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DIPLOMACY AND FOREIGN POLICY

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DIPLOMACY and
FOREIGN POLICY
Why diplomacy
A Brief History of Diplomacy
• DIPLOMACY HAS BEEN PRACTICED SINCE THE
FORMATION OF THE FIRST CITY-STATES AND IS
ONE OF THE DEFINING ELEMENTS OF A STATE.
ORIGINALLY DIPLOMATS WERE SENT ONLY FOR
SPECIFIC NEGOTIATIONS, AND WOULD RETURN
IMMEDIATELY AFTER THEIR MISSION CONCLUDED.
DIPLOMATS WERE USUALLY RELATIVES OF THE
RULING FAMILY OR OF VERY HIGH RANK IN ORDER
TO GIVE THEM LEGITIMACY WHEN THEY SOUGHT
TO NEGOTIATE WITH THE OTHER STATE.
A Brief History of Diplomacy
• MODERN DIPLOMACY'S ORIGINS ARE OFTEN
TRACED TO THE STATES OF NORTHERN ITALY IN
THE EARLY RENAISSANCE, WITH THE FIRST
EMBASSIES BEING ESTABLISHED IN THE
THIRTEENTH CENTURY. MILAN PLAYED A LEADING
ROLE, ESPECIALLY UNDER FRANCESCO SFORZA
WHO ESTABLISHED PERMANENT EMBASSIES TO
THE OTHER CITIES STATES OF NORTHERN ITALY.
IT WAS IN ITALY THAT MANY OF THE TRADITIONS
OF MODERN DIPLOMACY BEGAN, SUCH AS THE
PRESENTATION OF AN AMBASSADOR'S
CREDENTIALS TO THE HEAD OF STATE.
FOREIGN POLICY DEFINED
GENERAL OBJECTIVES THAT GUIDE
THE ACTIVITIES AND RELATIONSHIPS
OF ONE STATE IN ITS INTERACTIONS
WITH OTHER STATES. THE
DEVELOPMENT OF FOREIGN POLICY
IS INFLUENCED BY DOMESTIC
CONSIDERATIONS, THE POLICIES OR
BEHAVIOUR OF OTHER STATES, OR
PLANS TO ADVANCE SPECIFIC
GEOPOLITICAL DESIGNS.
von Ranke
LEOPOLD VON RANKE EMPHASIZED
THE PRIMACY OF GEOGRAPHY AND
EXTERNAL THREATS IN SHAPING
FOREIGN POLICY, BUT LATER
WRITERS EMPHASIZED DOMESTIC
FACTORS. DIPLOMACY IS THE TOOL
OF FOREIGN POLICY, AND WAR,
ALLIANCES, AND INTERNATIONAL
TRADE MAY ALL BE
MANIFESTATIONS OF IT.
FP
• FP in simplicity is….A POLICY
GOVERNING
INTERNATIONAL
RELATIONS AMONG
STATES IN THE
INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM
AND INTERNATIONAL
POLITIC

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DIPLOMACY AND FOREIGN POLICY

  • 2. A Brief History of Diplomacy • DIPLOMACY HAS BEEN PRACTICED SINCE THE FORMATION OF THE FIRST CITY-STATES AND IS ONE OF THE DEFINING ELEMENTS OF A STATE. ORIGINALLY DIPLOMATS WERE SENT ONLY FOR SPECIFIC NEGOTIATIONS, AND WOULD RETURN IMMEDIATELY AFTER THEIR MISSION CONCLUDED. DIPLOMATS WERE USUALLY RELATIVES OF THE RULING FAMILY OR OF VERY HIGH RANK IN ORDER TO GIVE THEM LEGITIMACY WHEN THEY SOUGHT TO NEGOTIATE WITH THE OTHER STATE.
  • 3. A Brief History of Diplomacy • MODERN DIPLOMACY'S ORIGINS ARE OFTEN TRACED TO THE STATES OF NORTHERN ITALY IN THE EARLY RENAISSANCE, WITH THE FIRST EMBASSIES BEING ESTABLISHED IN THE THIRTEENTH CENTURY. MILAN PLAYED A LEADING ROLE, ESPECIALLY UNDER FRANCESCO SFORZA WHO ESTABLISHED PERMANENT EMBASSIES TO THE OTHER CITIES STATES OF NORTHERN ITALY. IT WAS IN ITALY THAT MANY OF THE TRADITIONS OF MODERN DIPLOMACY BEGAN, SUCH AS THE PRESENTATION OF AN AMBASSADOR'S CREDENTIALS TO THE HEAD OF STATE.
  • 4. FOREIGN POLICY DEFINED GENERAL OBJECTIVES THAT GUIDE THE ACTIVITIES AND RELATIONSHIPS OF ONE STATE IN ITS INTERACTIONS WITH OTHER STATES. THE DEVELOPMENT OF FOREIGN POLICY IS INFLUENCED BY DOMESTIC CONSIDERATIONS, THE POLICIES OR BEHAVIOUR OF OTHER STATES, OR PLANS TO ADVANCE SPECIFIC GEOPOLITICAL DESIGNS.
  • 5. von Ranke LEOPOLD VON RANKE EMPHASIZED THE PRIMACY OF GEOGRAPHY AND EXTERNAL THREATS IN SHAPING FOREIGN POLICY, BUT LATER WRITERS EMPHASIZED DOMESTIC FACTORS. DIPLOMACY IS THE TOOL OF FOREIGN POLICY, AND WAR, ALLIANCES, AND INTERNATIONAL TRADE MAY ALL BE MANIFESTATIONS OF IT.
  • 6. FP • FP in simplicity is….A POLICY GOVERNING INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AMONG STATES IN THE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM AND INTERNATIONAL POLITIC
  • 7. Definition of Diplomacy • THE ART AND PRACTICE OF CONDUCTING NEGOTIATIONS BETWEEN NATIONS (PARTICULARLY IN SECURING TREATIES), INCLUDING THE METHODS AND FORMS USUALLY EMPLOYED. DEXTERITY OR SKILL IN SECURING ADVANTAGES; TACT. THE BODY OF MINISTERS OR ENVOYS RESIDENT AT A COURT; THE DIPLOMATIC BODY.
  • 8. Diplomacy Quotes • DIPLOMACY: THE ART OF RESTRAINING POWER. HENRY A. KISSINGER • THERE ARE FEW IRONCLAD RULES OF DIPLOMACY BUT TO ONE THERE IS NO EXCEPTION. WHEN AN OFFICIAL REPORTS THAT TALKS WERE USEFUL, IT CAN SAFELY BE CONCLUDED THAT NOTHING WAS ACCOMPLISHED. • JOHN KENNETH GALBRAITH
  • 9. Diplomacy Quotes • All diplomacy is a continuation of war by other means. Zhou Enlai • We always have hoped that American diplomacy deploys itself in dialogue and persuasion rather than by ultimatums. That is the path we want in international relations. Mahmoud Abbas
  • 10. Diplomacy simplified • Diplomacy is basically a term that is widely important for International relations between various nations. Diplomacy is the art of negotiations between various countries. • In international relations it forms the basis for peace making, economics, culture, trade wars etc.
  • 11. Types of Diplomacy • Following are some types of Diplomacy: - Informal Diplomacy - Para diplomacy - Cultural Diplomacy - Economic Diplomacy - Gunboat Diplomacy - Ping Pong Diplomacy - Preventive Diplomacy - Public Diplomacy - Shuttle Diplomacy - Transformational Diplomacy
  • 12. Traditional Diplomacy • TRADITIONAL DIPLOMACY WAS MORE FORMAL AND PROTOCOLS WERE EXTENDED TO SHOW THE GOODWILL GESTURES. IT WAS BECAUSE OF THE LESS EXPOSURE BETWEEN THE TWO GROUPS THAT IT WAS CONDUCTED MORE PRECISELY ON A COMMON AGENDA OR THE REQUEST FOR THE PERMISSION TO DISCUSS THE MATTER WAS PUT TO THE OTHER SIDE FOR FORMAL GAIN OF PERMISSION ON THE MATTER. THE TWO PARTIES ALWAYS REPRESENTED SEPARATE TERRITORIES AND LAWS AND THEY COULD NOT CHALLENGE THOSE EXCEPT THROUGH WAR OR AGGRESSION.
  • 13. Traditional Diplomacy • THE TRADITIONAL DIPLOMACY DIRECTLY REPRESENTS NATION STATES AND WILL REMAIN VIABLE BUT WILL EVOLVE MORE IN A MULTILATERAL ENVIRONMENT AND THE NATIONS WILL GROUP AND FORM COLLITIONS FOR A COMMON PURPOSE BUT ON A GLOBAL AGENDA WHICH WILL BE SET ON THE FORUMS AND FLOORS OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS.
  • 14. Traditional Diplomacy • TRADITIONAL DIPLOMACY BASICALLY RELATES WITH TERRITORY. IT IS BASED ON THE ASSUMPTION THAT COMMUNITIES ARE ORGANIZED IN THE SOVEREIGN NATION-STATES AND THE BORDERS AND LIMITS ARE CLEARLY DEFINED. IT IS KNOWN AS TRADITIONAL DIPLOMACY BECAUSE IT IS MORE COMFORTABLE WITH GEOGRAPHY AND TERRITORY IS THE CURRENCY OF DIPLOMACY. THE WORLD WHERE TERRITORY IS NO MORE A DEFINING PRINCIPLE DOES NOT NEED THE IMPLICATIONS OF TRADITIONAL DIPLOMACY.
  • 15. The Functions of Diplomacy • DIPLOMACY HAS EXISTED SINCE THE BEGINNING OF THE HUMAN RACE. THE ACT OF CONDUCTING NEGOTIATIONS BETWEEN TWO PERSONS, OR TWO NATIONS AT A LARGE SCOPE IS ESSENTIAL TO THE UPKEEP OF INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS. AMONG THE MANY FUNCTIONS OF DIPLOMACY, SOME INCLUDE PREVENTING WAR AND VIOLENCE, AND FORTIFYING RELATIONS BETWEEN TWO NATIONS.
  • 16. The Functions of Diplomacy • DIPLOMACY IS MOST IMPORTANTLY USED TO COMPLETE A SPECIFIC AGENDA. THEREFORE WITHOUT DIPLOMACY, MUCH OF THE WORLD’S AFFAIRS WOULD BE ABOLISHED,INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS WOULD NOT EXIST, AND ABOVE ALL THE WORLD WOULD BE AT A CONSTANT STATE OF WAR. IT IS FOR DIPLOMACY THAT CERTAIN COUNTRIES CAN EXIST IN HARMONY.
  • 17. The Functions of Diplomacy • BACK TO THE 5TH CENTURY WHERE DIPLOMACY AROSE IN CERTAIN NATIONS. DATING BACK TO 432 B.C, THE CONGRESS OF SPARTA WAS AN “ILLUSTRATION OF DIPLOMACY AS ORGANIZED BY THE GREEK CITY STATES” (NICOLSON 1).
  • 18. The Functions of Diplomacy • THE ORIGIN OF THE WORD “DIPLOMA” COMES FROM DIFFERENT SIDES OF THE EARTH. IN GREECE DIPLOMA MEANT “FOLDED IN TWO”, WHILE IN ANCIENT ROME THE WORD WAS USED TO DESCRIBE TRAVEL DOCUMENTS. OFTEN TIMES THE WORD DIPLOMACY IS GIVEN MANY MEANINGS
  • 19. The Functions of Diplomacy • MANY TIMES WILL THE WORDS “POLICY” AND THE WORD “NEGOTIATION” BE SEEN AS SYNONYMS; HENCE THE WORD “DIPLOMACY” AND “FOREIGN DIPLOMACY” ARE DEEMED TO BE SIMILAR (NICOLSON 3). THESE “SYNONYMS” OF DIPLOMACY ARE ALL FAULTY. WHILE THEY MAY BE VERY SIMILAR IN SOME CASES, THEY ARE NOT THE EXACTLY THE SAME
  • 20. The Functions of Diplomacy • SIR HAROLD NICOLSON WHO WAS AN ENGLISH DIPLOMAT BORN IN TEHRAN, PERSIA, STATES THAT: "DIPLOMACY IS NEITHER THE INVENTION NOR THE PASTIME OF SOME PARTICULAR POLITICAL SYSTEM, BUT IS AN ESSENTIAL ELEMENT IN ANY REASONABLE RELATION BETWEEN MAN AND MAN AND BETWEEN NATION AND NATION” (NICOLSON 4).
  • 21. The Functions of Diplomacy • For the upkeep of the International System, diplomacy is used in every corner of the world. Without it many nations would not be able to conduct successful negotiations.
  • 22. The Functions of Diplomacy • MODERN DIPLOMACY HAS BECOME MUCH MORE ADVANCED AND MANY ASPECTS HAVE CHANGED OVER THE YEARS. THE PEACE OF WESTPHALIA IN 1648 CREATED THE FIRST MODERN DIPLOMATIC CONGRESS IN ADDITION TO CREATING A NEW WORLD ORDER IN CENTRAL EUROPE BASED ON STATE SOVEREIGNTY.
  • 23. The Functions of Diplomacy • MUCH OF EUROPE BEGAN TO CHANGE AFTER THE INTRODUCTION OF MODERN DIPLOMACY. FOR EXAMPLE, “FRANCE UNDER CARDINAL RICHELIEU INTRODUCED THE MODERN APPROACH TO INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, BASED ON THE NATION-STATE AND MOTIVATED BY NATIONAL INTEREST AS ITS ULTIMATE PURPOSE” (KISSINGER 17).
  • 24. The Functions of Diplomacy • THERE ARE IN FACT MANY FUNCTIONS OF DIPLOMACY THAT MAKE DIPLOMACY AN ESSENTIAL INGREDIENT FOR ANY PEACEFUL AND EFFICIENT CHANGE. THE REASON TO NEGOTIATE WITH OTHER PERSONS HAS ALWAYS BEEN THE SAME, TO HAVE BETTER RELATIONS. OVER THE COURSE OF DIPLOMACY BEING IN EXISTENCE, THE STRUCTURE OF DIPLOMATIC POSTS HAS CHANGED FROM A LOOSE ONE TO AN ORGANIZED INSTITUTION MADE FOR A SPECIFIC PURPOSE.
  • 25. The Functions of Diplomacy • WHILE THE STRUCTURE OF DIPLOMATIC POSTS HAS CHANGED, THE FUNCTIONS ALWAYS REMAINED THE SAME. THERE ARE FOUR FUNCTIONS OF DIPLOMACY.
  • 26. The Functions of Diplomacy • THE FIRST FUNCTION INVOLVES “REPRESENTING A STATE’S INTERESTS AND CONDUCTING NEGOTIATIONS OR DISCUSSIONS DESIGNED TO IDENTIFY COMMON INTERESTS AS WELL AS AREAS OF DISAGREEMENT BETWEEN THE PARTIES, FOR THE PURPOSE OF ACHIEVING THE STATE’S GOALS AND AVOIDING CONFLICT” (AMERI 1).
  • 27. The Functions of Diplomacy • REPRESENTATIONS OF A STATE AS WELL AS NEGOTIATION ARE THE MOST IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS OF DIPLOMACY. NEGOTIATIONS BETWEEN TWO REPRESENTATIVES ARE A KEY COMPONENT IN DIPLOMACY, BECAUSE IN DOING SO THE REPRESENTATIVES FIND A COMMON INTEREST. FINDING A COMMON INTEREST IS VITAL IN CONDUCTING NEGOTIATIONS BECAUSE WITH A COMMON INTEREST REPRESENTATIVES ARE ABLE TO DEVISE A SOLUTION THAT IS IN THE INTEREST OF BOTH SIDES.
  • 28. The Functions of Diplomacy • THE SECOND FUNCTION OF DIPLOMACY INVOLVES “THE GATHERING OF INFORMATION AND SUBSEQUENT IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF THE RECEIVING STATE’S FOREIGN POLICY GOALS” (AMERI 1). DIPLOMATIC POSTS ARE CONCERNED WITH GATHERING INFORMATION; HOWEVER WHEN THE INFORMATION IS SENT BACK TO THEIR NATIVE COUNTRY A FOREIGN MINISTRY ANALYZES THE DATA AND DETERMINES WHAT FOREIGN POLICY SHOULD BE ENACTED.
  • 29. The Functions of Diplomacy • THE THIRD MAJOR FUNCTION OF DIPLOMACY IS EXPANSION OF POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND CULTURAL TIES BETWEEN TWO COUNTRIES (AMERI 2). FOR EXAMPLE, AFTER WWII COUNTRIES SUCH AS THE UNITED STATES AND BRITAIN AIMED THEIR FOREIGN POLICY AT THE EXTERMINATION OF COMMUNISM.
  • 30. The Functions of Diplomacy • FINALLY, THE FOURTH FUNCTION OF DIPLOMACY IS THAT “DIPLOMACY IS THE FACILITATING OR ENFORCING VEHICLE FOR THE OBSERVATION OF INTERNATIONAL LAW” (AMERI 2). IT IS THE DIPLOMAT’S JOB TO PROMOTE THE COUNTRY’S NATIONAL INTERESTS AND KEEP TIES WITH OTHER COUNTRIES OPEN.

Hinweis der Redaktion

  1. German historian taught at the University of Berlin (1825–71). Inspired by the scientific method of historical study used by Barthold Georg Niebuhr, he championed objective writing based on philological and textual criticism of source materials. His scholarly technique and way of teaching (he was the first to establish a historical seminar) had great influence on Western historiography. His many works covering a wide variety of topics typically are subtle accounts of particular limited periods in European state and political history that, like his source materials, take comparatively little notice of social and economic forces.