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Curriculum development

  1. Nursing Curriculum By Mrs. Rajeswari Associate. professor ACON
  2. Introduction In today’s world of rapidly shifting resources, institutions of higher education are facing the need to make numerous changes to successfully meet the challenges of the future. Creative, innovative methods of curriculum delivery are being exposed in an effort to provide cost effective, quality programming to an increasingly diverse population of students.
  3. The term “curriculum” was first used in Scotland as early as 1820 and became part of education. The term “curriculum” is a Latin word “currere” which means running race or runway, which one takes to reach goal.
  4. Definition “Curriculum is defined as the formal and informal content and process by which learners gain knowledge and understanding, develop, skills, and alter attitudes, appreciations and values under the auspices of that school.” - Ronald.c.Doll,1996 “Curriculum is a tool in the hands of the artist (teacher) to mould his material (pupils) according to his ideals (aim and objectives) in his studio (school)”. - Cunningbam
  5. Determinants Psychological Scientific Political Sociological Philosophical
  6. Principles of Curriculum Principles of Utility Principle of flexibility Principle of child-centeredness Principle of life-centeredness Principle of community-centeredness
  7. Principles of Curriculum Principle of correlation Principle of activity-centeredness Principle for the use of leisure Principle of inter-relation of subject Principle of development of culture and civilization
  8. Principles of Curriculum Principle of need based activity Principle of value-orientedness Conservative principles Principle of creative training Principle of harmony
  9. Curriculum Development Curriculum development is a deliberate process, not a event, that takes concentrated time, effort and faculty commitment. The process consists of a series of systematic, logical, dynamic spiraled and progressive stages that can be time consuming and labor intensive.
  10. Stages of curriculum development • It lays foundation of all the other stages. • Identify beliefs, knowledge and concepts. • Formulation of theoretical framework in selection & sequence of the content. The directive stage • Philosophy of educational institution • Objectives • Nature/ content of nursing The formative stage • Practical form of curriculum • Planned teaching & learning experiences. Functional stage • Input evaluation • Throughput evaluation • Output evaluation • Evaluation for curriculum revision. Evaluative stage
  11. Phases of curriculum process • The curriculum is based on the philosophy and purposes of the school or college or university and its construction requires an understanding of educational psychology together with knowledge and skill in the principles and practice of nursing education.
  13. STEPS OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT Formulation of educational objectives Selection of teaching learning experiences Organization of teaching – learning experiences Evaluation of learning objectives/ outcomes
  14. Formulation Of Educational Objectives Educational objectives formulated for a given course of study will depend upon the intended learning outcomes.
  15. In formulating educational objections, it is best to use words or phrases (eg. to identify, to differentiate, to evaluate, to perform a particular task or procedure, to elicit a response from) that describe, as precisely as possible, measurable or observable learning outcomes. Phrases like ‘to know’, ‘to understand’, and ‘to appreciate’, which are not precise enough for this purpose, may however be used in statements that describe the general goals of a course/programme.
  16. Educational objectives will provide useful guidelines for teachers to adopt a more systematic approach in designing and planning instructional strategies, particularly with respect to: What to teach How to teach How to assess What to evaluate
  18. Learning experience is defined as deliberately planned experiences in selected situations where students actively participate, interact & which result in desirable changes of behavior in the students. In nursing education, selection of learning experience is concerned with the decision about the content of subject matter & clinical, community & laboratory practice.
  19. Criteria for the selection of Learning Experiences Consistent with the philosophy Varied & flexible enough Give the students an opportunity to practice Provide chance for the development of independent thinking Adapted to the needs of the student Provide continuity, correlation & integration Learning experience should be:
  20. Planned & evaluated co-operatively by the teacher & the student Selected & arranged to give appropriate emphasis & weight age according to the relative importance of the various L.Es & contents. should allow the student to learn by doing should create motivation & interest among students selected should bring out multiple outcomes in students All learning experiences which are planned & selected should be helpful to the student in attaining the educational objectives.
  21. Organization of learning experiences • It has to be done carefully, systematically & sequentially • Acc to Tyler, primary aim of organization of learning experiences in the curriculum is to bring & relate various learning experiences together to produce the maximum. • Continuity, sequence & integration has to be followed
  22. Learning experiences have to be vertically & horizontally organized In vertical organization, the L.E planned for the entire curriculum have to be arranged in such a way that the learning progresses week by week, month by month, semester to semester & year to year. In horizontal, all the learning takes place in different times & are automatically related to learning of another situation or subject.
  23. Elements of Organizing the Learning Experiences Grouping learning under subject headings Preparation of master plan for curriculum Placement of learning experiences in the total curriculum Preparation of the correlation chart Organization of clinical experience Types of teaching system have to be followed.
  24. Evaluation of the curriculum Curriculum evaluation involves an assessment of the philosophy of the institution, programme goals, nursing content taught in each course, course objectives, teaching – learning methods, course evaluation methods & the relationship of non- nursing courses to the overall plan of study. Evaluation of a curriculum should be efficient & effective.
  25. Five M’s of curriculum evaluation Men & other personnel involved Money Materials Methods Minutes
  26. CORE CURRICULUM The core curriculum is a curriculum in which the concepts which are to be incorporated in the teaching learning situation forms the essence. According to fredgraves, core curriculum means the central area of concern, the central theme or thread which provides the main route for the students through the curriculum or part of it.
  27. The basis of the concept of core curriculum Based on philosophy of pragmatism and experimentalism Fundamental human activities as a centre of learning. Continuous reconstruction of experiences Emphasis on problem – solving as an important part of learning. Emphasis upon the basic democratic values and the cultural factors. Based on the cognitive theories of learning.
  28. Chacteristics of core curriculum Related to educational aspect of teaching and does not take into consideration the specialization or diversification of courses Focus on the common problems of the learners. To provide first hand experiences to the learner. Aims at all round development of the learner Flexible providing for the individual needs of the learners Time is provided for the completion of the activity with multimedia approaches. Guidance and counseling is an integral part of core curriculum.
  29. Competence Experience Knowledge
  30. Knowledge centered curriculum (subject centered) Knowledge centered curriculum is that curriculum in which knowledge is divided in terms of isolated subjects, the sequence followed is the logical sequence pertaining to the particular discipline and the logic is determined by the subject specialist.
  31. Competence based curriculum (Task oriented or activity based curriculum) “ what should a learner be able to do and what she should learn during the course?” is the basic question that drives the making of such a curriculum plan. The focus is on the tasks that a successful graduate Nurse need to do later as a competent professional.
  32. The tasks could be of Cognitive problem solving skills, Definitive communication skills or Mixed type encompassing more than one domain. Nursing curricula need to adopt this approach more widely.
  33. Experience based curriculum In this type of curriculum learner is placed in the natural setting of the community Perhaps community oriented nursing education is an ideal method of educating learners.
  34. New types of curriculum Corresponding to the changes in the education system in our country or in other countries there have been changes in the concepts and form of curriculum. As new psychological, philosophical and sociological principles modified the educational process, new types of curricula came into being.
  35. The traditional or subject centered curriculum. Child centered curriculum Activity curriculum Experience curriculum Un differential curriculum Basic education curriculum Official curriculum Hidden curriculum New types of curriculums
  36. According to Olivia Bevis 4 types of curriculum Legitimate curriculum Illegitimate curriculum Hidden curriculum Null curriculum
  37. • Includes the stated curriculum framework with philosophy and mission. Official curriculum: • Consists of what actually taught by the teacher and how its importance is communicated to the student. The operational curriculum:
  38. • This is agreed by the faculty legitimate curriculum • This is the curriculum that, because of the constrains of the behavioral objectives driven curriculum prevalent in nursing cannot be graded or officially acknowledge. Illegitimate curriculum:
  39. • It is the curriculum that covertly communicates priorities, relationships and values. Hidden curriculum • This is the curriculum that exists only in the hearts and mind of educators but seldom exists in reality. Null curriculum
  40. • Teacher centered – more emphasis on subject matter teacher predominates. Subject matter curriculum • Learner centered/emphasis on all round development of learners. Activity curriculum • fusion of subjects E.g: anatomy & physiology.Integrated curriculum:
  41. Curriculum models or conceptual models provide faculty with a means of conceptualizing and organizing the knowledge, skills, values & beliefs critical to the delivery of a coherent curriculum that facilitates the achievement of the desired curriculum outcomes. Curriculum models
  42. Purpose of models. Provide a blueprint for determining the scope of knowledge. Highlight the purpose they serve, their goals and objectives, content & methods of instruction & evaluation they promote. These are the educational road maps.
  43. Linear Development Linear nursing education models are objectives-driven, emphasizing desired student-nurse outcomes. Objectives or specific behaviors are established and a step-by-step program is developed to teach students and achieve desired outcomes. As an educational blueprint, linear models can be assessed to determine if the stated objectives have been reached.
  44. Cyclic Models Cyclic models portray nursing curriculum development as a coherent and logical procedure involving five specific mechanisms including Situational analysis, Choice of objectives, Content selection and arrangement, Methods selection and arrangement and Learning assessment. This model assumes that what is being taught is circular with no specific starting or ending point.
  45. Dynamic Models Complex, flexible, interactive and dynamic, this model encourages curriculum development participants to debate, argue and discuss the curriculum approach until arriving at an agreed-upon result. The model urges nursing educators, nurses, doctors, students and health care community leaders to have involvement and input in the curriculum design and development.
  46. THE TYLER MODEL In 1949, Ralph Tyler, a consultant with the University of Washington School of Nursing, introduced "Syllabus for Education 360," which was then revised in 1950 to "Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction." Tyler's model was based on objectives or "goal-attainment," according to Keating.
  47. This is considered the Classic Curriculum Model, one of the earliest ideas in education that leads to the measurement of outcomes. The Tyler Model remains the foundation for a performance-based nursing curriculum.
  48. Tyler identified four principles for teaching: Defining appropriate learning objectives. Establishing useful learning experiences. Organizing learning experiences to have a maximum cumulative effect. Evaluating the curriculum and revising those aspects that did not prove to be effective.
  49. STENHOUSE’S PROCESS MODEL Lawrence ( 1975) formulated the process model. This is an input model ie emphases on learning experience or the process of education. He believed that it was possible to organize curriculum without having to specify in advance the expected behavioral change in students. According the content of curriculum can be selected on the basis that is suitable in itself and not merely as the means to achieve behavioral objective.
  50. LAWTON'S CULTURAL ANALYSIS MODEL Lawton's model ( 1983) was a reaction against what he saw was as the dangers of the behavioral objectives models. This model proposes a curriculum planned on the technique of cultural analysis. Cultural analysis is the process by which the selection is made from the culture and in terms of curriculum planning.
  51. BEATTIES FOUR FOLD MODEL Beattie’s ( 1987 ) suggests that there are four fundamental approaches in relation to the task of planning a curriculum for nursing
  52. The curriculum as a map of key subjects : approach consists of mapping out the key subjects in nursing curriculum. The curriculum as schedule of basic skills : this approach emphasis the explicit specifications of basic skills of nursing practice. The curriculum as a portfolio of meaning this approach places the student this approach places the students at the centre of thing by organizing the curriculum around their interests and experiences. The curriculum as an agenda of important cultural issues; this approach avoids giving detailed subject matter, focusing instead on controversial issues and political dilemmas in nursing and health care.
  54. YOU AS A TEACHER Your philosophy of education is your “window” to the world and “compass” in life. Your philosophy of education is reflected in your dealings with students, colleagues, parents and administrators. Your attitude towards problems and life as whole has an underlying philosophy.
  55. WHAT DOES A PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION CONTAIN OR INCLUDE? the human person, the learner in particular and the educated person. what is true and good and therefore must be taught. how a learner must be taught in order to come close to the truth.
  56. Formulation of philosophy of nursing education The program must integrate the philosophy of learning outcomes( objectives) of the program within the curriculum as there is a close relationship between the philosophy and the curriculum. Philosophy sets the goals( e.g what is expected of a nurse after the successful completion of a program) through the completion of curriculum we achieve the goals set. It is important that faculty must have broad based agreement on the philosophy because such agreement is fundamental to the consistent interpretation, implementation and evaluation of the curriculum.
  57. FORMULATION OF PHILOSOPHY Formulation of philosophy requires the staff should hold discussion and come to unanimous decisions as to what is desirable and feasible in the interest of the students, school and profession.
  58. Philosophy must be Stated clearly Concise terms Related to curriculum
  59. HOW TO FORM A PHILOSOPHY Developing a personal philosophy can be a deeply rewarding life experience. A personal philosophy is a framework that helps you understand who you are and make sense of your life. Forming your own philosophy is quite difficult, especially for beginners, but the rewards definitely make it worth a try.
  60. Steps
  61. 1. Understand that you are starting a lifelong journey. Commit to being open- minded and flexible. Every conscious person has a philosophy. Individual philosophies can be simple, developing, or well-developed. A personal philosophy is a fundamental and integrated understanding about existence and your relationship to all related issues.
  62. Discovering and developing one's philosophy requires self-awareness, a desire to understand, and the will and ability to learn. Commit to looking for meaning and discern what makes sense. Your goal is to start on a path of personal growth that will evolve and mature as you pursue the love of wisdom (philosophia) for that is what philosophy means.
  63. 2 Start reading and learning Start with what interests you and try to get a sense of the big ideas that philosophers are concerned with. As you learn look for connections between ideas and subjects to find coherence and/or arguments.
  64. 3 Choose a type Philosophical thought is organized around many types of philosophies including: axiology, ontology, aesthetics, epistemology, ethics, logic, metaphysics and political theory. Follow your interests. Feel free to choose more than one type because you see particular linkages. You will enjoy thinking through how to meld them successfully.
  65. After deciding a philosophy type, learn the background history of your chosen philosophy, including readings from the key philosophers. Understand the key questions that were addressed and get a solid understanding of the key concepts. Improve your basic understanding of other types of philosophies.
  66. • You cannot be an expert in everything but recognize that there is great value in understanding the basics of what others have done. • A broad understanding of what people are struggling with and what the discussions have been about will help you to develop your own personal philosophy. • Feel free to learn and build on existing ideas.
  67. • It is difficult starting from scratch, so why not take another philosopher's ideas as a basic framework to get started? Many well known philosophers started like this. • For example, Plato took the undoubtedly oral and sociable Socratic method from the real Socrates, and used it as the basis for his highly polished literary Socratic method, which in turn was taken by Aristotle to form the basis of Logic particularly syllogisms.
  68. 4 Expand and evolve your thinking. The framework you have selected is a starting point. As you experience life, test it out and see what works for you and what doesn't. When you have time analyze this and refine your framework philosophy. Over time, as you solve problems and assess the quality of the decisions you have made, you will be able to evolve from where you started into something autonomous of the original philosophy. Become a critical thinker.
  69. Keep track of where you have obtained the basis for ideas, tenets, theories, etc., in your new philosophy. Being able to trace your theorizing or conclusions back to their source will help you defending your ideas or pushing them further. Very little develops in a vacuum. Referring to what other philosophers have said gives your philosophy greater credibility because you are displaying your depth of knowledge and understanding of existing philosophies.
  70. 5 Be patient and allow your ideas to percolate over time. When you have spare time, analyze the framework of your nascent philosophy, and try to find problems and solutions. Taking the development of your philosophy gradually will allow it to evolve into something autonomous of the original philosophy.  Keep a journal and continue writing down your thoughts and ideas, even if they're not coherent. Patience is essential because it may take you years to sort through all the discarded notions to find the treasure buried underneath. The passage of time is healthy, as it allows your ideas to keep evolving and to be tested by daily events.
  71. Ask some pertinent questions, such as: What is the purpose of your philosophy? Do you want to apply it to all of society or just a sector? What is your role in your philosophy? What, if any, are the roles of particular people in your philosophy? How will you explain the basis of your philosophy to others? Is it helpful on a practical level, or Utopian? How do other belief sets or philosophies fit in with or go against your philosophy? Are you willing to write down a thesis or book of your philosophy? Or would you rather write stories that contain your philosophy but are not overtly a philosophical work in structure?
  72. 6 Talk to others interested in philosophy. They can point out faults you might have missed and give different solutions. This is helpful for developing your philosophy. Join a local philosophy group, club, or chapter. Join an online group that has private forums where you can share your ideas freely and get responses. Visit your local university and ask to speak with philosophy professors to share your thoughts with them.
  73. If you find someone else who really understands where your new philosophy is headed, embrace their enthusiasm but take care to keep working on your understandings separate from their enthusiasm. It is hard to follow someone else while they are still working out what it is that they believe, so their enthusiasm may just be because they like and trust you.
  74. 7 7. Actively find/seek out new experiences to help to see things in different ways and from different angles. Keep an open mind. Learn to accept criticism and grow from it; it might just help strengthen you and your philosophy. Always have a pencil and a notebook to note down ideas as they occur to you, or you come across them.
  75. 8. Keep reading philosophy. It will allow you to see previous philosophers' attempts, what they found, and what fallacies they fell into; thus, progressing your own philosophy. This will also help you to see whether or not you are attempting something that a previous philosopher has already tried.
  76. 9 Keep up to date with the world. •Try reading a newspaper once in a while. •It'll help you apply theories to real situations. •For example, take a serious news story that involves issues impacting on many sectors of society and ask yourself: "What would I have done?" Work your answers into your developing philosophy to see if it can withstand actual events and provide explanations, instruction, or greater understanding.
  77. 10 See yourself as a philosopher, whether or not you work as one. A career in philosophy, or similar roles such as a researcher in a think-tank or institute, will ensure you dedicate regular time to your philosophy, but for the part-time philosopher make sure you dedicate enough time to it so you keep improving and don't forget bits of your work.
  78. 11 Try as much as possible to live up to your thoughts, even when you are experiencing something uncanny that may distract you from your opinions. Get back to those notes that you have made about your philosophy or the inspiring books that you have been reading. It'll help.
  79. Planning and implementation of curriculum Curriculum planning is done at the society level, institutional level and at the instructional level or teacher level.
  80. At the society level, various programs in various disciples are developed to pre pare various categories of personnel to serve specific needs of the society. E.g: engineering , nursing, Para medical courses, law etc. This is mainly to balance the societal needs and are mainly developed by either the regulatory bodies such as Indian medical association, Indian nursing council or universities.
  81. At the institutional level, the faculty and the curriculum committee of the program, decides the curriculum of the course confining with the regulatory bodies. Curriculum philosophy , objectives, units of subject matter and evaluation strategy for each of the course are worked out to ensure continuity, progression in learning, to avoid gaps and non productive repetition in subject matter content.
  82. At instructional level, the teacher plans the course, units and lessons, selects and mobilizes teaching learning material, arranges teaching learning environment , helps and guides students to move forward towards the goals. Planning of course, its units and lessons if planned systematically ensures cohesion among the various components of lessons, units and the various courses.
  83. Curriculum Revision / Changing the Curriculum
  84. Curriculum Revision means making the curriculum different in some way to give it a new position or direction This often means alteration to its philosophy by way of its aims & objectives, reviewing the content included, revising its methods & re thinking its evaluatory procedures.
  85. Approaches to Curriculum Revision: Addition Deletion Reorganization
  86. STAGES OF CURRICULUM REVISION Fred greaves describes the 7 stages in revising a nursing curriculum Stage I: Formation of Curriculum development & evaluation committee Stage II: Appraise the existing nursing & educational practices Stage III: make a detailed study of the existing curriculum content Stage IV: establish criteria for decisions
  87. Stage V: Design & writing of the new curriculum changes Stage VI: within this stage the actual implementation of changes put into action Stage VII: evaluate the effects of those changes & it is with evaluation that this final stage is concerned.
  88. ROLE OF CURRICULUM COMMITTEE MEMBERS The process of curriculum construction is a cooperative effort. In this national agencies, regional and local level agencies, principals and the teachers as well as community members are involved.
  89. NATIONAL AGENCY In Indian situation for the planning of secondary level curriculum the agency involved at the central level is National Council Of Educational Research And Training (NCERT). It frames the curriculum and circulates it for adoption to state departments of education, boards of examination etc. It frames the curriculum in consultation with experts, subject teachers, and heads of institutions. Its task is to frame the curriculum in keeping with the national policy on education. The curriculum framework prepared by it is only suggestive and it is for the state governments and boards of Examination to accept it, modify it or reject it.
  90. STATE GOVERNMENT As mention above the NCERT prepares the curriculum which is suggestive in nature and it is the state government who decides to select, modify or rejected. Every state government appoints a board of examination for secondary and higher secondary examination. This board prescribes the curriculum which has to be followed in all the institution which are to be recognized for sending their students for public examination conducted by the board. Each board has a subject committee which prescribes the content of the courses in that subject.
  91. INDIAN NURSING COUNCIL Indian Nursing Council plays a major role in the development & revision of the nursing curriculum Nursing Educational Committee , part of INC will prepare the curriculum for the prescribed courses. Members of the committee only will have an opportunity to participate in curriculum development & revision.
  92. THE ROLE OF TEACHERS Only those teachers who are the part of committee have the opportunity to participate in this process. The teachers working in aided and recognized schools have no freedom to plan their own curriculum. But , the teachers working in experimental innovative schools may have the opportunity to do so. But for the most of teachers it is not possible to do so. They may only have some freedom in the transacting the curriculum in prescribed framework.
  93. THE NEED FOR RESEARCH IN NURSING Nursing research is a needed in nursing practice, education, administration, management. Nursing research needed to discover, verify, structure and restructure the professional knowledge through systematic way.
  94. Research is the only way to: – Build a body of nursing knowledge – Validate improvements in nursing – Make health care efficient as well as cost effective Nursing are expected to deliver the highest quality care. To get high quality need to update new knowledge through nursing research. It is needed to implement the research into a scientific approach of facts finding.
  95. IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH IN NURSING CURRICULUM To improve the quality of care. To update the knowledge. Research allows nurses to question their practice, find answers and thus implement into their area. Evidence based practice.
  96. Conclusion Curriculum is considered as the blueprint of an educational program. We need to consider how to design the curriculum that would work in the globalized world and for globalization, how to design the curriculum that accommodates diversity and differences, how to design the curriculum that is meaningful to the students, and how to design the curriculum that reflects to the concepts of the profession. Nursing curriculum is the learning opportunities and the learning activities that the faculty plans and implement in various settings for a particular group of students, for a specified period of time in order to attain the objectives.

Hinweis der Redaktion

  1. With the lists of outcomes, competencies,and objectives for the programme and individual courses. Curriculum includes knowledge,skills,attitudes emphasized by faculty in the classroom and clinical setting.
  2. Sometimes its written into plans sometime not. Its recognized and acknowledged by the faculty and students as real curriculum. It does not lend itself to descriptors that are behavioural. It is the curriculum that values and reaches, among many other things, caring compassion, power and its use.
  3. This is the curriculum of subtle socialization of teaching how to think and feel like nurses. This may be because teachers are not taught the art of provoking cognitive dissonance and raising issues and questions that support the general aims of education like critical thinking,enquiry and intellectual development.
  4. Culture is defined as the whole way of life of society and the purpose of education is to make available to the next generation what we regard as the most important aspects of culture.
  5. plrajupudota