almost every market that you go today, you will see people carrying their shopping items
in plastic bags. Right from food items to clothes to shoes, there is hardly any item that we do not
use a plastic bag to carry. However, before stuffing your home with different styles, colors and
shapes of plastic bags, have you every considered the dangers that are inherent in using them?
No? Then, you should know the facts about the dangers of plastics. Plastic bags damage the
environment in many ways and the process of creating the plastic also uses petroleum and
natural gas to operate. Both petroleum and natural gas are nonrenewable resources, and
worldwide supplies of them are dwindling. Shipping the raw materials to the factory and
shipping plastic bags away from the factory also use petroleum, which creates greenhouse gases
when burned. They do not biodegrade when thrown out. A plastic bag may stay in a landfill for
decades or even centuries. Plastic bags that are not buried in a landfill may escape into the
environment, where they become litter and may injure fish or other wildlife that mistake them for
food. Finally, plastic bags hold less than paper or reusable bags, making them inefficient for
2. Plastic needs about 450 years just to start decomposing and it takes another 50-80 years
to decompose completely which that means that every single produced piece of plastic has not
decomposed yet. Another interesting fact about plastics and your money is that 90% of the price
you pay for the bottled water goes to the plastic bottle, while the water cost you only 10% of the
money you give. Besides that, 24 million gallons of oil are needed one producing of billion
plastic bottles and only 25 recycled bottles are enough to make one adult’s fleece jacket.
Recycling a single plastic bottle can conserve enough energy to light a 60W bulb for up to 6
hours and it can also save up to 2/3 of the needed energy for producing plastic from raw
materials. Surveys show that more than 90 percent of consumers reuse their plastic bags at least
once for things like wastebasket lines or lunch totes. Bottling and shipping water is the least
energy efficient method ever used to supply water. Unfortunately, it remains the most popular
3. 1.2 Research objective
The objective of this research is to investigate the awareness of KMNS’s students about plastic
usage and its disadvantages.
4. 1.3 Research questions
1. Are the students in KMNS aware about plastic usage and its negative effects?
2. Do the students realized the alternative ways other than using plastic bags?
3. What is the habits of plastic consumption among the students in KMNS?
5. 1.4 Definition of key terms
Plastics - A material consisting of very large molecules characterized by light weight, high
corrosion resistance, high strength-to-weight ratios, and low melting points. Most plastics are
easily shaped or formed.
6. CHAPTER 2
2.1 History about plastic
American and European patent applications relating to the production of plastic shopping
bags can be found dating back to the early 1950s, but these refer to composite constructions with
handles fixed to the bag in a secondary manufacturing process. The modern lightweight shopping
bag is the invention of Swedish engineer Sten Gustaf Thulin. In the early 1960s, Thulin
developed a method of forming a simple one-piece bag by folding, welding and die-cutting a flat
tube of plastic for the packaging company Celloplast of Norrköping, Sweden. Thulin's design
produced a simple, strong bag with a high load-carrying capacity, and was patented worldwide
by Celloplast in 1965.
Celloplast was a well-established producer of cellulose film and a pioneer in plastics
processing. The company's patent position gave it a virtual monopoly on plastic shopping bag
production, and the company set up manufacturing plants across Europe and in the US.
However, other companies saw the attraction of the bag, too, and the
US petrochemicals group Mobil overturned Celloplast's US patent in 1977.
The Dixie Bag Company of College Park, Georgia, owned and operated by Jack W.
McBride, was one of the first companies to exploit this new opportunity to bring convenient
products to all major shopping stores. The Dixie Bag Company, along with similar firms such as
7. Houston Poly Bag and Capitol Poly, was instrumental in the manufacturing, marketing and
perfecting of plastic bags in the 1980s.Kroger, a Cincinnati-based grocery chain, began to
replace its paper shopping bags with plastic bags in 1982, and was soon followed by its
Without its plastic bag monopoly, Celloplast's business went into decline, and the
company was split up during the 1990s. The Norrköping site remains a plastics production site,
however, and is now the headquarters of Miljösäck, a manufacturer of waste sacks manufactured
from recycled polyethylene.
From the mid-1980s onwards, plastic bags became common for carrying daily groceries
from the store to vehicles and homes throughout the developed world. As plastic bags
increasingly replaced paper bags, and as other plastic materials and products replaced glass,
metal, stone, timber and other materials, a packaging materials war erupted, with plastic
shopping bags at the center of highly publicized disputes.
8. 2.2 Types of plastic bag
Plastic marked with an SPI code of 1 is made with Polyethylene Terephthalate,
which is also known as PETE or PET. Containers made from this plastic sometimes absorb
odors and flavors from foods and drinks that are stored in them. Items made from this plastic
are commonly recycled. PETE plastic is used to make many common household items like
beverage bottles, medicine jars, peanut butter jars, combs, bean bags, and rope. Recycled PETE
is used to make tote bags, carpet, fiberfill material in winter clothing, and more.
Plastic marked with an SPI code of 2 is made with High-Density Polyethylene, or HDPE. HDPE
products are very safe and they are not known to transmit any chemicals into foods or drinks.
HDPE products are commonly recycled. Items made from this plastic include containers for
milk, motor oil, shampoos and conditioners, soap bottles, detergents, and bleaches.
Many personalized toys are made from this plastic as well. (Please note: it is NEVER safe to
reuse an HDPE bottle as a food or drink container if it didn’t originally contain food or drink!)
9. Plastic labeled with an SPI code of 3 is made with Polyvinyl Chloride, or PVC. PVC
is not often recycled and it can be harmful if ingested. PVC is used for all kinds of pipes and
tiles, but it's most commonly found in plumbing pipes. This kind of plastic should not come in
contact with food items. Recycled PVC is used to make flooring, mobile home skirting, and
Plastic marked with an SPI code of 4 is made with Low-Density Polyethylene, or LDPE. LDPE
is not commonly recycled, but it is recyclable in certain areas. It is a very healthy plastic that
tends to be both durable and flexible. Plastic cling wrap, sandwich bags, squeezable bottles, and
plastic grocery bags are all made from LDPE. Recycled LDPE is used to make garbage cans and
10. Plastic marked with an SPI code of 5 is made with Polypropylene, or PP. PP is not commonly
recycled, but it is accepted in many areas. This type of plastic is strong and can usually
withstand higher temperatures. Among many other products, it is used to make plastic diapers,
Tupperware, margarine containers, yogurt boxes, syrup bottles, prescription bottles, and
some stadium cups. Plastic bottle caps are often made from PP as well. Recycled PP is used to
make ice scrapers, rakes, battery cables, and more.
Plastic marked with an SPI code of 6 is made with Polystyrene, also known as PS and most
commonly known as Styrofoam. It is commonly recycled, but it is difficult to do so and often
ends up in landfills anyway. Disposable coffee cups, plastic food boxes, plastic cutlery, packing
foam, and packing peanuts are made from PS. Recycled PS is used to make insulation, license
plate frames, rulers, and more.