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Habits that Knowledge workers need to cultivate

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Synthesis of ideas from Pink's whole new mind and Gardner's Five minds for the future

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Habits that Knowledge workers need to cultivate

  1. 1. K6201 Term Paper Nanyang Technological University Wee Kim Wee School of Communication and Information K6201-Foundations of Knowledge Management Term PaperHabits that Knowledge Workers have to cultivate: A synthesis of the ideasfrom Gardner’s Five Minds for the Future and Pink’s a Whole New Mind Instructor: Dr. Lee Chu Keong Team Members 1. Aravind Sesagiri Raamkumar G1101761F aravind1@e.ntu.edu.sg 2. Thangavelu Muthu Kumaar G1101765E muthu1@e.ntu.edu.sg 3. Venkataramanujam Kannan G1101791L kannan002@e.ntu.edu.sg Page 1 of 25
  2. 2. K6201 Term Paper Table of Contents1. Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 32. Knowledge Discovery and Rediscovery Cycle ................................................................................... 3 2.1 Thinking in a Knowledge Worker Perspective ............................................................................. 4 2.2 Process of K- Discovery ............................................................................................................... 5 2.3 K- Dimension Shift ....................................................................................................................... 6 2.4 K- Rediscovery ............................................................................................................................. 8 2.4.1 Habit Super Set Identification ................................................................................................ 8 2.4.2 Association Clustering with Pink‟s Six Senses ...................................................................... 9 2.4.3 Conceptualization with Gardner‟s Intelligence Theory ....................................................... 11 2.4.4. Internalization with Gardner‟s Five Minds ......................................................................... 12 2.4.5. Deriving K-Worker Habits.................................................................................................. 17 Core Habits to Sustain the Dimension Shift based on the Framework ............................. 193.0 Conclusion ...................................................................................................................................... 244.0 References ....................................................................................................................................... 24 [4] Jill Suttie, Jason Marsh, 2010, 5 Ways Giving Is Good for You,............................................. 245.0 Appendix ......................................................................................................................................... 25 5.1 Essay Word Cloud ...................................................................................................................... 25 Page 2 of 25
  3. 3. K6201 Term Paper1. IntroductionThe rapid modernization and digitization of the world with the technological advancements in the lastcentury have given rise to a new behavioural trend of consumers and the organizational workers, withmore emphasis on „change‟ to meet supply and demand. It is an interesting exercise to investigateupon this change by asking a set of questions – what is the change , what led to this change and howcan one sustain this change. This essay paints this context of change that demands an extendedmaturity in the forms of mind and the habits that are to be cultivated to face change successfully, asKnowledge Workers in today‟s organizations. The dramatic change, as mentioned in this essay, isvisualized with a framework that outlines the evolution of different ages in the context of time andculture. It also emphasizes the shift in thinking dimensions due to change agents such as globalization,technology and affluence. The new age is predicted to be the culmination point that is conceptual innature, demanding thorough understanding and usage of human senses and co-existing mentalabilities and values in delivering a successful work. These qualities have been associated with DanielPink‟s six senses that are in-turn conceptually tagged to Gardner‟s multiple intelligence theory andinternalized with Gardner‟s five minds for the future. 15 core habits are derived from the frameworkwith Knowledge Worker in mind and these habits have been illustrated with a typical KnowledgeWorker.2. Knowledge Discovery and Rediscovery CycleThe Knowledge Discovery and Rediscovery cycle moves through a sequence of events that starts withknowledge discovery and its maturation with iterations, to indicate the different ages. At a particularpoint of time, it faces a great dimension shift in thinking. This shift initiates another event ofknowledge rediscovery indicated by new qualities along with existing ones, prescribed for success.These qualities are layered across Daniel Pink‟s senses and Gardner‟s intelligence followed byinternalization with Gardner‟s five minds. This thinking with minds in different perspectives ofknowledge embodiment derives the habits for present day‟s matured knowledge economy being predominant in most organizations reflecting the next iteration in knowledge discovery in movingtowards a conceptual age. It has been identified that the transforming economy relies more on theinvestment on „knowledge based‟ assets such as R&D, processing with software, custom designs,business intelligence, human capital and intellectual property compared with investment on physicalassets like machines, buildings, instruments and transportation means.( Brinkley, Fauth, Mahdon,2009). Page 3 of 25
  4. 4. K6201 Term Paper2.1 Thinking in a Knowledge Worker PerspectiveThe authors are of the view that the definitions of Knowledge Work and Knowledge Workers have tobe established before the explanation of the framework. The term „Knowledge Workers „, as opposedto the general opinion of the populace referring to it as a new-age jargon, was invented by visionaryPeter Drucker in 1968. His opinion is that „Today the centre is the Knowledge Worker, the man orwoman who applies to productive work ideas, concepts, and information rather than manual skill orbrawn…Where the farmer was the backbone of any economy a century or two ago…knowledge isnow the main cost, the main investment, and the main product of the advanced economy and thelivelihood of the largest group in the population‟. Knowledge work, defined in simple words, involvesthe application of knowledge in performing tasks in a professional environment. It encompassescommunication and collaboration between stakeholders for planning, strategizing and implementingofficial activities. Knowledge Workers are valued for their subject matter expertise, insight andexperience.Drucker (1999) has also pointed out the difference between the manual worker productivity andKnowledge Worker productivity. These terms are highly contrasting in the sense that manual workerstend to have many layers of abstraction on the top of his/her work and the knowledge workers tend tooperate independently with autonomous and delineated tasks that require flexible application ofknowledge and continuous learning into their job roles.Amar (2002) has been fairly factious on knowledge work and declared that “all knowledge work isintellectual work. A job that is not intellectual enough will not contribute to knowledge work. Suchjobs should not be allowed in a knowledge organization”.There are various definitions for Knowledge Workers given by expert academicians. Cooper defines“Knowledge workers are employees who have a deep background in education and experience andare considered people who „think for a living‟”, referring to professions pertaining to Doctors,Lawyers and Financial Analysts to name a few. Toffler includes the context of Knowledge Economyin defining typical Knowledge Workers (R&D scientists and Engineers) as workers who are expectedto create process and enhance their own knowledge for performing organizational tasks.A Knowledge Workers Survey conducted by „The Work Foundation, UK‟ in 2009 describes thetypical activities of a Knowledge Worker in an organization. The knowledge intensity and theknowledge content of a work determines its scope for execution by a Knowledge Worker and his/heractivities vary based on roles from people or project management, product or process research withmore perception and precision, administrative tasks, data processing and analysis tasks. Page 4 of 25
  5. 5. K6201 Term PaperThe increasing knowledge intensities and content of the work performed by Knowledge Workers mayneed to attain a certain threshold for stability in the coming years that will be the dawn of a conceptualage. This conceptual age‟s threshold for stability is analyzed and apprehended with the senses and theminds in the process of knowledge discovery and rediscovery.2.2 Process of K- DiscoveryKnowledge resides in the minds of the people and the environment stimulates the mind to generateknowledge in three basic forms – tacit, implicit and explicit. As an example, the discovery of wheeldated back to 3500 B.C can be considered to analyze the knowledge creation process with theenvironment or nature giving intuitive or tacit knowledge to the human minds to use circular logs totransport heavy objects and after analysis of its successful working , it had many forms representingthe implicit knowledge based on different people‟s understanding before a perfect theory could bedrawn upon its working that wheel is a symmetrical component moving in a circular motion on anaxis. The knowledge is explicated into a theory in this case.As time progressed, there were numerous discoveries that accumulated a big history or collection offacts, theories, methods and experience. A fact can be a piece of information describing an event orcircumstance; a theory can be a well substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world; amethod can be a systematic way of accomplishing a task; experience can be reflection or learningfrom an event.The same process iterates over time and lead to different ages in the evolution of knowledge. Themodifications in the existing baseline of the environment, essentially a mix of people and culturegives way for the discovery of new knowledge in the form of facts, theories, methods and experience.As described in the framework(fig 1), the first iteration led to the agriculture age having its roots from16th century and had a total transformation or revolution in the middle of 19th century with thediscoveries of plough, mouldboard, seed drills, sickles, reapers and harvesters, the second iteration ledto the industrial age towards the end of 19th century with the discovery of textile mills, mining, steampower, iron and steel and electricity, the third led to the information age in the middle of 20th centurywith the advancements in electronics such as discovery of digital computer, transistors, internet andthe process of discovery is still on even now in 2011 with advanced software and informationtechnologies embedded in any product created by Knowledge Workers. This era, to an extent, also ledto depreciation of manual labour and skills. Daniel Pink (A whole new mind) extends this thoughtwith his prediction that there will be yet another iteration that can bring a new way of looking at Page 5 of 25
  6. 6. K6201 Term Paperthings in depth. This iteration will involve connection between the existing technologies conceptuallyto bring about the change that he calls „the conceptual age‟ with Knowledge Workers, playing theroles of creators and empathizers, expected to lead the age with the pace of the shifting economy.2.3 K- Dimension ShiftThe computer aided advancements have simplified daily tasks in many ways: People can now store,process and instantly access unlimited information anywhere in the world, with advanced memorymanagement and storage technologies. These advancements have also given way for complexanalysis, simulation of existing theories, facts and findings and even in forecasting the near accuratebehaviour of men, machines and objects. The unleashing potential of internet has brought forthseamless communication and collaboration across geographies that have given way for efficientremote operations.Thus, the conceptual age is clearly marked by a remarkable dimension shift in human thinking andDaniel Pink attributes this shift in all areas of business that serve the environment with conceptualproducts for use with a high touch on sustainability, trend, comfort and good will of the customers.This age thereby demands Knowledge Workers to be creative in the existing framework (fig 1) toscale beyond the existing components by synthesizing concepts matching it with reality or throughempathizing with the users in real world.Daniel Pink strongly suggests that people need to take a closer look at their profession with thesequestions:a) Can someone overseas do it cheaper? – Globalization gives the wayb) Can a computer do it faster? - Technology provides the meansc) Is what I‟m offering in demand in an age of abundance? - Affluence poses the questionOff-shoring or outsourcing of procedural or routine based tasks to developing countries, digitizationof manual tasks in industries are considerably saving operating costs for the business with seamlessservice rendered by hyper specialists marked by superior delivery excellence and is clearly the sourcefor author‟s thoughts and interrogations. The third question is quite interesting, the author puts forththe fact that people no longer need to work hard for living as they have matured enough in minds andtechnology that provide the basic things for living in plenty and this growing trend will bring about abig change in the consumption trends of people in a few years from now and so the end product orservice of your business should be in demand even in the predicted age of abundance that is definedby a lackadaisical way of living with splurge of amenities. Page 6 of 25
  7. 7. K6201 Term PaperFig 1: Knowledge discovery and rediscovery framework to derive the Knowledge Worker habitsDaniel Pink thus suggests a K–worker profile in consideration with his conceptual age change agents.They are essentially creators, empathizers, pattern recognizers and meaning makers in the highconcept and high touch framework with the ability to paint their views and ideas emphasizing moreon the directions given by the right brain that can provide simultaneous context based thinking with abigger picture rather than left brain that can just provide a sequential text based thinking withemphasis on details. An ideal situation is the blend of analytical abilities of left brain and creativeabilities of right brain. Page 7 of 25
  8. 8. K6201 Term PaperThus, a business should ideally run with Knowledge Workers having a mix of high creativity andempathy index so that there is always room for improvisation and it can impact profits and evensurvival with the overall knowledge dimension shift caused by globalization, technology trends andaffluence.2.4 K- RediscoveryDaniel Pink has been astute in giving a picture of realization on the moving trend towards aconceptual age and its reasons. The next step is to derive the habits making Knowledge Workerssuccessful in the shifting economy. On analysis of the dimension shift, the basic characteristics orqualities forming the first layer or a super set of habits are identified. This is followed by associating itwith the six senses portrayed by the Daniel Pink in the second layer of derivation. The next move withthe layer aligns towards conceptualization of these senses with Gardner‟s intelligence theory. Thesubsequent layer pictures internalization of these senses with intelligence in the minds as illustratedby Gardner in his book, five minds for the future. The final layer is a synthesis of specific habits forKnowledge Workers to cultivate in today‟s context and is essentially our appreciation and applicationof the understanding and learning of the theories and philosophies of both the authors.2.4.1 Habit Super Set IdentificationThe current work trends of Knowledge Workers are more inclined towards productivity objectified bythe ability to assimilate, analyse and apply. However, with the shift of knowledge dimensions andeconomy there need to be more focus on other activities such as attributing, accounting, articulating,actualizing, appreciating and adhering.The 12 A’s for K-WorkersThe research of the basic characteristics or habit supersets that Knowledge Workers already have andshould cultivate along with the existing to fit into the shifting economy, are indicated below with theidentified characteristics.Attribute: Give more credits to the customer or any transacting party‟s behaviour in addition to thefunctional aspect of a design.Allude: Personalize the offering with the application of attributes.Assimilate: Absorb the facts, theories and methods of solving a problem.Account: Make a narrative out of your absorption and application to a context to share it with others.Analyze: Break down and examine details and consequences of scenarios.Articulate: Connecting concepts with interlinked context.Actualize: Substantiate the concept with the real world. Page 8 of 25
  9. 9. K6201 Term PaperApply: Application of the concept to perform a function.Act: React to success by delightful celebrations and sport during leisure hours.Appreciate: Hold your values, hobbies and favourites dear.Apprehend: Realize the meaning of your activities.Adhere: Be a follower of your internal thoughts and reflections.Attribute, Account, Articulate, Actualize, Appreciate and Adhere are the qualities that need a betterfocus in the shifting economy and habits specific to these qualities need to be cultivated by theKnowledge Workers along with the other existing qualities.2.4.2 Association Clustering with Pink’s Six SensesThe identified qualities of a Knowledge Worker are now clustered to associate with the six sensesprescribed by Daniel Pinka) Design: Attribute + AlludeThe demand in the recent past is not just function but also design that can influence people‟s thoughts,behaviours and emotions whimsically. The emphasis of this sense is on delightful designs that are aunique blend of utility, significance and personalization. These tend to be the end product‟s keydifferentiating factors. Design is thus, a creative work giving competitive advantage that arises fromdemocratisation of ideas leading to a profitable layout or blueprint of superior quality.Some ways suggested by Daniel Pink to nurture the design sense are to use notebook for personalscribbling, design magazines and having a choosy attitude during shopping that can best reflect yourflavour.b) Story: Assimilate + AccountThe way of expressing our thoughts, learning, ideas, suggestions need to be portrayed with a contextin the form of a story that can in turn make the listeners get a fairly big picture and goodunderstanding. The author attributes this sense to a literary mind that can have an emotional impact onthe receiver. Organizational storytelling thus makes our ideas easy to sell as the listeners tend to bemore responding.Some ways suggested by author to nurture the story sense are to write mini-stories, read books and trydigital storytelling. Page 9 of 25
  10. 10. K6201 Term Paperc) Symphony: Analyze + ArticulateThe way of learning drawn from mind that is indicated by analogous things and synthesis of ideasfrom sources attributed to a common function can be used to describe the sense of symphony. This isseen in people, managing relationships, androgynous personalities who possess strong conceptualblending ability and imaginative rationality. Daniel Pink also attributes symphony to metaphorquotient (MQ), the ability to hook up thoughts and learning to real world events and systems thinking,the ability to find relationship between relationships in the interaction space to determine the flow orfunction of a system.Some ways suggested by author to nurture the symphony sense are drawing, reading and creatingexpressions with metaphors.d) Empathy: Actualize + ApplyIt is a blend of self-awareness and interpersonal dynamics. Reading people before interacting withthem can be attributed to the most essential sense of a Knowledge Worker in the existing and futureK-economy. Empathy is strongly connected to design, symphony and story. Attuning, empathizingand application of learning into the designs, concepts and other ways of interaction, can exceedexpectations of people, delight them immensely and create a strong emotional binding.Some ways of nurturing the sense of empathy are to practise mind reading, volunteering andperforming self-test with inner conscience by asking practical questions from others perception.e) Play: Act + Appreciate„Play‟ can be an act done after the accomplishment of tasks preferably daily with games, conversationfilled with humour and joyfulness. Learning is easy through games and this way also proves to be thedominant way of knowing, doing and creating value. Games can simulate sympathy and jokes cancommunicate difficult messages.Some ways of nurturing the sense of play as suggested by author is through playing console basedgaming and cartoon captioningf) Meaning: Apprehend + AdhereThis sense can be attributed to post materialist thinking and spirituality in workplace. It defines waysto stay happy and simultaneously boost one‟s signature strengths. This can also be related to one ofthe causes for dimension shift, „abundance‟ and that has now provided the reason to look forward formeaning in every action. Page 10 of 25
  11. 11. K6201 Term PaperSome ways of nurturing the sense of meaning are extensive reading and showing gratitude.2.4.3 Conceptualization with Gardner’s Intelligence TheoryThis layer of conceptualization is based on Howard Gardner‟s theory of Multiple Intelligence thatdifferentiates intelligence into distinct sensory abilities rather than a dominant general ability.The senses in the previous layer can directly be attributed to specific types of intelligence.a) Spatial: This intelligence is essentially inclined towards the sense of design that is about the abilityof the Knowledge Worker to visualize objects and work flows in the empty space in three dimensionsthat requires a tough test on mental imagery, reasoning and artistic skills. Example of someKnowledge Workers exhibiting this sense of design and spatial intelligence are architects, pilots,sculptors and painters.b) Logical: This type of intelligence is more oriented towards logic, problem solving, relationshipidentification, pattern recognition and can be attributed to the sense of symphony. Examples of suchKnowledge Workers are mathematicians, analysts, scientists and detectives.c) Linguistic: “Word Smart” category of intelligence can be attributed to two types of sensesillustrated by Pink – Story and Empathy. It is the ability of the individual to think in words to expresscomplicated scenarios and meanings either in a narrative style or as a strong empathizer who caneasily interact and understand people‟s emotions with effective and expressive words. This can beevident in novelists, poets, journalists and public speakers.d) Interpersonal: “People Smart” category of intelligence can be attributed to two types of senses –Story and Empathy. People with high interpersonal intelligence tend to be extroverts and they haveinert sensitivity to understand and judge people‟s emotions and temperaments and thus they are assetto the team with effective verbal and non-verbal expressions. Teachers, social workers, movie makers,actors and politicians are some examples of Knowledge Workers having high interpersonalintelligence.e) Intrapersonal: “Self Smart” category of intelligence orients more towards the ability to understandone‟s own self, streamline and interpret the reflection of his/her thoughts. This can be attributedmostly to the sense of meaning and also partially to the sense of play. This intelligence stimulates asense of appreciation and fulfilment towards a condition of achievement. Introverts tend to have ahigh degree of this kind of intelligence. Examples of such Knowledge Workers are lawyers, writers,spiritual leaders, philosophers and psychologists. Page 11 of 25
  12. 12. K6201 Term Paperf) Existential: This kind of intelligence can be attributed to the sense of meaning. It is about thesensitivity and ability to tackle deep questions about life, death and the purpose of existence and canbe extended as construct that includes spiritual or religious intelligence apprehending sensory datasuch as infinite and infinitesimal. Examples of such Knowledge Workers are physicists, cosmologists,scientists, priests and philosophers.Extended thought of Pink can be inferred with Gardener‟s intelligence theory. It is that knowledgeworkers with high spatial, interpersonal and linguistic intelligence that form the community ofcreators and empathizers with underlying senses – design, story and empathy to take lead of theknowledge dimension shift and the movement towards the conceptual age.2.4.4. Internalization with Gardner’s Five MindsThe earlier steps dealt with the conceptualization of senses with the intelligence theory and the kind ofKnowledge Workers involved with it. The next step is the stage that is about the ways, conceptualizedsenses need to be absorbed or internalized by our minds as illustrated in the book, „Five Minds for theFuture‟ by Howard Gardner.a) Disciplined MindFig 2: Mapping senses and intelligence for respectful mindThe mind embodies knowledge of a level more than that of a Subject Matter Expert and thinks in aspecific or distinctive manner. This emphasis on specific disciplines over a specific long period oftime has been a part of even medieval universities offering the seven liberal arts based on thinking -Trivium (grammar, logic and rhetoric) and Quadrivium (arithmetic, geometry, music and astronomy). Page 12 of 25
  13. 13. K6201 Term PaperThus, it has been a general view of mastery of a particular craft to a collective experience of at least10 yrs. Specialization is always preferred for Knowledge Workers in the shifting economy where it isrequired to design or create new things. Along with specialization, there is also a need to understandand appreciate the bigger picture of interaction of related disciplines with the core disciplineattributing the sense of symphony, the harmony with disciplines.Gardner suggests three essential steps to attain a disciplined mind: formal education, applicationoriented way of working and reflective practice.An example can be an event in the life of Arthur Rubinstein, a world famous pianist. His concerts hadgreat reception right from his age of twenty. At a point, when he became lazy and relied on pyro-techniques instead of careful practice, he realized that if it wasn‟t after practice for a day he couldsense it; if it wasn‟t after practice for a week the orchestra could sense it; and if it wasn‟t after practicefor a month, the audience could sense it. He then started practising carefully and recovered hisdiscipline. It is quite hard to maintain the disciplinary muscle for long and it is important to have highaffinity towards things in his discipline‟s interaction space.b) Synthesizing MindFig 3: Mapping senses and intelligence for synthesizing mindThis mind builds on the disciplined mind with the ability to meaningfully integrate two or moredisciplines for a newer purpose. This can be highly applicable in the data or information delugeenvironment of today. This mind is mostly applicable to managers in environments requiring the need Page 13 of 25
  14. 14. K6201 Term Paperfor synthesis in different ways depending on the kind of work and the kind of people involved ininteraction. The objective is usually correlative with concepts and learning.This mind can be predominantly seen in Knowledge Workers in inter-disciplinary tracks that havescenarios leading to synthesis of ideas across disciplines.Care should be taken to avoid lumping, excessive context and fragmentation, elementarypredisposition. Laser intelligence, represented by creating inventions and search light intelligence,represented by searching and scanning information for application are the two types of intelligenceattributed to a synthesizing mind. Polymorphous perversity is another quality demonstrating strongMeta knowledge to think in different perspectives or directions.A great synthesizer of all times, Charles Darwin travelled for five years alongside the Beagle, andgathered a large amount of information about flora and fauna of the world. Later, he did his ownexperiments and observations of the world and thus came up with an idea to organize and structure anew taxonomy to classify all kinds of flora and fauna under specific classes and families attributing tothe concepts of evolution and by collaborating with every other naturalist, and then twenty years laterended with one of the greatest intellectual syntheses “On the Origin of the Species.”c) Creative MindFig 4: Mapping senses and intelligence for creative mindThis mind expresses the ability to innovate and it is built over challenging orthodox thoughts. Ideally,a creator‟s work changes the thinking and behaving ways of people. Page 14 of 25
  15. 15. K6201 Term PaperIt is not easy to cultivate as it‟s an ability which outdoes computers and other technologicaladvancements by offering new solutions to the old problems by thinking differently and to get awayfrom mundane repetitious work.This need for creativity can be cultivated with a strong lateral thinking and meta-thinking. Some ofthe traits of a creator are kindling the kid in oneself, interaction with creative folks, nurturingcreativity by being your own critic. There is always a gap between synthesis and creativity due to theintent in solving problems oriented in opposite directions.The best example of a creative mind could be Einstein, one of the finest physicists of all times whoillustrates creativity to the best as an art. He is also a fine pianist and violinist. His musical hobbiesattributed to his personal innovation that in a way enabled his professional innovation with his strongintuitive knowledge and imagination. “He might have interpreted an unexplainable connectionbetween music and science relating to time and space through its combination of architectonic, orstructural, nature combined with its spatial and temporal aspects of his early musical experiences thatwould have helped him to build a rich mental perceptual fabric of space and time so as to perform hisscientific theorizing” (Mueller, 1967, 171).d) Respectful MindFig 5: Mapping senses and intelligence for respectful mindThis mind places a significant importance on respecting others opinions in any situation and it isagainst xenophobia. It expresses one‟s attitude to accept diversity originating from people of different Page 15 of 25
  16. 16. K6201 Term Paperraces in area of work and to give and take respect. This can also be considered a way to get backfavours.There needs to be respect for differences between individuals and groups, their arguments,suggestions and critiques. However, it is better to avoid natural prejudice and minorities‟ judgmentand opportunist respect. Sufficient caution is to be taken in handling unconditional respect as it can hitback anytime. It is best to start nurturing respect from birth, avoid animosity and develop higher formof tolerance and higher quality of sympathyExample of respectful minds can be connected to the formation of United Nations and the term coinedby United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt, intended to promote international cooperation andto achieve peace and security. It recognizes that the world is a composite structure of many peoplewhose looks, thoughts, values differs, and that anyone can‟t be hermits anymore with a living incomplete isolation.e) Ethical MindFig 6: Mapping senses and intelligence for respectful mindThis type of mind intends to go beyond the personal benefits to a larger extent and defines qualitiessuch as generosity and forward thinking to improve the society as a whole, adherence to rules andprinciples at any cost along with strong self-beliefs. An ethical mind can demonstrate a Page 16 of 25
  17. 17. K6201 Term Paper„Good work project‟, a multiyear study of professions and professionals engaged in striving towards„good work‟ conducted by Gardner, Hobbs, professor of cognition and two other psychologistsfocussing on the three E‟s, Excellence in a technical way, Engagement with work in a meaningfulway and Ethics to be responsible at work, to discharge the duty with the inner spirit as a role model.The challenge of good work is to intertwine the 3 E‟s. The Knowledge Workers of this category tendto exhibit vertical and horizontal support in the good work project by leaving aside personal loyalty.Gardner suggests four signposts towards achievement of a good work with the 3 M questions tounderstand the mission of a profession, setting models in your domain based on admiration andemulation and finally a mirror test – individual with the question on how proud are you based on whatyou do as a human to the world and mirror test – professional responsibility how proud are you basedon your contribution in work place.Understanding and inculcating the core values of profession is the ultimate goal of a KnowledgeWorker with an ethical mind and to propagate or disseminate ethics in his professional as well aspersonal environment.An example could be an event in Marilee Jones, one of the most successful deans of Admissions atMIT for a number of years, but recently in 2007, it turned out to be issue in the authenticity of theinformation in her own resume with the degrees that she didn‟t have and MIT didn‟t have any otherchoice but to fire her, because of the elementary ethical concern that it is not fair to judge oncandidate‟s records expecting their honesty when the reviewer herself has flawed to keep up honestyin the past. There were only two reactions among her students: the first reaction was that she wasdoing a good job so why was there a problem? The second reaction was “well, everybody lies on theirresume, right?” This implies the importance of work place ethics, no matter how elementary or minuteit is and every work greatly depends on the binding with the core values of life like honesty, trust,integrity and gratitude.2.4.5. Deriving K-Worker HabitsTraversing through the layers of rediscovery, there is a realization on the required qualities to be inplace, reflecting appropriate senses and intelligence that are to be captured by minds for sustaining thedimension shift and to be in demand as a Knowledge Worker even in the conceptual age. Final phaseof rediscovery is to illustrate the habits to be cultivated by the K-Workers in today‟s context. Habitsare mapped to associated senses and minds of Pink and Gardner respectively.The authors selected Doctor as a Knowledge Worker to give a specific scenario for deriving habitsand have applied the prescribed framework as discussed in fig 1. A brief introduction to Doctor as aKnowledge Worker is given below in the context of his/her roles and Information Technology. Page 17 of 25
  18. 18. K6201 Term PaperThere are lot of ways to bring the required knowledge in the course of doctor‟s work. Knowledge base& logic modules is maintained among doctors, pertaining to processes such as drug prescription,referring of patient to another doctor, ordering a test, retrieving of patient‟s medical record and so on.Doctors are expected to manage details related to medical care. Doctors play a critical role asknowledge professionals; a good doctor is expected to have appropriate skills, so as to with deal withhuman illness. Doctor as a Knowledge Worker works in close collaboration with fellow doctors formaking the right diagnosis and appropriate medicine suggestions.As a Knowledge Worker, doctor not only has practical experience through consulting but also retainsmedical information in his/her mind. The main responsibility lies in making proper decision based onthe revised data generated by constant evaluation of the patient‟s data. In the current century, diversetypes of healthcare information are obtained and shared easily among the physicians. Doctor‟s role inmaintaining the patient information is essential as patient‟s condition will change often. Knowledgeis acquired from the bulk of information and with the support of medical computing; doctors canmanage the healthcare delivery and medical information. From the doctor‟s viewpoint, medicalknowledge compromises of:- Medical and procedural facts Doctors mental reasoning capabilities Access to knowledge of other medical professionals Patient informationTechnology advancements have created a lot of possibilities for the doctors to stay updated andinformation sharing is also made easier. Earlier, data and information are obtained and shared throughpaper based records. In recent times, transmitting of knowledge is carried out electronically; hencemismanagement of knowledge is largely avoided. Doctor as a Knowledge Worker has his/her skillscomplemented by other healthcare professionals.As a Knowledge Worker, current generation doctors should have the basic IT skills and its deficiencywill make it difficult for them to utilize enormous range of knowledge. Internet plays a vital role inhelping the doctors to secure their role as a Knowledge Worker. Internet not only acts as a partialknowledge base but also provides opinions from various sources. IT department in the hospital hasbecome one of the key groups in the healthcare team. Doctors should learn to use those facilities sothat it supports their clinical practice and ensures better handling of patient treatment. Page 18 of 25
  19. 19. K6201 Term Paper2.4.5.1 Core Habits to Sustain the Dimension Shift based on theFramework1.) Continuous LearningThe doctor as a working professional is bound to learn by experience in his profession. This type ofnatural learning is to be supplemented with regular educational activities, to be abreast of the latestdevelopments in the field of medicine, life-science, healthcare, government reforms and patientpsychology related topics. This type of learning can be called as self-directed learning. The doctor canjoin local/virtual CoPs that enforce collective and social learning.2.) Improvisation at Personal and Professional levelSuccessful Knowledge Workers have many characteristics in common. Two of them are Resilienceand Improvisation. Improvisation is a characteristic that is very important for a doctor as theprofession involves various real-time complications that are not part of the knowledge basemaintained by the doctors‟ community. Doctors can improvise by taking the criticality of the currentsituational context into perspective, quickly thinking over past experiences, weighing the options in Page 19 of 25
  20. 20. K6201 Term Paperhand and finally taking a consensual decision that is the best for the occasion. Doctors play multipleroles on any given day and they have to be ready for emergency situations even whilst spendingpersonal time with family at home or any other location, thereby staking their claim as responsiblehuman-beings.3.) Setting up Personal and Professional Short-term and Long-Term goals and ensue themGoal-setting is a mandatory requirement set on the Knowledge Worker by his employer, in recenttimes. An individual aspiring for excellence in his profession has to set goals to gauge the level ofprogress achieved during a stipulated time-period. Doctors, based on their experience level, have toset goals pertaining to factors such as individual development, junior mentorships, communitydevelopment, and increased usage of technology in aiding regular work and so on. The underlyingidea is to set some benchmarks and work towards them. Goals are also to be reviewed occasionally tostay in-line with contemporary scenarios.4.) Involvement in Philanthropic activitiesBenevolence and Generosity are two good qualities that are best exemplified by Philanthropy. Thereis an old saying that “Giving is good”. As per the [4], researchers are of the view that giving is goodin the following five ways 1.) Giving makes us feel happy 2.) Giving is good for our health 3.) Givingpromotes cooperation and social connection 4.) Giving evokes gratitude and 5.) Giving is contagious.General public always perceive Doctors as embodiments of humility, Kindness and Cooperation.Current generation of doctors need to uphold this image even more seriously in the wake of multiplelawsuits filed on mishappenings in the field of surgery and diagnostics. Philanthropy is a gratifyingway to showcase the responsibility thrust on doctors, in sustaining the well-being of a society throughfree medical camps, subsidies to consultations and surgeries and so on.5.) Involvement in Professional Community Development activitiesKnowledge workers excel in their area of their expertise by sharing their work with colleagues. Theintention is to use collective intelligence in building better solutions. Company officials expectsynergy to be created in teams with focus on combined work and not on any individual. Group bodiessuch as Collectives of Practice, Communities of Practice, Informal Work Groups and Centres ofExcellence are formed to re-instate this belief. Doctors cannot be successful over a period of time bypracticing in isolation. Common welfare of fellow professionals is to be in the mind of every doctor.This habit can be initiated by forming a small group of doctors within the same hospital. This can beextended to other departments and then to other hospitals in the same locality and so on. There is nopractical limit in extending a work group across disciplines, and geographies. A planned approach isto be followed towards the cultivation of this habit. Page 20 of 25
  21. 21. K6201 Term Paper6.) Take part in Conferences/Workshops/Communions and CompetitionsCompetitiveness is a key attribute that glorifies a Knowledge Worker. Building on the habit of takingpart in professional communities of development, Doctors can gain outside knowledge and showcasetheir capabilities by taking part in conferences and workshops. Conferences are events that attractworking professionals, academicians, researchers and government agencies. They offer a canvas thatcan be the seed for cross-fertilisation of ideas. Doctors are the field agents with the responsibility ofconveying areas of deficiency in their profession, to researchers for conducting translational researchso that gaps can be filled in the future. This habit enforces the adaptability and openness characteristicof doctors, aimed at continuous improvement.7.) Embodying the characteristics of Sympathy and Empathy in relationship with othersThe crucial part of a patient treatment lies in the establishment of open relationship between doctorand patient. Doctor has to listen to the patient in all stages of his treatment ranging from initialdiagnosis/prognosis to full recovery. Doctors have to be empathetic to ascertain the origin and level ofimpact of an ailment in a patient. It involves some perseverance in reading a patient‟s mind and it is acharacteristic that is worth striving. Patients expect some level of reciprocity from doctors as theyvent out their feelings. A sympathetic attitude establishes this connection, it is very necessary tounderstand the pain inflicted on the patient. These characteristics pave way to the development ofmutual understanding that often translates to a meaningful recovery process.8.) Contemplate on all aspects of life and work for self-improvementHectic work schedules, tense work environments and fast mechanical life often relieve theopportunity to contemplate for individuals. It is necessary for a Knowledge Worker to take intellectual„breaks‟ on a spasmodic basis, to stop the mechanical flow, to rethink strategies and to re-inventpersonal self. Humans exhibit an inane characteristic of being resistive to change even though it maybe beneficial. The authors view this as an animal characteristic that has to be weaned out. Doctors areexpected to show a high level of receptivity in dealing with patients. They can extend this quality tooutside world by showing proclivity towards required changes to their personal and professionalidentity. Frequent reading of psychology and philosophy books can improve this habit. A turn towardsspirituality can also be highly beneficial.9.) Take up management/leadership type roles in a group of people with different ethnic backgroundsand epistemologiesVaried perspectives open up more possibilities for creative thinking. Individuals working with peoplewith different thought process, different cultures and different geographies, are exposed to variegatedideas and solutions. Continued exposure of this type, can have a positive effect on the individual‟sability to create new ideas and synthesize existing ideas in a meaningful and contextual way. Page 21 of 25
  22. 22. K6201 Term PaperManagers in Multi-National Companies (MNC) enjoy this benefit although they have to endure thestress of managing people and meeting delivery timelines. Doctors working in multi-specialityhospitals may get opportunities to play a role of managing fellow practitioners in the same hospital onan interim or full-time basis. Other opportunities include the responsibility to convene activities ofcommunities, conferences and workshops. These scenarios provide ideal chances for doctors to pickup new ideas and improve the management capability whilst working with people of differentepistemologies.10.) Stay relevant on all latest newsInformation age as stated in the text earlier has placed individuals in the same pedestal, paying lessheed to their intelligence. The underlying notion is that anyone with access to the WWW can re-usethe information for his/her benefit in a rapid manner. The age of data deluge pays little homage toconventional memorizing methods due to availability of high performance computer systems therebypaving way for humans to concentrate on other activities that make use of human senses. Doctors asKnowledge Workers, have to make use of technology to stay updated on all happenings so that theycan find a scenario to re-apply the knowledge that is derived from the worldly information.11.) Maintain meaningful hobbiesHobbies were seen as time-killing activities earlier. Eccentric individuals have transformed theirhobbies into vocation, signifying the passion for the activity. This made the world to look at hobbieswith a serious tone. Hobbies have made a transition from time-killing activities to activities thatsupplement the primary vocation of Knowledge Workers. Popular examples include reading, writing,playing console based games, drawing/painting, learning new languages, puzzle solving and so on.These hobbies quite often improve the aptitude of the individual. Doctors spend major part of theirday in profession related activities and it may be difficult to find a suitable slot for hobbies. Weekendsand off-days are more suitable for cultivating and pursuing hobbies that will go a long way inindirectly sharpening skills required to excel in profession.12.) Sustain suitable work-life balanceThe most heard about problem in today‟s competitive environment is the inability to meet the idealwork-life balance. Knowledge workers across domains share the same grievance due to the long hoursbeing spent in their work locations. Prolonged skewness of this type can result in disinterest towardsprofession thereby leading to poor quality of work, lack of penchant to community development andlosing purpose for a meaningful life. Doctors need to make sure that their work is mixed with somelevel of frivolity. Doctors can carry about their work by being jovial in nature while interacting withcolleagues and with patients albeit to a permissible extent. Personal life should be filled with amplerest and good time with family. Doctor‟s profession on comparison with other knowledge work based Page 22 of 25
  23. 23. K6201 Term Paperprofessions, has more working hours thereby restating the claim that work should have some level ofrelaxing and light-hearted moments.13.) Know your personal and professional legacyToday‟s youth show marked disrespect towards conventions and traditions. This behaviour isprevalent across all continents and cultures. The inherent reason is the improper or total lack ofknowledge of one‟s own cultural legacy. Individuals aware of their personal roots, pay proper homageto yesteryear beliefs. Our ancestors evolved without the aid of technology, depending solely on theirhard-work and intelligence. They laid the foundation for today‟s generation to build on with technicalinnovations. Individuals should strive to research about their ancestry to ascertain the level of progressin evolution. Respect will be automatically derived from this exercise. A similar approach can bedrawn toward one‟s profession to know the strategies employed by the company to meetorganisational objectives set during different points of time. A career graph of successful employeesmight show some common and interesting patterns that could be worth emulating.14.) Taking initiatives and ownership of activities„Leaders are born and not made‟ is a frequently repeated saying that tends to discourage certainindividuals as they may not possess that quality at the inceptive stages of their careers. Leadership is aquality that can be contagious from the right individuals. It can be improved by taking initiativesoffered at an organisational level. Ownership of activities that involve risk-taking can be quitebeneficial in the long run. Doctors based on their level of seniority will have obligations to take upleadership roles towards the end of their service and they may be unprepared without any properexposure that is needed towards leading a team. This can be avoided by taking up roles that involve acertain level of leadership at the beginning stages of their profession.15.) Stay HumbleHumility is an attribute that diminishes as the individual grows in stature, by observation. This is not ahealthy condition as individuals should be more humble as their stature and responsibilities ascend.Ego is a state of mind that cannot be totally removed. Instead, Knowledge Workers should not takecredit for all their accomplishments. They are expected to portray an amicable down-to-earthdemeanour downplaying their professional/personal achievements. This inherently warrants respectand glorification from fellow colleagues. Doctors, by profession, cannot afford to be bragging abouttheir exploits to patients as it might invoke unnecessary apprehensions about the doctor‟soverconfidence on his abilities and may even tend to be back-firing during unfortunate circumstances.Humility is a de-facto quality expected from aspiring Knowledge Workers. Page 23 of 25
  24. 24. K6201 Term Paper3.0 ConclusionKnowledge Workers defined the information age with meticulous work ethic exemplified by theiradherence to organisational rules and routine-based tasks with emphasis on communication andcollaboration. The dimension shift that has been identified in this essay indicates the changing workenvironment in both the local and global arenas. Individuals cannot claim to be the best at theirprofession with just a good analytical and systematic mind-set. The focus is now towards excellencein core human capabilities that cannot be replicated by a human created contraption. The frameworkin this essay showcases the Knowledge Discovery and Knowledge Re-Discovery cycle that anindividual can use to gauge his current level and also to identify the areas that he/she is expected toimprove upon. The 15 core habits that have been explained with Doctor as an example are to becritically analysed by Knowledge Workers for their personal usage. Today‟s race for excellenceamong working professional regardless of their country, industry, race, age or experience is a never-ending journey and the leaders will be identified by their willingness to change as per the need of thehour. A well-rounded person is one who can enhance his/her human intelligence and tendencies withtechnological advancements, with a compassionate eye on society development.4.0 References[1] A Knowledge Economy Programme Report by Ian Brinkley, Rebecca Fauth, Michelle Mahdonand Sotiria Theodoropoulou, 2009, The Work Foundation, UK[2] Drucker, Peter F. 1968,The age of discontinuity: Guidelines to our changing society. London:Transaction Publishers.[3] Amar, A. D, 2002, Managing Knowledge Workers: Unleashing innovation and technology.Westport, CT: Quarum Books.[4] Jill Suttie, Jason Marsh, 2010, 5 Ways Giving Is Good for You,http://greatergood.berkeley.edu/article/item/5_ways_giving_is_good_for_you/[5] Daniel H. Pink, 2005, A Whole New Mind: Moving from the Information Age to the ConceptualAge, Riverhead Hardcover; First Printing edition[6] Howard Gardner, 2007, Five Minds for the Future, Harvard Business Press; 1 edition Page 24 of 25
  25. 25. K6201 Term Paper5.0 Appendix5.1 Essay Word Cloud Page 25 of 25