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UX London Collaborative Research Workshop

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Gathering knowledge with your team is essential to making decisions.

Veröffentlicht in: Design
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UX London Collaborative Research Workshop

  1. 1. UX LONDON Research Together! 1
  2. 2. Hello! 2
  3. 3. I have a question… 3
  4. 4. Do you enjoy being right? 4
  5. 5. You are correct! 5
  6. 6. YESSS! 6
  7. 7. p0wned! 7
  8. 8. No. 8
  9. 9. ? 9
  10. 10. >? ! 10
  11. 11. Flickr/Chris Voll 11
  12. 12. Ego! 12
  13. 13. 13
  14. 14. 14
  15. 15. Where are you? 15
  16. 16. What We’re Doing Today Research & Collaboration A Framework for Research Questions & Activities Biases & Objections Understanding the Organization Break User Research Analysis Models and Reports Getting Buy-In at Every Stage Wrap Up 16
  17. 17. Research & Collaboration 17
  18. 18. 18
  19. 19. 19
  20. 20. 20
  21. 21. 21
  22. 22. 22
  23. 23. 23
  24. 24. People 24
  25. 25. 25
  26. 26. Collaboration! 26
  27. 27. Collaboration! 27
  28. 28. 28
  29. 29. True Collaboration 29
  30. 30. Chris Noessel Collaboration requires behavior change 30
  31. 31. For Effective Collaboration Have a plan Provide a rationale Define roles and responsibility Set expectations Communicate progress Reflect on performance 31
  32. 32. The 4 Virtues of Collaboration Clarity & definition Accountability & ownership Awareness & respect Openness & honesty 32
  33. 33. Embrace Conflict 33
  34. 34. Why research? 34
  35. 35. Real World Context Organization Users 35
  36. 36. Things you don’t control Goals, assumptions & resources Needs & behaviors 36
  37. 37. Personal View Personal View Personal View 37
  38. 38. Shared Reality 38
  39. 39. Shared Understanding 39
  40. 40. A design project is a series of decisions. 40
  41. 41. What is What ought to be 41
  42. 42. Research leads to evidence-based decisions. 42
  43. 43. Data (alone) doesn’t change minds. 43
  44. 44. Objections! 44
  45. 45. 6We don’t have the time. 45
  46. 46. $We don’t have the money. 46
  47. 47. $We don’t have the expertise. 47
  48. 48. We have a guy. 48
  49. 49. 0 25 50 75 100 April May June July We’ll just A/B test. We have analytics. 49
  50. 50. !Let’s just make a prototype. 50
  51. 51. Steve Jobs 51
  52. 52. Any others? 52
  53. 53. Everyone wants better products, faster. 53
  54. 54. No one wants to read a report. 54
  55. 55. Research Advantages 55
  56. 56. ¿Faster decisions 56
  57. 57. CLower risk 57
  58. 58. Saves money $58
  59. 59. JIncreased value 59
  60. 60. Continuing returns C 60
  61. 61. Everyone is more effective and efficient 61
  62. 62. 62
  63. 63. How to Do Research 63
  64. 64. Dogma 64
  65. 65. Design-Led Research-Led Expert Mindset Participatory Mindset Users seen as subjects Users seen as partners Design-led with expert mindset Design-led with participatory mindset Research-led with expert mindset Research-led with participatory mindset Dubberly Design Office 65
  66. 66. Goal Driven Skeptical Mindset Increase chance of success Reduce risk Willing to question the value of any approach 66
  67. 67. One Simple Process 67
  68. 68. Form Questions Analyze Data Gather Data 68
  69. 69. Form Questions Analyze DataThink Critically 69
  70. 70. Form Questions Analyze DataObserve 70
  71. 71. Form Questions Analyze DataInterview 71
  72. 72. Form Questions Analyze DataRead 72
  73. 73. Form Questions Analyze Data Read Experiment Interview Observe Think 73
  74. 74. Your Process Success! !!!Insights 74
  75. 75. You need a plan! 75
  76. 76. 76
  77. 77. Form Questions Analyze Data Gather Data 77
  78. 78. Questions determine results. 78
  79. 79. Questions give research meaning. 79
  80. 80. Research high-priority questions. 80
  81. 81. Good Questions Specific Actionable Practical 81
  82. 82. A Bad Question “How do we get Millennials to like us?” 82
  83. 83. Better Question “How do recent college graduates living in cities decide what to have for dinner?” 83
  84. 84. A Bad Question “What do people do around here all day?” 84
  85. 85. A Better Question “How do editors and designers work together?” 85
  86. 86. The Best Question The unknown that carries the most risk. 86
  87. 87. Project Risks •Target customers don’t value product •Customers need something else •Business model doesn’t support it •Organization can’t produce it •Someone else is doing it better 87
  88. 88. Practice! !88
  89. 89. Practice Exercise: Writing questions Time:10 minutes • I will give you a project scenario • Discuss potential research questions • Write down the 3–5 highest priority 89
  90. 90. What research questions might serve this project? A e-commerce startup wants to create an app to help people give gifts. 90
  91. 91. Time is up! 6 91
  92. 92. Let’s talk about your questions. 92
  93. 93. How to answer those questions 93
  94. 94. Form Questions Analyze Data Gather Data 94
  95. 95. Research activities are simply ways to answer questions. 95
  96. 96. Questions About Users ProductOrg Competition InterviewsInterviews Usability Testing A/B Testing Contextual Inquiry Literature Review SWOT Analysis Brand Audit Usability Testing Competitive Analysis Heuristic Analysis Descriptive Evaluative Evaluative Evaluative Analytic Analytic Generative Descriptive 96
  97. 97. Research Activity Topic Purpose Time Money 97
  98. 98. Phone Interviews What do we need to know about? What kind of decision will it inform? How long do we have? What is our budget? In-Person Interviews Contextual Inquiry Usability Testing Competitive Analysis 98
  99. 99. Why not just make a prototype? 99
  100. 100. 100
  101. 101. “If we only test bottle openers, we may never realize customers prefer screw-top bottles.” – Victor Lombardi, Why We Fail 101
  102. 102. There is no one right method or activity. 102
  103. 103. How to get the most out of any method •Clarify goals •Enumerate assumptions •Identify questions •Prioritize questions •Work collaboratively •Present strategically 103
  104. 104. Don’t focus on the method 104
  105. 105. Tell the story 105
  106. 106. Critical Thinking 106
  107. 107. Critical Thinking •Disciplined •Self-correcting •Clear •Logical 107
  108. 108. Uncritical Thinking “I hate yellow, so a yellow website won’t succeed.” 108
  109. 109. Critical Thinking “I hate yellow, but based on the evidence, it might work for our audience.” 109
  110. 110. Uncritical Thinking “The information on this website is too dumbed- down for me.” 110
  111. 111. Critical Thinking “Our target audience needs clear, simple information.” 111
  112. 112. Critical Thinking “I don’t know.” 112
  113. 113. Bias 113
  114. 114. Bias: Something that causes an influence or prejudice 114
  115. 115. Confirmation Bias: You selectively weight the information that confirms what you already believe. 115
  116. 116. Sampling Bias: Your sample of research subjects isn’t sufficiently representative. 116
  117. 117. Interviewer Bias: You insert your opinion into interviews. 117
  118. 118. Social Desirability Bias People don’t say the true things that they worry will make them look bad. 118
  119. 119. Hawthorne Effect Observation changes the behavior being observed. 119
  120. 120. Ease Clear Display Related Experience Primed Idea Good Mood Feels True Feels Familiar Feels Good Feels Effortless Daniel Kahneman 120
  121. 121. Feeling confident? It’s not a good sign. 121
  122. 122. You might have a bad case of Dunning-Kruger. 122
  123. 123. Research Topics 123
  124. 124. Organizational Research 124
  125. 125. Real World Context Organization Users 125
  126. 126. All organizations have baggage 126
  127. 127. Organizational research helps you understand •Requirements •Politics •Workflow •Capabilities •Goodwill 127
  128. 128. Requirements What are the top business priorities for this project/ product? 128
  129. 129. Politics What does success mean for our individual roles? 129
  130. 130. Workflow (How) do we have to change how we work together to be successful? 130
  131. 131. Capabilities What are the strengths and weaknesses of our team? 131
  132. 132. Capabilities Where is the internal expertise? 132
  133. 133. Goodwill How might product decisions make someone’s job easier (or harder)? 133
  134. 134. Stakeholders 134
  135. 135. How to extract knowledge from these people? 135
  136. 136. Get them alone. 136
  137. 137. Butter them up. 137
  138. 138. Basic Stakeholder Questions What is your title? How long have you been in this role? What are your essential duties and responsibilities? What does a typical day look like? Who are the people you work most closely with? How is that going? 138
  139. 139. Project Specific Questions What does success mean from your perspective? What will have changed for the better once this project is complete? Do you have any concerns about this project? What do you think the greatest challenges to success are? Internal and external? 139
  140. 140. Stakeholder Power Moves “Why are you asking me this?” “I don’t understand that question. It doesn’t make any sense.” “I don’t feel comfortable talking to you about that.” “No one pays attention to anything I have to say, so I don’t know why I should bother talking to you.” “How much more time is this going to take?” 140
  141. 141. Practice! !141
  142. 142. Practice Exercise: Stakeholder interviews Time:10 minutes x 2 • Find a partner. This is a pair exercise. • We will show you a set of questions • Interview your partner • Really listen • No need to take notes 142
  143. 143. Stakeholder Questions •What is your title? How long have you had this job? •What are your essential duties and responsibilities? •What is a typical day like? •Who are the people you work most closely with? •How is that going? •What do you think the greatest challenges to your success are? •Internal and external? 143
  144. 144. Switch! ∞144
  145. 145. Stakeholder Questions •What is your title? How long have you had this job? •What are your essential duties and responsibilities? •What is a typical day like? •Who are the people you work most closely with? •How is that going? •What do you think the greatest challenges to your success are? •Internal and external? 145
  146. 146. Time is up! 6 146
  147. 147. What did you learn? 147
  148. 148. Empathy 148
  149. 149. In summary • A shared reality is as important as “new” facts. • Research is a simple process. • Be goal-oriented, not dogmatic. • Questions threaten authority. • Facts alone won’t convince those who feel threatened. • Use what you learn to fit your findings into the project story. 149
  150. 150. User Research 150
  151. 151. Real World Context UsersOrganization 151
  152. 152. Photo: Flickr/theloushe Ethnography 152
  153. 153. How to do bad user research: Ask people what they want. 153
  154. 154. How to do bad user research: Ask people what they like. 154
  155. 155. Never ask users what they want or like. 155
  156. 156. The Four Ds of Design Ethnography 156
  157. 157. Deep Dive Daily Life Data Analysis Drama 157
  158. 158. “...true ethnography reveals not just what people say they do, but what they actually do.” –PARC 158
  159. 159. 159
  160. 160. Photo: Flickr/lintmachine 160
  161. 161. The Art of The Interview 161
  162. 162. Interviewing is not talking. 162
  163. 163. Interviewing is listening. 163
  164. 164. Good Interviewers 1.Know Your Question 2.Warm Up 3.Shut Up 164
  165. 165. Interview Structure 1 Intro 2 Body 3 Conclusion 165
  166. 166. Introduction: Smile Express gratitude Describe the process Ask to record Warm up questions Body: Ask open-ended questions Probe for more Allow silence Use questions as checklist Conclusion: Transition to wrap-up Ask if there is anything else Thank for time Interview Structure 166
  167. 167. Introduction: Smile Express gratitude Describe the process Ask to record Warm up questions Body: Ask open-ended questions Probe for more Allow silence Use questions as checklist Conclusion: Transition to wrap-up Ask if there is anything else Thank for time Interview Structure 167
  168. 168. Introduction: Smile Express gratitude Describe the process Ask to record Warm up questions Body: Ask open-ended questions Probe for more Allow silence Use questions as checklist Conclusion: Transition to wrap-up Ask if there is anything else Thank for time Interview Structure 168
  169. 169. You are the host You are the student 169
  170. 170. Out of your comfort zone, and into theirs. 170
  171. 171. Interview Checklist • Create a welcoming atmosphere. • Always listen more than you speak. • Take responsibility to accurately convey the thoughts and 
 behaviors of the people you are studying. • Start each interview with a general description of the goal, 
 but be careful of focusing responses too narrowly. • Avoid leading questions and closed yes/no questions. Ask 
 follow-up questions. • Prepare an outline of your interview questions in advance, but don’t be afraid to stray from it. • Also note the exact phrases and vocabulary. 171
  172. 172. Goals Priorities Tasks Motivators Barriers Habits Relationships Tools Environment Make a note of 172
  173. 173. Roles Interviewer Notetaker Observer Participant 173
  174. 174. Practice! !174
  175. 175. Exercise: User research interview Time: 15 min x 3 •We will give you a research scenario and an interview script •In your groups, assign roles of participant, interviewer, note taker, and observer (optional) •Conduct the interview in 15 min, then switch roles. •Hang on to your notes.We’ll need them. 175
  176. 176. Interview Scenario You are working on a new service to help people give gifts. The goal of the research is to identify unmet needs people might have with regard to giving gifts. 176
  177. 177. Listen for: Goals Priorities Tasks Motivators Barriers Habits Relationships Tools Environment 177
  178. 178. !Ready? Go! 178
  179. 179. Switch! ∞179
  180. 180. Remember: This is a research interview, not a friendly conversation. Listen for: Goals Priorities Tasks Motivators Barriers Habits Relationships Tools Environment 180
  181. 181. Switch! ∞181
  182. 182. Clear your mind. Listen for: Goals Priorities Tasks Motivators Barriers Habits Relationships Tools Environment 182
  183. 183. Time is up! 6 183
  184. 184. How did that go? 184
  185. 185. How about a focus group? 185
  186. 186. 186
  187. 187. “Even when the subjects are well selected, focus groups are supposed to be merely the source of ideas that need to be researched.” –Robert K. Merton, Sociologist, invented focus groups 187
  188. 188. Everybody Lies 188
  189. 189. Anything else about activities? 189
  190. 190. Analysis 190
  191. 191. Analysis turns data into useful insights 191
  192. 192. 192
  193. 193. Analysis isn’t complicated Compile data Look for patterns Identify insights Create models …but it is challenging 193
  194. 194. You need to create meaning from data 194
  195. 195. Data > Meaning > Actionable Inputs 195
  196. 196. Observation Observation Observation Observation Observation Observation Observation Observation Observation 196
  197. 197. Observations are Verbatim quotes Reported behaviors Observed behavior 197
  198. 198. Observation Observation Observation Observation Observation Observation Observation Observation Observation Collaborates on purchases Uses several devices Needs affirmation 198
  199. 199. Make product information sharable Save state in purchase process Users collaborate on purchases Insight Mandate/Action 199
  200. 200. Ground rules The goal of this exercise is to better understand the context and needs of the user. Wait to identify larger patterns until you’ve gone through the data. Clearly differentiate observations from interpretations (what happened versus what it means). No specific solutions until after you’ve gone through insights and principles. Solutions come next. 200
  201. 201. Practice! !201
  202. 202. Practice Exercise: Analysis Part 1 Time: 15 minutes. 1.Gather all notes 2.Scan notes for interesting observations 3.Write observations on notes 4.Put the notes in a pile 202
  203. 203. Look for quotes and observations that indicate Goals (what the participant wants to accomplish) Priorities (what is most important to the participant) Tasks (actions the participant takes to meet their goal) Barriers (what prevents accomplishing the goal) Motivators (the situation or event that starts down the task path) Habits (things the participant does on a regular basis) Relationships (who the participant interacts with 
 doing the tasks) 203
  204. 204. You have 15 minutes.6 204
  205. 205. Get ready to finish!6 205
  206. 206. Time is up! 6 206
  207. 207. 207
  208. 208. Practice Exercise: Analysis Part 2 Time: 15 minutes. 1.Put notes on the board 2.Group notes into patterns 3.Label the group 4.Negotiate and advocate for your perspective 208
  209. 209. 1 2 3 209
  210. 210. Do this part last 210
  211. 211. You have 15 minutes.6 211
  212. 212. Get ready to finish!6 212
  213. 213. Time is up! 6 213
  214. 214. How did that go? 214
  215. 215. Creating a Model 215
  216. 216. Personal View Personal View Personal View 216
  217. 217. Shared Reality 217
  218. 218. Thinking is not useful until shared 218
  219. 219. A model is thinking made visible 219
  220. 220. Some examples 220
  221. 221. 221
  222. 222. 222
  223. 223. 223
  224. 224. 224
  225. 225. 225
  226. 226. 226
  227. 227. 227
  228. 228. 228
  229. 229. 229
  230. 230. 230
  231. 231. In summary •A model simplifies and clarifies complex ideas. •Thinking isn’t useful until it’s out where people can see it. • An effective model makes it easy to incorporate new information. •A model diagram is a tool, not an end in itself. •Avoid the temptation to make diagrams more pretty than useful. •An effective model communicates without needing an audio guide. 231
  232. 232. Personas 232
  233. 233. A persona is “the user” made visible 233
  234. 234. Busy mom is the ur-persona. 234
  235. 235. I’ve never seen a persona called “Married woman, no kids, with pristine hardwood.” God, how I aspire to see that persona. -Steve Portigal 235
  236. 236. They can still be useful tools 236
  237. 237. Personas • Distill ethnographic research • Document representative groups of needs and behaviors as archetypes • Represent relationships among user types • Allow team to advocate for user needs • Act as a reference point for decision-making • Maintain empathy throughout design process 237
  238. 238. Personas must be based on actual research data 238
  239. 239. Fun, but not useful 239
  240. 240. A good model represents and simplifies knowledge 240
  241. 241. Practice! !241
  242. 242. MAKE A SIMPLE JOURNEY Experience Journey Map | Task: Eating Lunch    242
  243. 243. Practice Exercise: User Journey Time: 15 minutes. 1.As a group, review your user interview notes to identify steps in gift purchase journey 2.Decide whether that step is positive or negative 3.Decide how much of a positive or negative 4.Fill in diagram 243
  244. 244. Time is up! 6 244
  245. 245. How did that go? 245
  246. 246. Reporting 246
  247. 247. 2 A useful report supports Clear goals Shared values Access to information Confident decisions 247
  248. 248. 2 You decide the purpose Informing? Inspiring? Focusing? Remembering? Recording? Deciding? 248
  249. 249. Research ReportStudy Title Date Completed Research Goal Activities Related Decisions Key Insights Supporting Observations Recommended Actions Questions for Further Study Keep it as brief as you can. 249
  250. 250. Building a research-driven culture 250
  251. 251. Capture the value of research 251
  252. 252. Use your report to tell a story 252
  253. 253. How most people do it Methods (what we did, usually in vast detail) Findings (what we found, often disconnected from biz goals) Meaning (the implications for our design work) Framing (How it connects to the project story… maybe) zzzz 253
  254. 254. How you should Methods (a brief summary up front, most as an appendix) Findings (what we found, leading with the interesting bits) Meaning (the implications for your business) Framing (Setting the stage with context and a good story) $ $ $ 254
  255. 255. Finish line! 255
  256. 256. In summary • Research creates a shared understanding of reality. • Asking questions is uncomfortable. Embrace that feeling. • A truly collaborative approach and environment is necessary for research to be effective, and it also makes it more fun. • Clear goals and good questions are required. • Choose only the research activities that answer real questions and inform your top priority design and development decisions. • Practice! Observe and listen every day. • Document! Report! Share! It’s easy to lose what you learn. 256
  257. 257. Any questions? 257
  258. 258. Thank you! 258

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