6. Things are simple that can be understood by looking at a single level with a single set of conceptual tools
7. Things are complex when we can’t understand them without shifting perceptual or conceptual levels. Levels create complexity. We shift levels when we need to change tools: from a microscope to a sextant.
8. When we examine one level, we lose sight of other levels. When we examine a cell through a microscope, we cannot at the same time “see” elk populations shifting over decades.
10. Focus on what? Ideas - Organization - Voice Word Choice - Empowerment Metaphor - Simile -Synecdoche Grammar - Spelling - Consistent Tense Fluency - Authenticity - Originality
14. When we examine individual sentences, we can proofread for grammatical errors: the correctness. Or we can pay attention to the music and the rhythms and the figurative language: the style. Or we can contemplate the meaning and accuracy of the thought: the ideas. But few of us can do all these at the same time. (which is why it takes many drafts to get a piece of writing “right”) Awareness of the levels increases students’ perception of order –their ability to focus
15. At the level of paragraphs, new issues emerge. Is the paragraph unified? Do all the sentences relate to a single main idea? Is the paragraph adequately developed, with enough detail to communicate and to persuade? Is the paragraph coherent, with sentences arranged in a plan the reader can follow? Paragraphs
16. At the level of essays or articles, all the simpler issues remain important, but organization becomes increasingly difficult. . . . . . much more difficult. . . “ As length grows linearly, complexity expands exponentially.” Essays, Articles, Reports
18. An original sentence, a step forward, is worth more than all the censures. Emerson Sentences The Basic Standards
20. Paragraphs Students should develop the habit of writing in paragraphs . The expository paragraph with a topic sentence and detailed support is the basis of much academic and business writing. The Basic Standards
27. “ Report” Paragraph Frame I also learned. . . . For example, I learned. . . . I learned a lot about. . . . The most interesting thing I learned was. . . http://www.flatheadreservation.org/images/phs/Paragraph_frame-report.pdf
28. “ Persuasive” Paragraph Frame I believe that. . . One reason is. . . For example. . . Another reason is. . . For example. . . Therefore, . . . Also, . . . http://www.flatheadreservation.org/images/phs/Paragraph_frame-persuasive.pdf
29. “ Reflective” Paragraph Frame Today we studied. . . I already knew. . . The main thing I learned was. . . I question. . . I still want to know. . . http://www.flatheadreservation.org/images/phs/Paragraph_frame-reflective.pdf
30. A filled in paragraph frame Main Idea: Learning how to turn in homework assignments on time is one of the most valuable habits high school students can take with them into the working world. Explanation: Though employers may not assign homework in the traditional sense, many tasks must be completed by deadlines. The deadlines that students encounter in the classroom may be different that workplace deadlines but the importance of meeting those deadlines is the same. Example B: Accordingly, just as a student risks termination in the classroom if he/she fails to meet the deadline for a homework assignment, so, too, does that student risk termination in the workforce . Example A: In the classroom, students form a contract with the school when they enroll in a class. That contract requires that students complete the assignments set forth by the course's instructor in a specified time to receive a grade and credit for the course. Completion of idea (or transition to next paragraph): Developing good habits of turning in assignments in class now, as current students, will aid your performance and position as future participants in the working world.
33. Outlines To write an outline, a writer needs to focus on the highest level* of writing: Ideas, Organization and Truth The Basic Standards (There may be higher levels, but they go beyond the scope of high school teaching: think Koran , Bible , Analects of Confucius , etc)
35. Organization is the main problem in lengthy writing. Outlines are the solution. “ Every writer of any merit at all during the last five hundred years of English history outlined virtually everything he wrote. . . Jon Franklin
39. Increasing efficiency and productivity It’s more effective to require multiple drafts of outlines (which a teacher can read quickly) than it is to try to explain to a student what went wrong in a longish essay. The more demanding teachers are of quality outlines, the more engaged students need to be in hard thinking, which is the only effective learning strategy…