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  1. Culture
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  3. PresentedBy: abc 3
  4. Culture: Culture is that complex whole which includes knowledge, beliefs, art, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of the society. 4
  5. Another Definition: 5 Culture is social heredity, which is transmitted from one generation to another with the accumulation of individual experiences.
  6. Types of Culture 6
  7. MaterialCulture: From material culture we understand material and physical objects. For instance, house, road, vehicles, pen, table, radio set, book etc. these are the products of human efforts to control his environment and make his life conformable and safe. 7
  8. Non-materialCulture: In non-material culture we include non material objects. For example religion, art, ideas, customs, values system, attitudes, knowledge etc. it does not have physical shape. It is very important in determining human behavior and has strong hold on an individual. Both parts are inter-related with each other. 8
  9. Real Culture: Real culture is that which can be observed in our social life. The culture on which we act upon in our daily life is real culture. It is that parts of culture, which the people adopt in their social life, for example. If a person/ says that he/she is Muslim, will be, when followed all the principles of Islam is the real and when doesn’t follow, is not a real one. 9
  10. Ideal Culture: The culture which is presented as a pattern to the people is called ideal culture. It is the goal of society and never achieved fully because some parts remain out of practice. This culture is explained in books, speeches etc. 10
  11. Characteristic of Culture 11
  12. 1. Culture is learnt: Culture is not intertied biologically butt learnt socially by man .itis not an inborn tendancy.There is no culture instinct as such .culture is often called 'learned way of behavior' .unlearned behavior such as close eyes whiling sleeping, the eye blinking relax and so on are purely physiology and not culture. Shaking hands or saying 'salam’ or 'thanks’ and shaving. Culture dose not exist in isolation .Neither is it an individual phenomenon .it is a product of society .It originates and develop through social interaction .it is shared by the member of the society .No man can acquire culture without association with other human beings . 3. Culture is shared: Culture is sociological sense ,is something shares. It is not something that an individual alone can possess .Fore example customer, traditions, beliefs, Ideas, value Morales etc. are all shared by people of a group society. 12 2. Cultures social:
  13. 4. Culture isTransmissive: Culture is capable being transmitted from one generation to the next parents pass on culture traits to their children's and they in turn to their children and so on culture is transmitted not through genes but means of language .Language is the main vehicle of culture Language in its- different forms like reading, writing, and speaking make it possible for present generation to understand the achievement of earlier generation. 5. Culture is Continuous and Cumulative: culture exist as a continuous process .In its historical growth attend to become cumulative .Culture is' growing whole 'which include itself the achievements of the past and present band makes provision for the future achievements of mankind .culture may thus reconceived as a kind of stream flowing down through the centuries from one generation to an other 6. Culture is consistent and integrated:Culture in its development has revealed a tendency to be consist At the same time different parts of the culture are interconnected .for example the value system of a society closely connected with its other aspects such as morality ,region customer ,tradition ,beliefs ,and so on change in rest of the parts of nation 13
  14. 7. Culture is Dynamic and Adaptive : Through culture is relatively stable it is not altogether static .it is subject to show butt constant changes. Changes and growth are latent in culture .Culture is responsive to the changing conditions of the physical world Itis Adaptive .it is also intervenes in the culture environment and help men's in his process of adjustment 8. Culture is Gratifying: Culture provides proper opportunities and prescribes means for the satisfaction of our need and desires .these needs may b biological or social in nature .Our need of food, shelter and clothing on the one hand and our desire for status ,name ,fame, money meet etc. Are all fulfilled according to the nature. 9. Culture Various from society to Society: Every society has a culture of its own .it differ from society to society .Culture of every society is unique. Culture is not uniform Culture element such as customs ,tradition ,morals ideals ,value, ideologies beliefs, practices philosophies entertainment are not uniform everywhere .Way of eating ,speaking ,greeting dressing living of different societies differ significantly .Culture varies from time to time also No culture ever remain constant or changeless. 14
  15. 10. Culture is Super organic and Ideational : Culture is sometime called 'the Super organic'. By 'superoranic’ Securement that culture is neither organic nor inorganic in nation nature but above these two .the term implies the social meaning of physical object and physiological etc. the social meaning may be independent of physiological and physical properties and characteristics .For example the social meaning national flag is not just a piece of colored cloth the flag represent a nation .similarly ,priests and prisoners and professionals players and doctor and other are not just biological beings .they are viewing their society differently .their social status and role can be understand only through culture 15
  16. Elements 16
  17. Organization of Culture 17
  18. • Cultural Pattern: It is way of behavior of the people. A large number of people following certain behavior make it a custom. This custom when growing popular among the people becomes a precedent and a rule of social life. This rule of social life is pattern of culture. 18
  19. • CulturalTrait: Trait is the smallest unit of a culture. It exists and functions with the organization of other related traits. The parts of the watch are traits and all the parts when organized together function as a whole in the watch. 19
  20. • Cultural Complex: A complex is intermediate between the trait and the institution. A cluster of related traits is called 'culture complex'. A number of traits when organized together make a culture complex. A watch, football match, attitudes and actions, prayer, Hajj, eid, agriculture system, market system a political party, a constitution, an industrial unit, an examination system are the examples of culture complex. 20
  21. • Cultural Area: It is that geographical area in which a cultural trait is originated. The place where that trait is born is called the place of origin. This trait spreads around through diffusion and covers an area. This area is called cultural area. Similarly, Punjab is the cultural area of Punjabi and Sindh is the area of Sindhi culture. The people of Baluchistan have their distinctive cultural trait hence can be called a cultural area. 21
  22. Other Related Concepts 22
  23.  Cultural Universals: The ideas, habits and conditioned emotional responses which are common to all members of the society," are called universals of culture. For example, Urdu language is the universal of Pakistani culture. Ideology of Pakistan, national defense and progress are among the universals of our society. 23
  24.  Cultural Specialties: Elements of culture which are shared by the members of certain socially recognized categories of people (according to age-sex and division of labor) but are not shared by the total population," are called specialties of culture. For example, the Pakistan national flag is allowed to be hosted on the cars of the President of Pakistan, the speaker of the National Assembly etc. 24
  25.  Cultural Alternatives: Those activities in which the individuals are allowed a choice are called alternatives. For example, telephone, telegraph and postal system are the alternatives of communication. Rail, road and air traveling are the alternatives of transportation. 25
  26.  SUB-CULTURE: Sub-culture is an element of the general culture. Some people make associations organizations, classes, tribes and Berardi on the basis of similarity in their patterns of living. This similarity creates identity among them. Interaction rate among them is rather higher than with others. They form a sort of in-group. One or more similar cultural traits become the foundation of this group 26
  27.  Ethnocentrism: It means that every culture considers itself superior to other cultures. The Americans think of themselves as the "Progressive" while the Eastern culture call them immoral. The Pakistanis all themselves as brave, hard-worker and faithful people. The Arabs call themselves hospitable. Similarly, the people of every nation feel pride and claim superiority upon other nations. This sense of pride or superiority upon others is called ethnocentrism. 27
  28. A beautiful picture of a beautiful culture 28
  29. ThankYou