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Learning is acquiring new, or modifyingexisting, knowledge, behaviors, skills, values,or preferences and may involve synthesizingdifferent types of information.The ability to learn is possessed by humans,animals and some machines?
Learning is not compulsory; itis contextual. It does nothappen all at once, but buildsupon and is shaped by whatwe already know.“ Rome was not built in a day”
Human learning may occur as partof education, personaldevelopment, schooling, or training. Itmay be goal-oriented and may be aidedby motivationThe study of how learning occurs is partof neuropsychology, educationalpsychology, learningtheory, and pedagogy.
In psychology and education a commondefinition of learning is a process thatbrings together cognitive, emotional,and environmental influences andexperiences for acquiring, enhancing, or making changes in ones knowledge,skills, values, and world views(Illeris, 2004; Ormrod, 1995)
“Anyone who stops learning is old, whether attwenty or eighty. Anyone who keeps learningstays young. The greatest thing in life is tokeep your mind young”. Henry Ford
Learning Vs Knowledge• Learning is acquired through formal institutions like school, colleges and universities, whereas knowledge is gained from the real life experiences.• Hence education is a process of gaining knowledge for some useful application whereas knowledge is facts acquired from good education, peers, consultations and extensive reading.
Learning Vs Knowledge• Another difference between the two is that education is taught by the teachers to the students while knowledge is gained by itself or is self driven.• Education is a process of learning and one comes to know various facts, ideas and theories. While on other hand knowledge is the application of these facts and theories.
Learning Vs Knowledge• Education has a predefined set of rules, regulations and curriculum whereas knowledge has no such boundaries. It can come from teacher, parents, friends, painful moments of life, joyous moments, children etc. Hence it is not taught but acquired by self efforts.
• Early childhood development is defined as “a set of concepts, principles, and facts that explain, describe and account for the processes involved in change from immature to mature status and functioning” (Katz, 1996, p. 137).
Development is generally divided into three broad categories :Physical development Addresses any change in the body, including how children grow, how they move, and how they perceive their environment.
Development is generally divided into three broad categories:Cognitive development Pertains to the mental processes (e.g., language, memory, problem solving) that children use to acquire and use knowledge
Development is generally divided into three broad categories:Emotional and Social development Addresses how children handle relationships with others, as well as understand of their own feelings.
Early childhood development is generallydivided into three age categories 6 – 8 yrs 3 – 6 yrs 0 -3 yrs
Learning that takes place: 3 – 6 yrs 6 – 8 yrs0 – 3 yrs This period of development is During the primaryThe most important factor for characterized by rapid gross years, childrens vocabularyyoung infants is security with motor development increases at a rapid pace. Inprimary caregivers. Between (e.g., jumping, hopping, skippin addition, their writtenthe ages of 9 to 18 g), refined movement of small communication skills develop.months, mobile infants are muscles for object Socially, primary-aged childrenmostly concerned with manipulation, major increases begin to understand othersexploration and between 18 in vocabulary and use of perspectives, are concernedand 36 months, the central language, abstract with fairness, and monitorfocus of development is representation of mental their own behavior. Fine motoridentity, and children start to constructs, and the development and greaterbecome more independent development of relationships reasoning and problem solving with other young children. develops.
Phases of Learning! Activating Acquiring Applying
Phases of Learning! Activating Acquiring Applying (preparing (integrating and (consolidatingfor learning) processing learning) learning)
Activating (Preparing for Learning)• One of the strongest indications of how well students comprehend new information is their prior knowledge of the subject.• Some educators observe that more student learning occurs during this phase than at any other time.• In planning instruction and assessment, teachers develop activities and select strategies for activating their students’ prior knowledge.
Activating (Preparing for Learning)• Since learning is an internal process, however, facilitating learning requires more than simply presenting information.• In the acquiring phase, teachers instruct students in strategies that help them make meaning of information, integrate it with what they already know, and express their new understanding.• These strategies include: – Active listening – Reading, writing and viewing, – Exploring ideas – Arguments – Presenting
Acquiring (Integrating and ProcessingLearning)• In the second phase of learning, students engage with new information and integrate it with what they already know, adding to and revising their previous knowledge.• Part of the teacher’s role in this phase is to present new information, or to help students access it from other resources (oral, print, and other media)
Applying (Consolidating Learning)• New learning that is not reinforced is soon forgotten.• Providing students with opportunities to demonstrate and consolidate their new knowledge, skills and strategies, and attitudes is essential. Students need opportunities to reflect on what they have learned and to consider how new learning applies to new situations.• To ensure that students consolidate new learning, teachers plan various activities involving – Reflection – Learning logs – Sharing of ideas – Debriefing on performances
• - Knowing is not enough; we must apply. Willing is not enough we must do – J. Goethe• - Learning is not a spectator sport – D. Blocher• - I never teach my pupils; I only attempt to provide the conditions in which they can learn – A. Einstein
I cannotteachanybodyanything, Ican onlymake themthink !Socrates
SRUOY YLERECNISYOURS SINCERELYLearning gives direction and meaning tothe unknown – ultimately to LIFE!
I am told and I forget.I see and I remember.I do and I understand. Chinese proverb.